Incorporating Congestion Control in BGP considering its. Economic and Policy Effects

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1 Incorporating Congestion Control in BGP considering its Economic and Policy Effects Dhaval Malnika Jay Kothari Kishan Parekh Vinita Shah TLEN 5700: Research Methods April 25, 2014 Advisors: Prof. Jose Santos Prof. Mark Dehus Special Thanks: Jay Robertson Senior Manager, IP/CDN Software Engineering Internap Page 1

2 ABSTRACT The Internet can be visualized as an interconnection of Autonomous Systems (ASes), which use the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) as the standard for exchanging network information among each other. The growth of the Internet has made it possible to access information with ease, but on the other hand, it has given rise to the problem of congestion. BGP does not have an inherent mechanism to avoid or detect congested areas and routes packets through paths that are often congested. The AS_PATH attribute in BGP is an indicator for selecting the best path to reach a certain Internet destination. Current congestion control practice involves manual network configuration changes by network engineers. Our proposal is to amend the BGP protocol to incorporate congestion control mechanism. Thus, we have developed a tool that continuously monitors a link for congestion and automatically carries out AS path prepending to re-route the traffic from a congested link onto another, thereby improving network reachability and reducing packet loss. A new model discussing the related economic and policy consequences is also discussed in the paper. Page 2

3 Table of Contents Serial No. Introduction Page No. I. Introduction 5 i. ii. Statement of the problem Research Question 5 6 II. Literature Review 9 III. Research Methodology 10 IV. Research Results 19 V. Discussion of Results 22 VI. Conclusion and Future Research 24 VII. References 25 List of Figures Serial No. Name of Figures Page No. Fig ISP 2 incurs cost for ISP 1 s traffic 8 Fig. 3.1 Congested BGP topology 11 Fig. 3.2 Congestion Detection algorithm 13 Fig. 3.3 Congestion Recovery algorithm 14 Fig. 3.4 Congestion-controlled BGP 15 Fig. 3.5 Co-ordination between Tier 1 ISPs 16 Fig. 3.6 Multihomed customer 17 Fig 3.7 Economic incentives for Tier 2 ISPs to form a full-mesh 18 Page 3

4 Serial No. Name of Figures Page No. Fig 4.1 Bandwidth vs. % Loss due to congestion 20 Fig 4.2 Comparison of Bandwidth vs. % Loss 20 Fig. 4.3 Graph of transmit load on interfaces 21 Fig. 4.4 Flow analysis graph 22 Fig 4.5 % Loss with a congested alternate path 22 Page 4

5 I. Introduction i. Statement of the problem The Internet is comprised of a large number of ASes and exchanging routing information between two or more ASes is achieved using BGP. BGP is a vector distributed routing protocol and uses TCP as its underlying mechanism, making it reliable [1]. It is not only important for the BGP sessions to be reliable, but also scalable to provide inter-domain Internet connectivity. However, in case of link congestion, the BGP router still forwards packets along the same path, increasing packet loss and degrading network reachability. It not only leads to the packets being dropped and re-sent repeatedly, but also affects cost, performance, and adds delay which eventually affects the customer. Current solutions to cope with congestion majorly focus more on increasing the available bandwidth by adding more links between routers [2]. It is not economical for ISPs to meet traffic requirements by incrementing bandwidth at Layer-1 as traffic is irregular and not always at maximum capacity. Service Providers rely on mechanisms such as Multi-Protocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) and route manipulations that can control congestion to a certain extent by redirecting traffic through suboptimal paths within an AS, but for inter-as congestion-control, there is no clear technique. Thus, a multi-provider congestion control mechanism needs to be implemented by enhancing BGP, to reduce overall packet loss and improve reachability. Considering the previous reasons, there is a need to incorporate an intelligent BGP implementation that will choose a path considering the network utilization and traffic patterns at some point in time. We propose the use of AS Path Prepending as a method to reduce congestion in BGP. By prepending AS_PATH to the destination prefix, we deflect all traffic flows for that Page 5

6 destination onto another suboptimal link, which helps solving delay, packet loss, and throughput problems. Along with BGP, there come certain types of relationships between different ASes. They are commonly referred to as peer, transit, and customer relationships. These three types have traffic agreements between them, what is more commonly known as Service Level Assurances/Agreements (SLAs). These SLAs in customer-transit relationships have monetary arrangements. Generally, peer-peer relationships are settlement-free or require certain financial agreements depending upon the shared number of routes between both the ASes. For example, Century Link and Verizon have settlement-free peering, since both have equal number of routes to share, while Verizon and Cogent have paid-peering since the number of routes shared from both ISPs have a significant difference. Tier-I ISPs have more number of Internet routes as compared to Tier-2 ISPs. Tier-I ISPs offer transit services to Tier-2 ISPs and Tier-2 ISPs offer transit services to its customers. Alternate links to a destination might not have the same financial agreements. Deflecting traffic onto these alternate links, which are not congested, could be a concern to the customertransit and peer-peer relationships. This traffic deflection could cause problems in the SLAs. ii. Research Question: How will integrating a congestion-control mechanism in BGP make it a network efficient protocol and what will be the economic and policy implications as well as feasibility from an industry standpoint? The rest of the paper is organized as follows: The following sub-section provides the subproblems associated with BGP congestion. Section II highlights the literature review and the research done so far regarding BGP congestion. Section III discusses the research methodology. Page 6

7 Section IV provides the results we achieved after running tests on a congested network topology. In Section V, we discuss on the results achieved. Section VI proposes the future scope for this research and conclusion. Research Sub-problems: This section will discuss critical issues and challenges to the possible adoption of congestion control mechanism in BGP. When diverting traffic onto an alternate link, if the alternate path to a destination becomes congested as well, there is a possibility of path flapping or bouncing effect. The traffic will flap between the best path and the alternate path until all the data is sent to the destination. This behavior has to be avoided to prevent packets arriving out of order or packets not arriving at all at the destination. Packet losses will cause retransmission requests through the flapping paths, which will degrade network performance further. Bouncing effect can be eliminated by the router having the best path to the destination by refusing to divert traffic again if it receives the traffic back from the alternate link. An ISP implementing congestion control mechanism may divert traffic to some other ISP. However, some of the ISPs may restrict such traffic flow and as a result the traffic will be black holed. For example, if ISP 2 has implemented congestion control mechanism and if it experiences congestion, then the BGP packet sent by ISP 1 towards ISP 2 will now have a different path towards the destination. Assuming the traffic is now flowing through ISP 3, and if ISP 3 has implemented policies for the traffic to be blocked, all the traffic being diverted to ISP 3 will be dropped. As a result, we might have to implement this mechanism globally and SLAs between the ISPs will have to be Page 7

8 modified. Traffic could be offloaded between the ISPs on an equivalent basis. This also highlights the importance for the ISPs to collaborate among one another for such a congestion control mechanism. The inclusion of these modifications into BGP can lead to economic and policy challenges. Economic: As shown in Fig 1.2.1, congestion occurs on the link between ISP 1 and Transit Provider. In order for ISP 1 to reach its destination, sending data over ISP 2 s link may not seem a plausible solution for ISP 2 because it may not want traffic of a customer on its own link from which it does not obtain profits. This can be a problem when the available alternate paths of ISP 2 are via the transit provider. ISP 2 might have to pay the transit provider, which can result into an overall increase in their costs, which will eventually be borne by the customers or certain financial arrangements will have to be made between the ISPs. Also, such methods may not be acceptable to ISP 2, which are having their bills increased due to diversion of traffic. Fig ISP 2 incurs cost for ISP 1 s traffic Policy: By default, ISPs give highest priority to traffic from their customers, followed by peers, and then transit. The alternate or suboptimal path might be via either peer or transit and if congestion control in BGP will be implemented, the peering and traffic arrangements rules will change to a certain extent. Currently, certain ISPs block traffic of Page 8

9 other ISPs from entering their domain unless they are explicitly permitted. This restriction needs to be changed in order to successfully implement congestion control mechanism in BGP. In addition, ISPs may be required to share internal topological information and/or their available routes with other ISPs, which can lead to ISPs losing their competitive edge [3]. As a result, ISPs might become hesitant to adopt this idea into BGP. II. Literature Review When BGP was invented in 1989, there was no support for traffic congestion based on network load, cost and performance which led to numerous instances of Internet outages. Also, during congestion, BGP still prefers the congested best-path route to a given destination. Experts have done extensive research to overcome this frailty in BGP. The key research ideas related to our research are listed below. Gupta et al., MacKie-Mason and Varian proposed a new Internet model with users being the customers, and providers as suppliers of services like videos, stock quotes, etc. Their model deals with priority pricing mechanisms, where the users decide how much priority they want to give to their own traffic, before sending it towards the destination. In this way, when congestion occurs, lower priority traffic can be dropped and the users with higher priority traffic can pay a higher amount than usual [4]. This research gave us the idea of enabling BGP to prioritize traffic based on its distance (maximum AS path length) from the congested area. Fujinoki, Wang and Gao proposed ideas to include multiple paths in the BGP routing table. They devised methods like Multi-Path BGP, D-BGP, and B-BGP, which added suboptimal paths into BGP for a given destination without creating routing loops [5] [6]. This increased overall network efficiency and throughput in case of congestion. Page 9

10 Sebakor et al. proposed a unique method of introducing a control system for each AS, which controls the inter-domain traffic. This method reserves capacity on a link for certain IP traffic and allocates bandwidth to other traffic automatically. The results obtained from this research showed that the control system could achieve efficiency in link utilization, avoid possible link congestion, and decrease the packet loss rate [7]. The concept of a BGP Path Announcer in our research stems from this idea. According to statistics from the AT&T backbone, about 30% of routes are AS prepended which indicates the significant impact of the attribute on the entire Internet domain [8]. Prepending an AS path does not compromise the BGP routing resilience or increase the BGP routing table size. Rocky K.C. Change et.al proposed various advantages of AS path prepending approach for means of traffic engineering [9]. We incorporated such an approach into our algorithm to reduce manual network configuration and enable predictable control over change in traffic flow. Agarwal et al. proposed an Overlay Policy Control Architecture (OPCA), which runs as an overlay network on top of BGP in the Internet. OPCA allows an AS to make route changes to other remote ASs and achieve quicker fail-over. It also provides an AS the capability to control the inbound traffic, and thereby help in avoiding congestion [10]. This idea cannot be implemented in real world because traffic of one AS is being manipulated by another AS, which would violate current norms in the Internet. To overcome this limitation, we created a model where each AS is independent but requires collaboration with other ASes. III. Research Methodology We adopted the following methodology for our research: Step 1: Proving that BGP cannot handle congestion Page 10

11 We simulated a non-congestion-controlled BGP topology in a multi-as environment. The topology consisting of five ASes had all the possible paths from the source to the destination and selected the best path using the BGP decision process. Thereafter, we simulated a congested BGP scenario by continuously flooding stream of data using Iperf, thereby congesting a particular link between two ASes. Fig. 3.1 Congested BGP topology Iperf is a free Linux based network performance tool used to measure various TCP and UDP parameters such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, packet loss [11]. Here, client is the sender and server is the receiver. All ASes in Fig. 3.1 have external BGP (ebgp) running between them. We created data streams of different bandwidths ranging from 1 Mbps to 100 Mbps and streamed the data from Ubuntu client to Ubuntu server. Also, we observed the % packet loss and % transmit load on the outgoing interface of AS 2 for different bandwidths. Step 2: Logging and analyzing the data We logged the data from the results and analyzed various performance parameters like average end-to-end delay, average packet loss rate, and average load. Then we processed the Page 11

12 logged data to plot the graph of Bandwidth vs. % Loss and Bandwidth vs. % Load to compare them with the results of congestion-controlled BGP scenario. Step 3: Developing the algorithm We developed a tool to achieve congestion control and route optimization using AS Path Prepending approach. The tool is basically divided into two components. 1. The Initial Setup: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is extensively used to poll the router for various information regarding the interface index, IP addresses, the next hop addresses, routing table attributes and information about the BGP routes, and the AS path lengths. A link object is created that maps the link index to its directly connected neighbors and possible routable network destinations. A dictionary mapping of IP addresses to their AS path lengths is also stored during the initial setup. 2. Active Continuous Measurement: The tool actively monitors all the links of the router for its utilization values. The formula used for calculation link utilization is: [12] Input Utilization = ifinoctets (number of seconds in ) ifspeed Output Utilization = ifoutoctets (number of seconds in ) ifspeed where ifinoctets and ifoutoctets represents the count of inbound and outbound octets of traffic respectively. A variable threshold value is defined to identify congestion on the link. When the link utilization value exceeds the threshold value, the tool starts its congestion control mechanism. Page 12

13 Fig 3.2 Congestion Detection algorithm From the link object, the interface index, IP addresses along with their AS path lengths, and it s directly connected interfaces are retrieved. In case the link has never faced congestion, a subset list of IP addresses having AS path length equal to the maximum AS path length is obtained. Page 13

14 Route-maps to prepend the AS path are entered into the router, which triggers in its immediate neighbors a BGP decision process to choose an alternate best path for the concerned IP addresses. Route maps can also be entered on the basis of Netflow statistics to prepend the largest traffic flow through the router. Such a decision is left onto the ISP. The program then returns to monitoring link utilization. In case the link utilization value still persists above the threshold value, the router again starts the congestion control mechanism. Since, it has already prepended the AS value for the maximum possible AS path lengths, it now prepends the AS path for IP addresses with the next maximum AS path length. Fig 3.3 Congestion Recovery algorithm Page 14

15 If the link utilization value decreases beyond a minimum threshold value, the link is no longer congested. At this point, the ISP will try to restore its previous best forwarding path. The tool identifies from the link object, the minimum of the AS path value for which route maps were entered along with the corresponding IP addresses. The tool then continues to monitor the link utilization. Fig 3.2 also takes care of the bouncing effect or flapping of routes. After diversion of traffic, in case no peers have the required capacity to allow the traffic, the traffic is routed back to ISP, which initially prepended the path. At this stage the ISP can drop/allow the traffic. Step 4: Implementing the algorithm We implemented the mechanism explained in Fig. 3.2 and Fig. 3.3 in the following BGP scenario, where the link between AS 1 and Switch 0 is 10 Mbps and the link between AS 2 and AS 3 is 100 Mbps. Thereafter, we analyzed the traffic patterns to compare average end-to-end delay, average packet loss rate, and average load between traditional BGP and congestioncontrolled BGP. Fig. 3.4 Congestion-controlled BGP Page 15

16 Step 5: Interviews As per our topology and obtained results; we conducted interviews with experts from ISPs to know their viewpoints over a possible integration of congestion-control mechanism into BGP. The interviews helped us analyze the industry standpoint on the possible integration of this new concept in BGP. The interviews mainly focused on these major domains: Awareness: How far the industry experts were aware about the BGP congestion problem and any existing mechanism that could solve the issue Feasibility: The feasibility of incorporating the algorithm in regards to technical and commercial viability Prospective clientele: Based on the current market scenario, who among Tier 1 ISPs, Tier 2 ISPs, and customers, would have an interest in implementing such automatic congestion control mechanism Step 6: Proposed Model Considering the current business relationships among the ASes, we propose a modified Internet model to address the economic and policy sub-problems mentioned previously. The model is divided into the following scenarios: Fig. 3.5 Co-ordination between Tier 1 ISPs Page 16

17 Scenario 1: Explicit Co-ordination among the Tier 1 ISPs As addressed in the economic and policy sub-problem, diversion of traffic onto another link will not be acceptable to an ISP due to increase in costs and trust issues. However, we suggest that all Tier-1 ISPs engage in coordinated inter-domain routing and traffic engineering as shown in Fig As of today, ISPs take independent decisions to carry out its own network engineering, which can impact another ISP's traffic. Coordinated routing on the other hand, requires exchange of policies and routing decisions allowing predictable incoming and outgoing traffic engineering control. Rahul et al, further explain how ISPs can end in a win-win situation while maintaining limited information disclosure among the ISPs. We support the idea of ISPs engaging themselves in a two-way exchange of information and route negotiation between the upstream and the downstream routers as it provides a strong base for global deployment of our tool. With the ability to predict traffic changes, ISPs can divert traffic without worrying about local resource policies and system instability, thus optimizing cost and network performance [13]. Fig. 3.6 Multihomed customer Scenario 2: Mutihomed ASes and Customers "Mutihomed" means connected to more than one Internet service provider as shown in Fig Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the growth of multihomed ASes Page 17

18 and customers to improve network connectivity and performance. We propose the use of our tool for all such enterprise networks that have more than one connection to the Internet. The tool will allow automated traffic engineering control by varying the AS's traffic among the different service providers it is connected to, thus providing better network utilization. Such automated load balancing abilities allow the AS to support more users connecting to the Internet leading to increased revenues. Fig. 3.7 Economic incentives for Tier 2 ISPs to form a full-mesh Scenario 3: Economic arrangements between full-meshed Tier 2 ISPs According to the current Internet model, the interconnection between Tier 2 ISPs is sparse as compared to the interconnection between the Tier 1 ISPs [14]. Tier 2 ISPs purchase transit from the Tier 1 ISPs in order to access the Internet. Congestion on the Tier 2 transit link results in more costs for the Tier 2 ISP in order to allow the additional traffic. We suggest in our model that all the Tier 2 ISPs in a specific region have full mesh connectivity between themselves. Such complete peering benefits the Tier 2 ISPs by reducing the overall transit cost. Considering the transit cost between Tier 1 and Tier 2 is $1/Mbps, the Tier 2 ISP facing congestion can offload Page 18

19 the additional traffic through another Tier 2 peer for the duration of congestion. The costs of the additional traffic can be billed: At the same cost as it would have been to a Tier 1 ISP or, Based upon specific peering and traffic load balancing agreements among the Tier 2 ISPs Based upon pay-per-use of network resources. Such model allows support for inflow and outflow of money among the Tier 2 ISPs as against the current unidirectional outflow of money from a Tier 2 ISP to a Tier 1 ISP. Another additional benefit is that the Tier 2 ISP has a virtual link capacity equal to the entire Tier 2 full mesh bandwidth, thus allowing support for more customers and traffic generating income for the Tier 2 ISP. IV. Research Results After implementing the BGP topology as shown in Fig 3.1, the first step was to prove that BGP cannot handle congestion. We performed the following steps: 1. Injected a stream of data packets on a serial link for the bandwidths ranging from 1 Mbps to 100 Mbps from the Ubuntu client to the Ubuntu server 2. There was no packet loss from 1 Mbps to Mbps. For various link bandwidths from Mbps to 100 Mbps, we observed that the packet loss increased exponentially and remained constant (97%) after 70 Mbps as shown in Fig Page 19

20 Fig. 4.1 Bandwidth vs. % Loss due to congestion 3. Fig. 4.2 shows the comparison graph of Bandwidth (BW) vs. % Loss before and after implementing the congestion-control algorithm. The blue curve represents a flow of traffic within the link capacity of Fa0/0 (AS1). Thus, when the BW was between 1 and 10 Mbps the corresponding loss was 0%. As we increased the bandwidth beyond 10 Mbps, the % loss increased exponentially, as shown by the red curve. At 60 Mbps, we started our congestion control mechanism and as seen, the traffic gets diverted onto the Fa0/1, AS2 link and the flow does not suffer from loss of packets and reaches the destination. Fig. 4.2 Comparison of Bandwidth vs. % Loss Page 20

21 4. Fig. 4.3 shows the comparison graph of % transmit load on outgoing interfaces Fa0/0 and Fa0/1 for routers AS1 and AS2 in Fig. 3.4 respectively. The values are plotted before congestion as well as before and after implementing the congestion-control algorithm. The bar graph shows that the transmit load was 1% before congestion. After congestion on the Fa0/0 interface of AS1, the transmit load rises to 63% i.e. the interface is using around 63% of the available transmit bandwidth. The red portion in the bar graph represents % packet loss on the Fa0/0 interface. Once the algorithm diverts the traffic via an alternate path, the transmit load gradually decreases to 19% on Fa0/0 of AS1 and increases to 30% on the interface Fa0/1 of AS2. Fig. 4.3 Graph of transmit load on interfaces 5. Fig. 4.4 compares the % Loss for 3 flows, which have the same best path to reach the destination, ultimately leading to congestion of the link. Referring Fig. 3.4, flow 1 is traffic from customer connected to AS 1, while flow 2 and flow 3 represent external traffic passing through AS 1. Due to congestion there is a 70-80% loss for flow 1 and flow 2. Since the link is completely congested, there is 100% packet loss for flow 3. We Page 21

22 implement the algorithm for the external traffic, but not for our customer traffic. When the algorithm is implemented, the packet loss for all the three flows becomes 0%. Fig. 4.4 Flow analysis graph 6. The Iperf result shown in Fig. 4.5 is to illustrate the bouncing effect. It shows that link Fa0/0 (AS1) has 68% packet loss when the link is congested. The packet loss on the link reduces to 0% because of the AS Path Prepending. However, the alternate link also gets congested diverting the traffic back to the original path. Thus, we see an increase in packet loss from 0%, back to 68% on the Fa0/0 link. iperf -s -p i 1 u [ 3] local port 6005 connected with port [ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Jitter Lost/Total Datagrams [ 3] sec 1.14 MBytes 9.57 Mbits/sec ms 1736/ 2550 (68%) [ 3] sec 1.14 MBytes 9.57 Mbits/sec ms 1737/ 2551 (68%) [ 3] sec 3.43 MBytes 28.8 Mbits/sec ms 624/ 3073 (20%) [ 3] sec 3.58 MBytes 30.0 Mbits/sec ms 0/ 2551 (0%) [ 3] sec 3.58 MBytes 30.0 Mbits/sec ms 0/ 2551 (0%) [ 3] sec 1.14 MBytes 9.57 Mbits/sec ms 1737/ 2551 (68%) [ 3] sec 1.14 MBytes 9.57 Mbits/sec ms 1737/2551 (68%) Congestion Management Redirection via another path Peer had no available bandwidth Fig. 4.5 % Loss with a congested alternate path V. Discussion of Results Page 22

23 1. As per Fig. 4.1, the rate at which the data is being sent is much higher as compared to the actual capacity of the link resulting in packet loss. The BGP protocol continues to send traffic over the congested link even though there are alternate paths to reach the destination. This shows that BGP has no inherent congestion control mechanism. 2. From Fig. 4.2, we see that link bandwidth was insufficient to handle the incoming traffic resulting in packet loss. As the link utilization increased above the threshold value, the algorithm diverted the additional traffic via an alternate link, which had enough capacity to forward the incoming traffic towards the destination at 0% loss. 3. Fig. 4.3 shows that the link congestion results in packet loss and a high transmit load on the interface. Since the algorithm diverts traffic via an alternate link, the loads get shared among the interfaces. 4. The Iperf result in the fig. 4.5 shows that our algorithm takes care of situation when the alternate path to the destination is also congested. Diverting the traffic causes congestion on the alternate link which then sends the traffic back through the original path. Even though the traffic bounces back with no reduction in packet loss, the traffic is not completely dropped or black holed. However, if such a scenario occurs the ISPs can decide whether to allow/block the traffic. 5. To understand the industry standpoint and the feasibility of the tool, we interviewed industry experts from Tier 1 and Tier 2 ISPs. We asked them about their awareness of the BGP congestion problem, deployment feasibility and viability, and potential customers who could buy our solution. The experts from CenturyLink suggested that the effectiveness of the tool depends on the acceptance of the Open Internet model by other ISPs. They suggested making the tool capable of recognizing multiple links between two Page 23

24 Tier 1 ISPs and pass traffic through those links. They also agreed that such automatic congestion control tool can be readily deployed for multihomed ASes and customers. Tier 2 ISPs supported the idea as this solution not only solves their congestion problem, but also benefits them and their customers economically. They also have an added advantage in the form of inflow and outflow on money, and an increased customer base. VI. Conclusion and Future Research In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach for controlling congestion by diverting traffic onto another link by means of AS Path Prepending traffic engineering approach. Initially, our tool creates a database of all the necessary information, actively probes the links to detect utilization, and then undertakes necessary steps to control congestion. The entire process is automated as opposed to the current ad-hoc engineering methods and does not have any additional dedicated hardware or software requirements. The paper also proposes a model that supports an Open Internet system and explains various scenarios for which the tool can be readily deployed. From the results obtained, we conclude that such automated tools are the future for network operations management and troubleshooting. Our current BGP congestion control mechanism tool works on three simple principles of link utilization monitoring, BGP AS Path Prepending attribute, and co-ordination among the ISPs. The future scope of the tool is based on the decision of the ISPs and their willingness to adopt the Open Internet model. The Open Internet architecture provides the ability to monitor links of different ASes and divert traffic based on least link utilization. The ISPs can choose to develop additional complex features to increase the tool s efficiency to measure delay and throughput characteristics and also take into consideration Netflow statistics before diverting onto an alternate path. Page 24

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