A lightweight Approach for Viable End-to-end IP-based QoS Services

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1 A lightweight Approach for Viable End-to-end IP-based QoS Services Óscar González de Dios, Telefónica I+D, Spain 1st FP7 Networked Media Concertation meeting, 17th April, Vilamoura Slide 1

2 Overview of AGAVE Slide 2

3 Project goal To develop an approach for deploying, in a lightweight way, open end-to-end service provisioning with QoS in order to support added-value IP-based services. Slide 3

4 Essence of AGAVE solution Separation of Service Provider (SP) and IP Network Provider (INP) concerns Specification of SP-INP interactions/agreements abstraction of network capabilities to SP service requirements to INP hide complexity aid manageability technology/implementation independence Investigation of service connectivity requirements and the means to achieve them through the virtualisation of network resources Introduction of concept of Parallel Internets that enable end-to end service differentiation across multiple administrative domains coexisting parallel networks composed of interconnected, per domain, Network Planes differentiation in terms of QoS, availability and resilience Slide 4

5 AGAVE high-level business model Slide 5

6 Network Planes A logical partition of an INP s network resources designed to transport traffic flows from services with common connectivity Requirements Routing dimension Network Plane (NP) Forwarding dimension Resource Management dimension Slide 6

7 Network Planes and Paralel Internet Network Planes are internal to INPs Designed to accommodate requirements of SPs and customer/peer INPs captured in Connectivity Provisioning Agreements and INP Interconnection Agreements Convey traffic from one or several services managed by the same or different SPs Introducing new services is a matter of increasing the traffic on a Network Plane and not configuring service-specific features in the network Parallel Internets are inter-domain extensions of Network Planes from the perspective of a single INP based on agreements with peer and/or remote INPs: INP Interconnection Agreements (NIA) may be >1 NIA between two INPs, e.g. one for each PI Slide 7

8 NP/PI Realisation Overview Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider CPA CPA CPA NP A1 NP B1 NP A2 NP Ak Heterogeneous NP platforms NP B2 NP Bj Operational objectives IP Network Provider A NIA Operational objectives IP Network Provider B Slide 8

9 Lightweightness of AGAVE solution At SP level: SPs need not be concerned with connectivity details thanks to separation of concerns At INP level: Network design, management and operations with the abstraction of Network Planes Universal deployment of specific mechanisms/te techniques is not required bespoke deployments rather than one-size-fits-all Solution does not depend on standardised traffic classes Parallel Internets can be constructed from subjective view of a single INP - for supporting service differentiation for its customers Lightweight aspects of individual mechanisms: Incremental deployment Simplicity Scalability Slide 9

10 AGAVE functional architecture (1) set business guidelines (3) operate Business-based Network Development NP Engineering guidelines NP/PI definition realisation guidelines maximise the the profit control the the allocation of of resources to to CPA CPA & upstream NIA NIA requests NP Engineering NP Design (2) network design optimise employ available techniques to to implement the the business guidelines optimise Configure the the network, establish downstream NIAs NP Provisioning & Maintenance network configuration downstream NIAs Resource Availability Checking CPA/NIA mappings NP Mapping (4) operate optimise accommodate CPA CPA requests NIA Ordering CPA/NIA Order Handling CPA/NIA Assurance Slide 10

11 Design and implementation of techniques for NP and PI realisation and engineering Slide 11

12 Positioning AGAVE techniques for NP/PI realisation Service requirements (NP specific) Guarantees on QoS metrics (e.g., delay, loss) Guarantees on the availability of services MRDV DiffServ/MPLS use case MTR Overlay q-bgp IP tunnelling Operational requirements (General) Optimised resource usage Manageability and lightweightness BGP PM ASBR FRR NP specific requirements Resilience requirements Resilience aware BGP TE General requirements Slide 12

13 NP based on Multipath Routing with Dynamic Variance Objectives - Compute and/or to select alternative paths to route the different types of traffic according to their QoS requirements - Load balancing and congestion delay (resource optimisation) Scope - Intra-domain (MT-IGP) Overall Description A variable number of alternative paths are used towards a given destination, where the number of paths increases with measured load Novelties - Resilience to network congestion and link/node failures - Directly working on existing routing protocols - Service differentiation and load balancing can be tuned with just one parameter (i.e. Variance) Slide 13

14 NP based on Multipath Routing with Dynamic Variance - MRDV can be used for implementing either one single NP or multiple NPs with different QoS requirements - When used for one single NP, traffic is routed among distinct paths for load balancing and congestion delay - When used for multiple NPs, service differentiation is achieved by means of routing differentiation NP3: Best Effort NP2: Second Highest Priority NP1: High priority A 100% 100% 100% B E MRDV A 100% 60% 90% B D C D 10% C D Slide 14

15 Multi-Topology Routing Objectives - Service objectives: To achieve service differentiation through diverse paths implemented with dedicated IP routing topologies for individual Network Planes - Operational objectives: Dynamic traffic control (e.g. load balancing and resilience to network link failures) across topologies within a single NP Scope - Intra-domain (MT-IGP) Overall Description The offline link weight setting determines static link weights for each topology in order to maximise path diversity while satisfying QoS requirements between I/E pairs. The dynamic TE component dynamically split traffic across equivalent routing topologies (normally belonging to one single NP) according to the monitored traffic performance in order to achieve optimised traffic distribution in real-time. Slide 15 NP Design MTR link weights Offline link weight setting Dynamic TE NP Provisioning & Maintenance NP Monitoring NP Mapping

16 Multi-Topology Routing s s d d T1 T2 NP1: High resilience s d T3 NP2: Best effort Slide 16

17 q-bgp Objectives -Inter-domain QoS-based route advertisement and route selection. -Support multiple QoS planes; must be scalable and easily deployable. Scope -Inter-domain Overall Description -Incremental development on BGP, adding QoS_NLRI attribute and QoS Capability attribute. -Can co-exist with BGP v4; Inter-domain scope is bound by NIAs. -Route selection attempts to achieve PI QoS treatment goals based on PI membership and/or QoS attributes in QoS_NLRI. -Advertised QoS values can be derived from offline TE, local monitoring, or a combination of the two. -Differentiated routing attempts to achieve QoS goals, but differentiated forwarding can also be used to enhance QoS. Novelties -Development of QoS attribute types and their calculation in QoS_NLRI. -Investigation of QoS attribute usage dampening etc.. -Use of dynamically monitored values and techniques to achieve routing stability. Slide 17

18 q-bgp {P1, MQC1, A-OWD=60, M-OWD=100} AS2 AS1 {P1, MQC1, A-OWD=40, M-OWD=200} AS3 {P1, MQC1, A-OWD=30, M-OWD=50} AS4 {P1, MQC1, A-OWD=25, M-OWD=150} AS5 {P1, MQC1, A-OWD=5, M-OWD=10} AS6 P1 {P1, MQC1, A-OWD=5, M-OWD=10 Slide 18

19 Resilience Aware BGP TE Objectives - Operational benefits: To achieve robust intra/inter-domain traffic optimisation performance under both Normal State (NS: i.e. no failure) and link Failure States (FS) Scope - Integrated intra- and inter-domain TE - Not used to design a specific NP, but can be applied independently to multiple NPs and PIs that use IGP/BGP routing protocols. Overall Description The offline TE component determines egress point selection and IGP link weights in order to optimize the intra/inter-domain traffic optimisation performance under both NS and any intra/inter-domain link FS. Based on hot potato routing, IGP link weights are optimised for influencing BGP egress point selection and intra-domain path selection. NP Mapping Operational objectives (Traffic optimisation in both NS and FS Offline TE NP Provisioning & Maintenance IGP link weights & BGP egress point selection Slide 19

20 Resilience Aware BGP TE Robust Intra-domain TE - Provide optimised intra-domain TE performance under both normal state (i.e. no failure) and any intra-domain link failure state (FS) - Obtained by IGP link weight setting or edge-to-edge LSP establishment Robust Inter-domain TE - Provide optimised inter-domain TE performance under both normal state (i.e. no failure) and any inter-domain link failure state (FS) - Obtained by BGP routing policies Interactions - Intra/inter domain link failure impacts Intra/inter domain link utilization increase Intra/inter domain Traffic disruption Large traffic shift Change of exit point and traffic matrix BGP update message flooding A robust intra/inter-domain TE mechanism is required to enhance the resilience of existing NPs that use IGP/BGP routing protocols Slide 20

21 Overlay Routing Objective - To achieve fast recovery from failures and network congestions while optimizing resource utilization. Basic Operation - At each node, pre-compute an intermediate node for each destination. - When link failure happens, the node that initially detects the failure immediately tunnels each of the affected traffic flow to its intermediate nodes following the shortest path and then from there forward it to the destination. - For example in the following network when link B-D fails, intermediate nodes C or E can create repair paths and divert traffic from B to F. - Repair Path 1 uses C as intermediate node and Repair Path 2 uses E. Slide 21

22 Overlay Routing Issues - Selection of intermediate overlay node is important as it should Avoid any routing loops. Optimize the utilization of network resources. Perhaps sustain QoS as if the failure was not happened. - Achieving 100% successful rate on finding an intermediate node for each traffic flow at each node It is not guarantee that the approach can always find at least one feasible intermediate node for each traffic flow at each node. Depending on the network configurations, some nodes may not be able to perform fast rerouting under certain link failures. In this case, it should rely on the convergence of routing protocol which may take rather a long time to complete. Hence, some methods can be considered in order to achieve 100% successful rate on finding intermediate nodes. A potential idea could be changing protocol metrics tactically so as to influence the routing to make the network configurations ease for fast rerouting. Slide 22

23 Overlay Routing Inter-domain Overlay Routing for PI Engineering - Overlay routing to achieve path diversity across multiple autonomous domains - Overlay path selection by taking into account local BGP routing decisions B1 AS1 BGP decision AS 2 A1 A2 A3 AS 1 B2 C1 AS 3 AS 4 Status - Implementation of overlay routing within a single domain Slide 23 Destination AS number AS2 AS3 AS4 AS1 BGP decision Destination AS number AS2 AS3 AS4 A A ASBR ASBR A D1 D2 Local_pref configuration 1 at A1 50 A Local_pref configuration 2 at A1

24 MTR + q-bgp for PI Engineering Overview - MTR is used within individual autonomous domains for internally realising Network Planes, and q-bgp is deployed across these domains and binds the intra-domain routing capability for enabling end-to-end service differentiation (Parallel Internets) - Only the offline optimisation will be considered (no dynamic path selection) - The relevant experiments will be purely simulation based NPs provisioned using MTR q-bgp interdomain path selection (NP/PI specific routing) Slide 24

25 Experimentation activities carried in AGAVE Mechanism MTR (UniS) INP Overlay (UniS) Simulation Own simulation tool Own simulation tool Testbed MRDV (TID) IP Tunneling (UCL.be, all) ns-2 C-BGP Quagga Quagga / Click q-bgp (UCL.uk) BGP Resilience (UniS) qbgpsim Own simulation tool BGP Planned Maintenance (FT) NP Emulation Platform (Algo) MTR + q-bgp (UniS + UCL.uk) MRDV with IP Tunnelling (TID + UCL.be) Own platform based on TEQUILA/MESCAL results Integrated qbgpsim + own simulation tool Slide 25 Virtual routers Quagga / Click

26 Summary and future work Well-defined separation of service and network concerns Network support of service differentiation without being service-aware Mechanisms to implement Network Planes and Parallel Internets have been investigated AGAVE solution need to be tested with services Networked media services are perfect candidates to be clients of AGAVE! Slide 26

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