BGP-4 Case Studies. Nenad Krajnovic.

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1 BGP-4 Case Studies Nenad Krajnovic

2 Today topics load balancing over multiple links multihoming to a single provider multihoming to different providers following defaults inside an AS policy routing lab examples 2

3 Load balancing over multiple links Increasing traffic toward Internet is requesting more and more bandwidth. Increasing of bandwidth can be made by aggregating two or more links and load balancing over them. 3

4 load balancing over multiple links Loopback Interface / Loopback Interface / AS AS We like to load balance over all tree links between AS and AS

5 load balancing over multiple links Loopback Interface /24 AS Loopback Interface /24 AS interface ethernet 0 ip address interface serial 0 ip address interface serial 1 ip address interface serial 2 ip address Interface loopback 0 ip address router bgp network mask neighbor remote-as neighbor ebgp-multihop neighbor update-source loopback 0 no auto-summary ip route ip route ip route

6 load balancing over multiple links interface ethernet 0 ip address interface serial 0 ip address interface serial 1 ip address interface serial 2 ip address Interface loopback 0 ip address router bgp network mask neighbor remote-as neighbor ebgp-multihop neighbor update-source loopback 0 no auto-summary ip route ip route ip route Loopback Interface /24 AS Loopback Interface /24 AS

7 Multihoming to a single provider In situation where links to the provider isn t reliable enough, it is necessary to have more links to the provider. Beside that, this solution offer better stability and reliability of the network. 7

8 multihomed to a single provider - default only, one primary and one backup link /24 E E S S S /24 E0 AS E S0 AS30 is not learning any BGP routes from AS10 and is sending its own routes via BGP. Outbound traffic from AS30 should always go on the link unless that link fails, in which case it should switch to the other link. Inbound traffic toward AS30 should always come on the link unless that link fails, in which case is should switch to the other link. Prevent any BGP updates from coming into AS3. 8

9 multihomed to a single provider - default only, one primary and one backup link /24 E E S S S /24 E0 AS E S0 router bgp 30 network mask neighbor remote-as 10 neighbor route-map BLOCK in neighbor route-map SETMETRIC1 out neighbor remote-as 10 neighbor route-map BLOCK in neighbor route-map SETMETRIC2 out no auto-summary ip route ip route route-map SETMETRIC1 permit 10 set metric 100 route-map SETMETRIC2 permit 10 set metric 50 route-map BLOCK deny 10 9

10 multihomed to a single provider - default only, one primary and one backup link S /24 E S /24 E E S E S0 router# show ip bgp BGP table version 11, local router ID is Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP,? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight AS 30 Path *>i / i * i *> / i router# show ip route Gateway of last resort is to network is subnetted, 2 subnets C is directly connected, Serial 0 C is directly connected, Serial 1 C is directly connected, Ethernet0 S* [40/0] via

11 multihomed to a single provider - default, primary and backup plus partial routing /16 AS NAP AS S E E L0 AS E

12 multihomed to a single provider - default, primary and backup plus partial routing AS /16 NAP AS S E E L E AS 3 Routing policies AS3 will only accept AS1 s local routes and its customers routes such as AS6. AS3 will also accept one route from the Internet to set its default toward the provider AS1. For all outbound traffic toward AS1 and AS6 (the partial routes), AS3 should use the link. In case of failure, the other link is used. For all other outbound traffic toward the Internet, AS3 should use the link as the primary link by following a default route. In case of failure, the default via other link should be used. For inbound traffic, AS3 will instruct AS1 to use the link for /24. For all other inbound traffic, the link is the primary. 12

13 multihomed to a single provider - default, primary and backup plus partial routing AS S E E L0 AS E /16 NAP AS 7 router bgp 3 no sunchronization network mask network mask network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor update-source loopback0 neighbor next-hop-self neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor route-map SET_OUTBOUND_TRAFFIC in neighbor route-map SET_INBOUND_TRAFFIC out neighbor filter-list 10 out no auto-summary ip route ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ ip as-path access-list 4 permit ^1 6$ ip as-path access-list 4 permit ^1$ access-list 2 permit access-list 101 permit ip route-map SET_OUTBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 10 match ip address 101 set local-preference 200 route-map SET_OUTBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 20 match as-path 4 set local-preference 300 route-map SET_INBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 10 match ip address 2 set local-preference 200 route-map SET_INBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 20 set metric

14 multihomed to a single provider - default, primary and backup plus partial routing AS S E E L0 AS E /16 NAP AS 7 router bgp 3 no sunchronization network mask network mask network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor next-hop-self neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor route-map SET_OUTBOUND_TRAFFIC in neighbor route-map SET_INBOUND_TRAFFIC out neighbor filter-list 10 out no auto-summary ip route ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ ip as-path access-list 4 permit ^1 6$ ip as-path access-list ^1?[0-9]*$ ip as_path access-list 4 permit ^1$ access-list 101 permit ip route-map SET_OUTBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 10 match ip address 101 set local-preference 250 route-map SET_OUTBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 20 match as-path 4 set local-preference 250 route-map SET_INBOUND_TRAFFIC permit 10 set metric

15 multihomed to a single provider - automatic load balancing AS AS1 will load balancing traffic over two links between AS1 and AS S0 RTA E L0 AS

16 multihomed to a single provider - automatic load balancing router bgp 3 no sunchronization neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor update-source loopback0 neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor filter-list 10 out neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor filter-list 10 out maximum-paths 2 no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ AS S E1 AS L router# show ip bgp BGP table version 11, local router ID is Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP,? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *>i / i *> i * i *> i 16

17 Multihomed to different provider Multihoming to different provider is offering better stability and reliability of network. Because of that, it can be often found network which is multihomed. 17

18 multihomed to different provider AS /16 AS NAP Route Server AS S E E L AS E

19 multihomed to different provider AS /16 AS NAP Route Server AS S E Routing policies AS3 will be accepting AS1 s local and customer routes only via the link. All other Internet routes will be accepted via the link (primary). AS3 will accept a default route from AS1 just in case there is a failure in the link. AS3 prefers that the network /24 be reachable by the outside world via the link, and networks /24 and /26 be reachable via the link. AS3 cannot be a transit network for A1 and AS2, which means that under no circumstances will AS1 use AS3 to reach AS E L AS E

20 multihomed to different provider router bgp 3 no sunchronization network mask network mask network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor update-source Loopback0 neighbor next-hop-self neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor route-map ACCEPT_ALL in neighbor route-map PREPEND_PATH out no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 1 permit ^1?[0-9]*$ ip as-path access-list 2 permit ^$ access-list 1 permit access-list 1 permit access-list 10 permit route-map PREPEND_PATH permit 10 match ip address 1 set as-path prepend route-map PREPEND_PATH permit 20 match as-path 2 route-map ACCEPT_LOCAL permit 10 match ip address 10 set local-preference 50 route-map ACCEPT_LOCAL permit 20 match as-path 1 AS S E E L /16 AS 3 AS E NAP AS Route Server 20

21 multihomed to different provider AS S E E L /16 AS 3 AS E NAP AS Route Server router bgp 3 no sunchronization network mask network mask network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor next-hop-self neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor route-map PREPEND_PATH out no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 2 permit ^$ access-list 1 permit route-map PREPEND_PATH permit 10 match ip address 1 set as-path prepend route-map PREPEND_PATH permit 20 match as-path 2 21

22 multihomed to different provider - customers of the same provider with a backup link AS AS 7 NAP L AS AS

23 multihomed to different provider - customers of the same provider with a backup link AS AS 7 NAP L AS AS Routing policies In normal condition, AS1 and AS2 will use the private link only for traffic between AS1 and AS2; for all other Internet traffic, the direct link to the provider AS3 is used. AS1 and AS2 agree to use each other as backup in case their links to AS3 fail. 23

24 multihomed to different provider - customers of the same provider with a backup link router bgp 1 network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor route-map PREF_FROM_AS3 in neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor route-map PREF_FROM_AS2 in no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 1 permit _2_ route-map PREF_FROM_AS3 permit 10 match ip address 1 set local-preference 100 route-map PREF_FROM_AS3 permit 20 match local-preference 300 route-map PREF_FROM_AS2 permit 10 set local-preference 200 AS L AS 3 AS NAP AS

25 multihomed to different provider - customers of the same provider with a backup link AS AS 7 NAP L AS router# show ip bgp BGP table version 11, local router ID is Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP,? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *>i / i * i *> / i * i *> / i * i *> / i * i * i *> i *> i *> i *> AS

26 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link L AS AS AS

27 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link L AS AS AS Routing policies In normal condition, AS1 and AS2 will use the private link only for traffic between AS1 and AS2; for all other Internet traffic, both customers would like to go out via their direct providers, AS1 via AS4 and AS2 via AS3 In case the private link goes down, the customers should be able to talk to one another via the providers. If a link to the provider fails, the other customer should be used to reach the Internet. 27

28 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link router bgp 4 network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor route-map CHECK_COMMUNITY in neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor route-map CHECK_COMMUNITY in no auto-summary ip community-list 2 permit 4:40 ip community-list 3 permit 4:60 route-map CHECK_COMMUNITY permit 10 match community 2 set local-preference 40 route-map CHECK_COMMUNITY permit 20 match community 3 set local-preference 60 route-map CHECK_COMMUNITY permit 30 set local-preference L AS AS AS Solution No. 1 - The Community Approach 28

29 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link router bgp 1 network mask neighbor remote-as 4 neighbor send-community neighbor route-map SETCOMMUNITY out neighbor filter-list 10 out neighbor remote-as 2 no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 2 permit _2_ ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^2$ route-map SETCOMMUNITY permit 10 match as-path 2 set community 4:40 route-map SETCOMMUNITY permit L AS AS AS Solution No. 1 - The Community Approach 29

30 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link router bgp 3 network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 4 neighbor send-community neighbor route-map setcommunity out neighbor remote-as 2 no auto-summary route-map setcommunity permit 10 set community 4: L AS AS AS Solution No. 1 - The Community Approach 30

31 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link router# show ip bgp BGP table version 11, local router ID is Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP,? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> / i *> / i *> / i *> i * i *> i L AS AS AS 2 Solution No. 1 - The Community Approach

32 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link router bgp 1 network mask neighbor remote-as 4 neighbor route-map setpath out neighbor filter-list 10 out neighbor remote-as 2 no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 2 permit _2_ ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^2$ route-map setpath permit 10 match as-path 2 set as-path prepend 1 route-map setpath permit L AS AS AS Solution No. 2 - The AS_Path Approach 32

33 multihomed to different provider - customers of different providers with a backup link router# show ip bgp BGP table version 9, local router ID is Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP,? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> / i *> / i *> / i *> i * i *> i L AS AS AS 2 Solution No. 2 - The Community Approach

34 Following default inside an AS Inserting default route in an AS can make a lot of problem if it wasn t do on appropriate way. 34

35 following defaults inside an AS Border routers HAVE physical connection. NAP AS / AS AS IGP RTG IGP

36 following defaults inside an AS NAP AS / AS IGP AS 3 RTG IGP Routing policies RTG is an interior router in AS3 that is running an OSPF; RTG is following the default route 0/0 to reach networks outside AS3 AS3 is multihomed to two different providers. 36

37 following defaults inside an AS router ospf 16 passive-interface Serial0 network area 0 default-information originate always router bgp 3 no synchronization network mask network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor filter-list 10 out neighbor remote-as 3 no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ NAP AS / AS IGP AS 3 RTG IGP

38 following defaults inside an AS IGP NAP /16 AS 7 AS RTG IGP AS 2 router ospf 16 passive-interface Serial0 network area 0 default-information originate always router bgp 3 no synchronization network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor next-hop-self neighbor remote-as 2 neighbor filter-list 10 out no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ router ospf 16 network area 0 38

39 following defaults inside an AS Border routers DON T HAVE physical connection NAP AS / AS AS IGP RTG IGP

40 following defaults inside an AS router ospf 16 passive-interface Serial0 network area 0 default-information originate route-map send_default router bgp 3 no synchronization network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor filter-list 10 out neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor route-map setlocalpref in no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ access-list 1 permit access-list 2 permit route-map setlocalpref permit 10 set local-preference route-map send_default permit 10 match ip address match ip next-hop 2 IGP NAP AS 7 RTG / AS 3 IGP AS 2 40

41 following defaults inside an AS IGP NAP AS 7 RTG / AS 3 IGP AS 2 router ospf 16 passive-interface Serial0 network area 0 default-information originate route-map send_default router bgp 3 no synchronization network mask neighbor remote-as 3 neighbor net-hop-self neighbor remote-as 2 neighbor filter-list 10 out no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ access-list 1 permit access-list 2 permit route-map send_default permit 10 match ip address 1 match ip next-hop 2 router ospf 16 network area 0 41

42 Policy routing Possibility to route traffic based on source IP address, instead of destination IP address. 42

43 policy routing AS IGP IGP AS 3 Routing policies Traffic from network /24 is directed toward AS2, over link. Traffic from network /24 is directed toward AS1 over link; in case of a link failure to AS1, the traffic will go to AS2. For all other source IP address, follow normal routing. 43

44 policy routing AS IGP IGP AS 3 interface ethernet0 ip address interface serial1 ip address ip policy route-map CHECK_SOURCE router ospf 16 passive-interface Serial0 passive-interface Ethernet0 network area 0 default-information originate always router bgp 3 network mask network mask network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 1 neighbor filter-list 10 out neighbor remote-as 2 neighbor filter-list 10 out no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$ access-list 1 permit access-list 2 permit route-map CHECK_SOURCE permit 10 match ip address 1 set ip next-hop route-map CHECK_SOURCE permit 20 match ip address 2 set ip next-hop

45 Lab examples Equipment: CISCO 2501 (1x10BaseAUI + 2xSerial) 3 pcs. DTE cables...3 pcs DCE cables...3 pcs hub 45

46 lab example /24 E S S S S /24 E0 AS S S0 AS30 is not learning any BGP routes from AS10 and is sending its own routes via BGP. Outbound traffic from AS30 should always go on the link unless that link fails, in which case it should switch to the other link. Inbound traffic toward AS30 should always come on the link unless that link fails, in which case is should switch to the other link. Prevent any BGP updates from coming into AS3. 46

47 lab example /24 E S S S S S S /24 E0 AS 30 interface ethernet 0 ip address interface serial 0 ip address clockrate interface serial 1 ip address clockrate 6400 router bgp 30 network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 10 neighbor route-map BLOCK in neighbor route-map SETMET1 out neighbor remote-as 10 neighbor route-map BLOCK in neighbor route-map SETMET2 out no auto-summary ip route ip route route-map SETMET1 permit 10 set metric 100 route-map SETMET2 permit 10 set metric 50 route-map BLOCK deny 10 47

48 lab example /24 E S S S S S S /24 E0 AS 30 interface ethernet 0 ip address interface serial 0 ip address interface serial 1 ip address router bgp 10 network mask neighbor remote-as 30 neighbor remote-as 10 no auto-summary 48

49 lab example /24 E S S S S S S /24 E0 AS 30 interface serial 0 ip address interface serial 1 ip address router bgp 10 network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 30 neighbor remote-as 10 no auto-summary 49

50 lab example 2-a RTA E S S S E0 RTB S1 RTC S S E0 Routing policies Traffic to the Internet should go toward is running between RTA and RTB; IGP is running between RTB and RTC. 50

51 lab example 2-a interface ethernet 0 ip address interface serial 0 ip address clockrate interface serial 1 ip address clockrate 6400 router bgp 10 no synchronization network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 10 neighbor next-hop-self redistribute static route-map default_only no auto-summary ip route access-list 1 permit route-map default_only permit 10 match ip address 1 set local-preference 300 route-map default_only deny 20 RTA E S S1 RTB S S S0 RTC E E S0 51

52 lab example 2-a interface ethernet 0 ip address RTA E S S S1 RTC E E S S S0 RTB 0 interface serial 0 ip address interface serial 1 ip address router bgp 10 no synchronization network mask network mask neighbor remote-as 10 neighbor next-hop-self no auto-summary router ospf 16 network area 0 default-originate route-map def-only access-list 1 permit route-map def_only permit 10 match ip address 1 52

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