Embedded BGP Routing Monitoring. Th. Lévy O. Marcé

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1 Embedded BGP Routing Monitoring Th. Lévy O. Marcé

2 Introduction & Motivations Off-line BGP routing monitoring initiatives (i.e based on router logs) already exist: Periodic report : The CIDR Report Objective of our work: Study feasibility and accuracy of on-line (or embedded) routing monitoring Targeted benefits: Provide valuable & up-to-date results to the local operator? Do the results enable reactions (like route aggregation or filtering)? Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

3 Plan Scope of the monitoring Architecture overview Experimental Results Possible Reactions Conclusion Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

4 Scope : Inside the Routing Table (1) From a router point of view, BGP prefixes can be classified into following categories: 1. Lack of aggregation : Prefix could have been aggregated by origin into less specific CIDR prefix. 2. Site Multi-homing : Customer s prefix connected (and announced) through several providers 3. Load-balancing : Customer shares incoming traffic between several providers. 4. Address fragmentation : Prefix with same routing characteristics than others but not aggregatable. 5. Prefix cluster expresses independent routing characteristics Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

5 Scope : Inside the Routing Table (2) According to [Bu], average repartition in the Internet core: Prefix clusters 20% Lack of BGP Prefixes repartition aggregation 10% Multi-Homing 20% Lack of aggregation Multi-Homing Load Balancing Address fragmentation Address fragmentation 30% Load Balancing 20% Prefix clusters Lack of aggregation, Site Multi-homing and Load-balancing correspond to operator s practices Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

6 Our approach: embedded routing monitoring To provide the operator and/or the manager A view of operator s practices corresponding to local RIB entries. Requirements To be able to get diagnostic as soon as the situation appears To be low resources consuming but accurate enough Choice Embedded monitoring in the router Use a 2 steps architecture Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

7 2-Steps Architecture of the monitoring Global monitoring Builds a model of prefixes repartition in the RIB Up to now: Heuristic on prefix length repartition Collects category (sample) and triggers next phase of analysis if shift from the model provides targeted snapshot for analysis Characteristic : Low resource consumption Specific analysis Started by global monitoring when potential troubles detected Applies several methods to identify operator s practices Characteristic : Resources consuming, but applied on small subsets Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

8 Architecture sequencing (Informational) On prefix addition Learning-only phase Model building On route change /23: 7% /24: 51% /25: 4% Comparison to model Specific Category building Category building /23: 2 /24: 12 Global anomaly detection /25: 6 Specific analysis Populate results Specific Results Builds model of prefix length repartition Compares situation to model If shift, triggers specific analysis Category building AS107: Lack of aggregation: 5 Multi-homing: 3 Load-Balancing: 10 Originated prefix: 28 AS 230: Global Specific analysis Specific Anomaly detection AS107: High Load-Balancing ratio!! Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

9 Specific analysis example AS 3 (Secondary local ISP) AS 4 (Global ISP) /23 R / /23 AS 1 (Customer) / / / /24 AS 2 (Primary local ISP) /16 R4 (withroutingmonitoring) / /23 Multi-Homing R / / / / / /16 R /24 Load-Balancing Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

10 Experimental System & Results Based on core IP router snapshots Available on Routing Information Service [RIS] RIB dump transformed into UPDATE messages Reinject routes thanks to several BGP speakers (SBGP) SBGP BGP UPDATE AS1 messages injected SBGP Router emulation with AS2 Routing Monitoring 13% SBGP AS3 Lack of aggregation Multi-Homing Early results : 56% 25% Load Balancing Based on RIB from RIPE NCC (for /8 sub-prefixes) 6% Non-related to operator's practices Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

11 Experiments analysis General constatations on detections: Completeness of detection depends on peering relationships of the router with routing monitoring. Prefix repartition comparable to average results from [Bu] (except for Load-Balancing) Accuracy of practice detection: Difficult to validate without operator s confirmation But comparison with CIDR report Some ambiguities between Multi-Homing and Lack of Aggregation => Needs for some refinement in methodology Low impact on BGP behavior 1% of the BGP processing time Two steps architecture is proven to be valid Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

12 Possible reactions: the multi-homing case Order of importance Causes for multi-homed prefix P1 on BGP routing : Reachability P1 is reachable from anywhere in the Internet. Redundancy From any location, after the failure of one provider, a route (eventually recomputed) is available. Incoming traffic sharing Depending on its origin, the traffic goes trough a particular provider. Possible reaction: Restrict the propagation of P1 with no impact on reachability and redundancy but possible impact of traffic sharing Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

13 Possible reactions: network example Route meeting zone 1 X1/24 A F X0/16 B C G Globally reduces the number of route entries. But requires collaborative filtering Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

14 Conclusion Routing can be monitored at node level Provides a partial but locally accurate view Operator s practices detection can drive prefixes filtering Next steps are: Improve accuracy to allow semi-automatic reaction Correlate several monitoring results to improve global view Refine detection algorithms To study impact of prefixes filtering on global BGP dynamics. To study progressive deployment of routing monitoring Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

15 References [CIDR] The CIDR Report, [Bu] On Characterizing BGP routing table growth, T. Bu, L. Gao and D. Towsley, Global Internet [RIS] RIPE Routing Information Service, [MRT] Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit & SBGP, Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

16 Inter-Domain Routing Workshop - May 2004 All rights reserved 2004, Alcatel

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