Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands: an operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning

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1 Reg Environ Change DOI /s ORIGINAL ARTICLE Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands: an operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning H. Goosen M. A. M. de Groot-Reichwein L. Masselink A. Koekoek R. Swart J. Bessembinder J. M. P. Witte L. Stuyt G. Blom-Zandstra W. Immerzeel Received: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2013 Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 Abstract There is a growing availability of climate change information, offered to scientists and policy makers through climate services. However, climate services are not well taken up by the policy-making and planning community. Climate services focus on primary impacts of climate change, e.g., the disclosure of precipitation and temperature data, and this seems insufficient in meeting their needs. In this paper, we argue that, in order to reach the spatial planning community, climate services should take on a wider perspective by translating climate data to policy-relevant indicators and by offering support in the design of adaptation strategies. We argue there should be more focus on translating consequences of climate change to land-use claims and subsequently discuss the validity, H. Goosen (&) M. A. M. de Groot-Reichwein R. Swart L. Stuyt Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands L. Masselink Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands A. Koekoek Geodan B.V, Amsterdam, The Netherlands J. Bessembinder KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands J. M. P. Witte Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands G. Blom-Zandstra Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands W. Immerzeel FutureWater, Wageningen, The Netherlands consequences and implications of these claims with stakeholders, so they can play a role in spatial planning processes where much of the climate adaptation takes place. The term Climate Adaptation Services is introduced as being a stepwise approach supporting the assessment of vulnerability in a wider perspective and include the design and appraisal of adaptation strategies in a multi-stakeholder setting. We developed the Climate Adaptation Atlas and the Climate Ateliers as tools within the Climate Adaptation Services approach to support decision-making and planning processes. In this paper, we describe the different steps of our approach and report how some of the challenges were addressed. Keywords Climate services Adaptation Spatial planning Climate impacts Visualisation Introduction Only recently European countries are starting to adapt to the consequences of climate change (Swart and Raes 2007). Adaptation is necessary as mitigation efforts will be insufficient to avoid impacts of climate change on society (Mastrandrea et al. 2010; Meinke et al. 2009; Pittock 2009). In the Netherlands, adaptation to climate change is closely related to spatial planning because of the high population density (470 inhabitants per km 2 ), intensive economic activities and since adaptation measures often have a spatial component. Spatial planning especially in the Netherlands is traditionally about identifying and balancing different spatial claims. The term spatial planning is often used interchangeably with terms such as urban planning, land-use planning or physical planning. In this article, we use the term spatial planning

2 H. Goosen et al. to indicate how spatial policies are developed to balance spatial claims from various government departments, provinces and municipalities, for housing, employment, water, environment, infrastructure and nature (Hurlimann and March 2012; van Ark 2006). By various government departments, provinces and municipalities, sectoral policies for housing, employment, water, environment, infrastructure and nature are formulated as spatial claims. Adjustments of policies related to economic development as well as climate change adaptation policies usually have spatial consequences (De Bruin et al. 2009). A growing number of government agencies with spatial planning tasks share the intention to develop climate proof policies. Yet, Hurlimann and March (2012) suggest that there are only few adaptation planning processes underway and that most local governments have not begun to address specifically climate change in their (spatial) plans. For effective adaptation, a clear understanding of the problem is necessary. This requires climate impact information to be translated to the local level in relevant ways to connect with other and often non-climate related priorities. It is important that information on potential impacts of climate change addresses specific needs and perceptions of municipal and district or provincial spatial planners (Ford et al. 2011). Offering information on climate change and its potential impacts in support of adaptation is often referred to as climate services (Dutton 2002; Hulme 2009; Visbeck 2007). However, climate services rarely go beyond the scope of meteorological variables. A study investigating climate change awareness and preparedness among coastal managers in California reported that most managers do not use weather, climate or sea-level rise data in current decision making, and that managers wanted more information on climate risks but only if provided in a form that fit seamlessly into existing procedures (Moser and Luers 2008). For local stakeholders, planners and policy makers, climate change may be considered too uncertain, too far away in space and time, and to be solved somewhere else rather than at municipal level reinforced by lack of knowledge of precise impacts at the local scale, while, especially at the local level, spatial planning plays a critical anticipatory role in promoting robust adaptation (Wilson 2006). This significant gap between the supply of climate services and the needs of users is also identified by the World Meteorological Organization (World Meteorological Organization 2011). The WMO states that: Present capabilities to provide climate services do not exploit all that we know about climate, fall far short of meeting present and future needs, and are not delivering their full and potential benefits. To be useful climate information must be tailored to meet the needs of users. Existing climate services are not well focused on user needs and the level of interaction between providers and users of climate services is inadequate. Users need access to expert advice and support to help them select and properly apply climate information. Climate services often do not reach the last mile, to the people who need them most, particularly at the community level in developing and least developed countries. This paper focuses on this last mile and deals with some of the challenges that are met when translating climate impact information to policy-relevant and usable science. In this paper, we argue that, in order to reach the spatial planning community, climate services should take on a wider perspective, taking the ability or potential of a system to respond to climate change into account since our understanding of the impacts of climate changes on human well-being and vulnerabilities is much less developed than our understanding of the natural climate system (US National Research Council 2009). We argue that there should be more focus on translating consequences of climate change to land-use claims and subsequently discuss the validity, consequences and implications of these claims with stakeholders, so they can play a role in spatial planning processes where much of the climate adaptation takes place. The term Climate Adaptation Services is introduced as being an information service supporting the assessment of vulnerability in a wider perspective and includes the design and appraisal of adaptation strategies. We set up a stepwise approach to support the development of these Climate Adaptation Services, aiming at bridging the gap between the sources of primary climate information and the (local) spatial planning level. These steps and associated challenges draw on the experience gathered during the development of the Dutch Climate Adaptation Atlas (CAA) and the usage of the CAA within design workshops with stakeholders, so-called Climate Ateliers. Towards Climate Adaptation Services Adaptation policy development and implementation can be described in different phases. One of the early frameworks to structure adaptation policy development was designed for the UK Climate Impacts Programme (Willows et al. 2003) and is widely used in the United Kingdom (Fig. 1). Climate services seem to emphasise only the third step in this adaptation planning cycle: risk assessment. A review of websites and online portals on climate change information reveals that most climate change Web portals have

3 Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands framework as developed by Füssel and Klein (2006). The approach focuses on analysing the consequences of climate change for land-use claims and subsequently discusses the validity, consequences and implications of these maps with stakeholders, so they can play a role in spatial planning processes where much of the climate adaptation takes place (Termeer et al. 2011). Furthermore, we include the design and appraisal of adaptation strategies. The following steps can be identified: Fig. 1 The adaptation planning cycle (Willows et al. 2003) a prime focus on first-order impacts (see Appendix ). For example, the Climate Wizard in the UK (UKCIP 1 ) offers information on changes in rainfall and temperature under climate change (which can be defined as first-order or primary impacts). In Germany, the regional climate offices together offer services in terms of data and climate impact maps for rainfall and temperature indicators. 2 The Dutch Royal Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a climate sketchbook for the Netherlands also visualising climate change impacts on rainfall and temperature (KNMI 2011). Maps translating direct climatic changes into consequences for different sectors like projected changes in agricultural production for a specific country or region are more scarce. Although very valuable and important information, action at local level requires information and interpretation that is more than solely visualising first-order climate change impacts like rainfall and temperature (Bessembinder 2009; KNMI 2011). Even if the information is developed further in a vulnerability assessment (Füssel and Klein 2006), it should be noted that elements of vulnerability (in the IPCC definition) require, on top of information about climate change exposure, information on sensitivity and adaptive capacity. This information is often not easily available, at least not in a quantified form, and often ambiguous, because links between exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity and vulnerability are not straightforward. It is argued that to come to adaptation pathways and strategies in spatial planning, additional steps need to be taken. We set up a stepwise approach (Fig. 2) to operationalise the different steps within the vulnerability assessment 1 See UKCIP: (accessed 25 May 2012). 2 See RegionalerKlimaatlasRegionaler Klimaatlas: regionaler-klimaatlas.de. 1. Step 1: Assessment of primary impacts Generating and disclosing primary climate impact data, through downscaling of ensemble runs of a large number of GCMs and generating climate scenarios. These primary impacts can cover several temperature and precipitation variables. 2. Step 2: Assessment of secondary impacts Performing impact modelling for a set of scenarios (e.g. with hydrological or geomorphologic models) to determine secondary impacts (like flood depth, flood frequency and extreme events like storm surges, droughts, salinity and groundwater variables). Subsequently disclosing the information by map ensembles visualising the differences between the scenarios. 3. Step 3: Assessment of tertiary impacts Determining and visualising climate change vulnerabilities according to the needs of (spatial) planners and policy makers on social and economic or tertiary impacts. For example, vulnerability of land-use functions by vulnerability indicators. Subsequently synthesising different individual indicators into robustness or vulnerability maps, clearly visualising the policy challenges. 4. Step 4: Assessment of challenges Organising interactive design workshops with spatial planners, policy makers and researchers aiming at identifying policy challenges for land-use functions by assessing the adaptive capacity. Vulnerability indicators set by current planning and policy are used to assess the level of vulnerability. 5. Step 5: Identification and integration of adaptation strategies Identifying and integrating adaptation strategies in (spatial) plans and policy-making use of the guiding model approach. For the first three steps of the Climate Adaptation Services approach, the CAA has been developed to assess local vulnerability of Dutch regions. Beside a top-down approach downscaling climate changes impacts, we set up a more bottom-up approach involving stakeholders with local knowledge to discuss relevant indicators as promoted by Meinke et al. (2009). Adaptation planning typically includes a multitude of aspects and affects a wide variety of

4 H. Goosen et al. Fig. 2 Climate Adaptation Services approach as an operational stepwise elaboration of the vulnerability assessment framework of Füssel and Klein (2006) stakeholders. In such a multi-stakeholder setting, and while dealing with long-term impacts with a high level of uncertainty, supporting decision-making and planning processes is a challenge. From the literature on decision support development, in such complex situations, the need for interactive collaborative approaches is supported (Arciniegas and Janssen 2012). Tools in such complex multi-stakeholder settings should focus more on supporting interactive design and finding common ground than on optimisation and solving problems (Goosen 2006; Goosen et al. 2007; Wardekker et al. 2010). For assessing policy challenges and identifying adaptation strategies (steps 4 and 5 of our approach), we therefore organised design workshop, so-called Climate Ateliers. Climate Adaptation Atlas The CAA was initiated by the Dutch provinces that articulated a need for spatial information about climate change impacts and vulnerabilities. The importance of spatial information in adaptation planning and decision-making processes is evident (Pettit et al. 2011), but making this information relevant at the local scale has become an important debate in adaptation planning (Al-Kodmany 2001; Burch et al. 2010; Dockerty et al. 2005; Shaw et al. 2009; Wilson 2006). The climate science community is struggling to assess the actual usefulness of climate information for decision makers because it is still dominated by the linear, knowledge-driven mode of publishing information and expecting potential users to find these resources based on specific needs (Romsdahl 2011). The CAA project attempted to organise a close collaboration between stakeholders from the various Dutch provinces and researchers active within two Dutch climate research programmes, Knowledge for Climate and Climate Changes Spatial Planning. The project started with a user consultation process in which every participating province (8 in total) was interviewed on their information needs. Secondly, an inventory of available knowledge was performed. Six workshops were devoted to identifying matches and mismatches between user needs and the available knowledge, focusing on the themes: policy making for nature/ biodiversity, agricultural policy and spatial planning. The project resulted in an online publically available geoportal (Fig. 3) in which dispersed information on different

5 Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands Fig. 3 A screenshot of the CAA internet geoportal (for the CAA, see: klimaateffectatlas.wur.nl). The portal is publically available. Users can select various climate change impacts and indicators for different time intervals and climate scenarios climate change impacts and vulnerabilities, e.g., flooding, changing salinity, urban heat island effect, crop yields and nature types affected by droughts is pulled together. Much effort has been done on visualising the information. Visualisations can be seen as the language of information design (Horn 1999) which is defined as the art and science preparing information to be used with efficiency and effectiveness. It aims to develop documents that are comprehensible, rapidly and accurately retrievable and easy to translate into effective action (Jacobson 2000). Information design focuses on communication rather than aesthetic issues like graphic design. It can bridge the gap between science and policy making since data as a product of research alone are often not adequate for communication to the policy-making community (Wurman 1989). To make data valuable, it has to be structured, transformed and presented in a meaningful way (Kazmierczak 2003). Visualisations via maps are often used for geographic information. Static cartographic maps have proven to be effective in spatial planning since they clearly clarify geographic information (Dühr 2006). Dynamic maps can express spatial temporal changes and are therefore suitable to visualise climate change impacts (DiBiase et al. 1992). The CAA visualises climate information through geographic maps, both static and dynamic. Discussing the several steps of our Climate Adaptation Services approach, we will describe how we created the different maps within the CAA by means of combining data and visualisation. Assessment of primary impacts In our methodology, first-order meteorological variables e.g., the average winter precipitation or the number of tropical days are considered primary impacts of climate change. Even though these primary climate data are often not directly policy relevant, they form an essential basis and provide input for impact models. The CAA for the Netherlands includes twenty indicators at primary level. Starting point of generating impact data at national level are global climate models (GCMs). Generally, climate services start with a top-down approach of downscaling outcomes of ensembles of these models. The results can be used to create national climate scenarios. In the Netherlands, the Dutch meteorological office KNMI has formulated four climate scenarios (Van Den Hurk et al. 2006). These scenarios have been used to generate data for future primary climate impacts based on transformations of historical data from meteorological stations and spatial interpolations. 3 Using a subset of relevant climate models used in the fourth IPCC assessment (Parry 2007) the KNMI scenarios translate global climate change information to climate change in the Netherlands. Downscaling gives more information on relatively small-scale weather extremes like extreme precipitation events that are particularly relevant for impact analysis. These scenarios 3 For a more detailed explanation, see: Scenarios_monthly (accessed at 13 June 2012).

6 H. Goosen et al. Fig. 4 Example of one of the primary impacts visualised in the CAA: the average number of days per year with more than 15 mm precipitation for different time horizons and for four different climate scenarios do not differentiate in climate change nuances within the small country of the Netherlands. Current spatial patterns, e.g., due to proximity of the North Sea, or altitude differences are assumed not to change significantly in the future. A result is illustrated for one variable in Fig. 4 in which the average number of days per year with more than 15 mm of precipitation is visualised for different time horizons and for the four climate scenarios. Working with four scenarios results in a broad range of climate outcomes, but it also quantifies a considerable part of the existing range in the projections. The twenty indicators at primary level are visualised for four climate scenarios and often for four time horizons (2020, 2030, 2050 and 2100) resulting in over 300 different climate change maps. A consequence of this large number of maps per indicator often results in using single maps, by both researchers and spatial planners. Presenting a single map is of limited value because it does not represent uncertainty across the scenarios (Willows et al. 2003). Besides, it could result in a wrong perception of future climate. To increase the user-friendliness and to provide easy access, the possibility of using interactive maps has been explored. Instead of presenting several static images of a climate variable, images of all-time series and scenarios can be integrated into a single interactive tool. A navigation bar below the image that can be moved around with the mouse allows for the instantaneous navigation between scenarios and different time steps of the selected indicator (Fig. 5). Integrating the different maps has the advantage of making it possible for users to switch between time steps and scenarios, facilitating easy comparison. Small-scale testing indicates that this visualisation method can be helpful in exploring a large number of climate data maps quickly and gives a swift impression of the trend, extend and speed of the change. Users have confirmed that this tool allows for quick browsing of all information available on an indicator, while continuously being confronted with the fact that multiple scenarios are available and should be taken into account. Assessment of secondary impacts Groundwater changes, water shortages, river discharges and salinity are examples of second-order climate impact indicators. In short, these maps are generated by combining primary impact maps with geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of an area. For example, inundation maps are modelled by combining precipitation data with elevation data and discharge capacity (Fig. 6). Although climate scenarios at the national level and resulting primary impacts generally form the basis of

7 Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands Fig. 5 A (static) picture of the interactive visualisation method to visualise a broad range of scenario outcomes and different time intervals for a selected indicator. The coloured figures represent the four different KNMI 06 climate scenarios (colour figure online) Fig. 6 Inundation maps resulting from extreme rainfall for the current climate (left) and around 2050 for the KNMI W scenario (middle) and around 2050 for the KNMI W? scenario (right) impacts research, policy makers are often faced with scattered and sometimes conflicting research outputs. This is mainly due the diversity of research performed by a multitude of research groups and institutes applying various methods and tools. Setting up the CAA, it has been a challenge to provide stakeholders with commonly accepted information, or to communicate underlying causes for real or perceived conflicting results. To have researchers jointly discuss the merits of different approaches, uncertainties, and more importantly to draw policy-relevant conclusions, has proven to be an important step to take. We learned that these interactive workshops were crucial in

8 H. Goosen et al. gaining mutual understanding of the underlying uncertainties and in the demands of the stakeholders. The information flow is bidirectional: local knowledge provides valuable feedback on the outcomes of the climate models and impact studies, and local stakeholders can be informed about underlying uncertainties and assumptions. Assessment of tertiary impacts Tertiary impacts are defined as potential consequences positive and negative on land-use functions or economic sectors such as agriculture, nature, urban areas and societal groups. All are faced with different climate consequences like water nuisance, flood damage, health impacts or thermal discomfort. These impacts can be modelled by combining secondary impact maps with socio-economic sensitivity maps of land-use functions. Generally, the level of uncertainty increases as the information moves further down the chain of impacts. Maps at tertiary level have a high level of uncertainty due to the aggregated nature of the information offered since they are based on more subjective choices about severity of impacts, sensitivity of sectors, dealing with uncertainties and weighing factors that are required when combining impact maps with sensitivity information. Our challenge was to seek for simplicity of design and complexity of data following Tufte design principles (Tufte 1983, 1991; Tufte and Weise Moeller 1997). Tufte clearly demonstrates that a map maker should carefully consider how and why a map should be drawn in order to communicate the right message and prevent misinterpretation. A prime example of tertiary impact maps is the vulnerability map in which we (subjectively) evaluate projected impacts without thoroughly assessing the adaptive capacity. Füssel and Klein (2006) call this first-generation vulnerability assessment. Based on a five-point scale to express the level of vulnerability (very robust, robust, moderately vulnerable, vulnerable and highly vulnerable), maps have been created that give a quick overview of the vulnerability of an area. Although vulnerability is much more complicated than can be captured by a simple fivelevel scale, the method is transparent, reproducible and easily communicable. It proved valuable to summarise all tertiary maps in one combined map. This was done, for example, for the Province of Utrecht (see Fig. 7), highlighting areas particular vulnerable for climate change by combining vulnerability (expressed by colour) and land-use function information (expressed by symbols). The map gives an overview of policy challenge with regard to climate change and proved to be very effective in communicating a sense of urgency to the decision makers since is has been adopted by the province for agenda setting and discussion with stakeholders. An important challenge remains to bring consistency in map lay out, because this improves the interpretation and understanding of the maps. Visualisations are by no means unbiased representations (e.g. Crampton 2001; Crampton and Krygier 2005; Harley 1989, 1990; Pickles 1995; Wood and Fels 1992). The use of GIS contributes to the belief in maps as being objective and unbiased. However, presenting a certain visual filter, it arguably carries forward positivist Fig. 7 Example of tertiary map with combined information of several tertiary impact maps for the government of the Province of Utrecht, The Netherlands that was used to summarise and visualise the policy challenges

9 Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands assumptions (Veregin 1995). Maps are framed and presented within particular socio-political contexts and carry numerous and possibly contradictory messages, which again will be used and interpreted differently depending on the position of the user and his/her educational background. Explicating this bias is important in order to avoid errors of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Besides, there are several cartographic elements that should be taken into account when creating maps. This applies in particular to colour use to depict climate variables. Colour hue should be picked carefully as it is an important variable to create visual attention (Wolfe and Horowitz 2004), and poor choice of colour can confuse map users (Keller and Keller 1993). Although useful for agenda setting, the traffic light colours that have been used to map interpretation for the combined tertiary impact map (Fig. 7) do not comply with cartographic rules (Bertin 1983). Diverging schemes are mostly used for values above and below a critical point. To depict classes of increasing values, sequential colour schemes are considered most suitable (Harrower and Brewer 2003). In particular, the use of the colour red has resulted in discussions with decision makers, since red is generally associated with danger and risk, acquiring immediate action. Climate Ateliers Climate Ateliers are set up as interactive planning and design workshops in which policy makers, scientists and stakeholders together make an assessment of policy challenges and possible adaptation strategies. Such an interactive collaborative approach is focused on finding common ground rather than on optimisation and solving problems (Wardekker et al. 2010; Goosen 2006; Goosen et al. 2007). The CAA is used within the Climate Ateliers to provide local information on climate change impacts. On the other hand, the Climate Ateliers are used to discuss the results of the CAA and further tailor the information indicators and visualisation techniques. Assessment of challenges With an abundance of climate data, it is a challenge to make the information of the CAA accessible in a userfriendly way during the Climate Ateliers. Where the geoportal and the interactive visualisation tool are mainly used in the communication of climate impacts via the internet, touch screen technology is used during the interactive workshops. A Microsoft Surface Table application has Fig. 8 An example of touch screen technology: a tool that is being used and applied in the Climate Ateliers to make the abundant impact information easily accessible to spatial planners and policy makers

10 H. Goosen et al. been developed which acts as a platform through which participants not only receive information on climate change, but also have possibilities to respond and share specific (local) knowledge. These interactive aspects are specifically important in climate discussions, as many climate effect maps are difficult to interpret and require questioning and discussion to understand model assumptions and underlying uncertainties. In these workshops, the surface table application facilitates the use of climate data for planning discussions in a number of ways: Combining climate data from the CAA with other spatial datasets, such as aerial images and current and planned land-use maps. Through this combination, policy makers can relate the projected climate impacts to the local situation and spatial plans. This supports the framing of climate change in a local context. Navigating through available information by panning and zooming with a touch interface. This allows participants to quickly adjust the scale of the map to support the discussion. Furthermore, a specific climate- Fig. 9 Guiding model for one of the Dutch landscape types

11 Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands switch tool enables navigating the available scenarios for climate effects by turning a switch (Fig. 8). Offering participants the opportunity to sketch policy alternatives on the map. Drawn objects can be stored in a GIS format and allow for the combined representation of climate impacts and spatial plans or proposed adaptation strategies. Identification and integration of adaptation strategies The need for integrating climate adaptation into spatial planning is clear. However, limited guidelines or tools exist for the design of adaptation options in a spatial planning context. We adopted the guiding model approach (Tjallingii 1996; de Groot-Reichwein et al. this issue) to generate adaptation strategies at the local level. In these models, adaptation options and characteristics of each landscape type are schematically visualised to guide the design process, making the plan fit to the potential and specific impacts of the local landscape (Fig. 9). Creating a guiding model for each landscape type, based on the hydrological and geomorphologic structure of an area, ensured that all stakeholders involved were able to adopt the guiding model as appropriate for their area and water system. The guiding model clearly visualised the main structures (i.e. water, soil, landscape and urban) of an area and gave a better understanding of the interactions between these systems, including climate change impacts. The understanding of these interactions became crucial to foster collaboration and to create a more integral and comprehensive approach of the adaptation planning issues. Besides, giving insight into the opportunities and barriers for adaptation planning, relevant for the area, helped to create support for a robust adaptation planning strategy. So far, several Dutch provinces (Utrecht, Gelderland, Zuid-Holland and Noord-Brabant) or municipalities (Rotterdam, Barneveld, Amersfoort and Ede) have used the CAA as a fundament for developing a climate adaptive policy strategy for spatial planning. Evaluation of the Climate Ateliers organised for both provinces and municipalities showed that offer climate impact information of CAA via interactive touch screen technology and the application of guiding models can be very useful to support the spatial planning process. The first climate workshops have been evaluated by means of digital questionnaires. The questionnaire revealed that most of the participants were expecting to obtain knowledge on the effects of climate change specifically for their area and the threats and opportunities they faced. About two-thirds of the participants had their expectations fully met. The other third of the participants struggled most with the different scales and indicated that the goals of the sessions were not fully clear. The area-specific information was indicated as one of the strong points of the sessions. About nine out of ten of the participants would recommend the climate workshops to colleagues. The collected comments and suggestions were used to adjust the workshops accordingly, e.g., clearly address the purpose of the sessions and add more real-life examples. Further evaluation will take place to see what subsequent steps municipalities need in order to move forward with adaptation planning. Conclusions Currently, climate services are mainly limited to disclosing climate model output and observation data on rainfall and temperature indicators. This information is vital, but does not provide ready to use information in spatial planning processes. The disclosure of this information supports one element in the adaptation planning cycle, as introduced by Willows et al. (2003), and is only one of the necessary inputs in vulnerability assessment procedures (Füssel and Klein 2006). The concept of Climate Adaptation Services covers a larger range of this cycle by also supporting design and implementation, by translating climate data to policy-relevant indicators and by offering support in the design of adaptation strategies. We argue there should be more focus on translating consequences of climate change to land-use claims and subsequently discuss the validity, consequences and implications of these claims with stakeholders, so they can play a role in spatial planning processes where much of the climate adaptation takes place. Adaptation planning typically includes a multitude of aspects and affects a wide variety of stakeholders. In such a multi-stakeholder setting, and while dealing with long-term impacts with a high level of uncertainty, supporting decision-making and planning processes is a challenge. This challenge can be met by tools that focus more

12 H. Goosen et al. on supporting interactive design and finding common ground than on optimisation and solving problems (Goosen 2006; Goosen et al. 2007; Wardekker et al. 2010). Based on our experience as described in this paper, we can conclude that the CAA and the Climate Ateliers, as tools within the Climate Adaptation Services approach, support such a process. Developing and applying Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands has learnt that: In generating regionalised and localised impact maps (CAA for the Netherlands is an example), it is crucial to prevent a data dump and closely involve the (stakeholders ) demand in determining the relevant indicators. Furthermore, it is vital to communicate about uncertainties and to visualise these in impact maps. Incomplete data and uncertain maps can indeed be helpful in investigating robust adaptation strategies when properly presented and discussed. Interactive map tools have advantages over static maps in presenting multiple scenarios over multiple time steps. Close collaboration between science and policy is recommended. It is vital to understand the type of problems at hand to produce salient information and develop an effective research project. Both developers and end-users learnt that defining a right set of impacts, indicators and scenarios needs to be done together. Stakeholders alone were unable to specify exact knowledge needs that scientists would be able to address, while scientist alone are unable to provide the appropriate and stakeholder-relevant answers. The researchers gained a better insight into the information needs of the end-users, whereas the end-users gained a better understanding of the limitations of the science community to address their exact questions. Researchers of different backgrounds should be cooperated in transdisciplinary teams to bring together and harmonise scattered and non-uniform impact information. Conflicting information (different models with different outcomes) and experiences with best practices should be discussed with and explained to stakeholders. Organising design workshops or Climate Ateliers is a more (inter)active way of communicating about vulnerability information than preparing and presenting scientific reports and crucial to set up a collaborative design process. Although maybe trivial, cooperation between disciplines (hydrology, ecology, meteorology, spatial information sciences, decision and policy sciences) is essential, but often challenging. Tailoring of information is important and depends on objectives, requirements and the context in which the information is to be used. Integration of information on impacts into spatial plans is often difficult, due to different ways of handling climate change and uncertainties (use of climate and spatial scenarios), differences in spatial resolution, and usage of different models. Discussing the nature of the issues with the stakeholders increased the awareness that some issues cannot be solved through rational computational approaches. In some cases, the end-user needs shifted. For example, initially, the users requested quantitative information on the damage to agricultural production in a certain province of the Netherlands. After a number of workshops, this shifted towards questions regarding co-benefits of adaptation measures. Developing and applying visualisation techniques in a creative way using modern software possibilities can help to better communicate an abundance of information in a condensed way. Translating science and data to maps improves communication and use of science and data. By now, a lot of information about climate change and impacts is available, yet it is often difficult to present the information in a spatial way. Spatial presentation is important since spatial planners and other provincial and municipal policy makers are used to working with information that is presented in maps. Developing and using touch screen technology applications offer opportunities for a more easy way of browsing through and using of abundant of climate information. Such tools can be developed and applied commercially. Acknowledgments The development of the Climate Adaptation Atlas and the Climate Ateliers was funded by the Dutch research programs Climate changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) and Knowledge for Climate (KfC). To consolidate and to continue the development and innovation of Climate Adaptation Services in October 2012, the foundation Climate Adaptation Services 4 was established. The foundation brings together several Dutch research institutes like Alterra, Deltares, KNMI, Geodan and TNO and aims at creating a common knowledge portal. An important goal of the foundation is to support the adaptation process by assessing different adaptation strategies for different regions. Appendix See Table 1. 4 For more information, see:

13 Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands Table 1 An overview of online climate Web portals disclosing climate impact information by means of geospatial maps Tool Organisation Scope Primary maps Secondary maps Tertiary maps Canadian Climate Change Scenarios Network Caribbean Climate Environment Canada Canada Yes No No Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre Caribbean Yes Yes No CI:grasp PIK Germany Emerging Yes Yes Limited economies Climate Change Country Profiles UNDP Developing Yes No No nations Climate Change in Australia CSIRO Australia Yes Yes No Climate Change Knowledge Portal World bank Global Yes Yes Limited Climate Service Center Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht Germany Yes No No CLIMATE-ADAPT European Commission EU nations Yes Yes No Ilmasto-Opas Finnish Meteorological Institute Finland Yes No Limited Klimatilpasning Task Force on Climate Change Denmark Yes Yes No Adaptation Klimatilpasning Norge Ministry of Environment Norway Yes No No Regionaler Klimaatlas Deutschland Helmholtz Gemeinschaft Germany Yes Yes No Analysis shows that the main focus is on primary impacts (temperature and precipitation). Secondary data are often only included humidity information and tertiary climate impact maps are very limited and rarely systematically addressed References Al-Kodmany K (2001) Bridging the gap between technical and local knowledge: tools for promoting community-based planning and design. J Archit Plann Res 18(2): Arciniegas G, Janssen R (2012) Spatial decision support for collaborative land use planning workshops. Landsc Urban Plann 107: Bertin J (1983) Semiology of graphics: diagrams, networks, maps. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison Bessembinder J (2009) Klimaatschetsboek nederland het huidige en toekomstige klimaat. KNMI, De Bilt Burch S, Sheppard SR, Shaw A, Flanders D (2010) Planning for climate change in a flood-prone community: municipal barriers to policy action and the use of visualizations as decision-support tools. J Flood Risk Manag 3(2): Crampton JW (2001) Maps as social constructions: power, communication and visualization. Prog Hum Geogr 25(2): Crampton JW, Krygier J (2005) An introduction to critical cartography. ACME Int E-J Crit Geogr 4(1):11 33 De Bruin K, Dellink RB, Ruijs A, Bolwidt L, Van Buuren A, Graveland J, de Groot RS, Kuikna PJ, Reinhard S, Roetter RP (2009) Adapting to climate change in the Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives. Clim Change 95(1 2):23 45 DiBiase D, MacEachren AM, Krygier JB, Reeves C (1992) Animation and the role of map design in scientific visualization. Cartogr Geogr Inf Sci 19(4): Dockerty T, Lovett A, Sünnenberg G, Appleton K, Parry M (2005) Visualising the potential impacts of climate change on rural landscapes. Comput Environ Urban Syst 29(3): Dühr S (2006) The visual language of spatial planning: exploring cartographic representations for spatial planning in Europe. Routledge, London Dutton JA (2002) Opportunities and priorities in a new era for weather and climate services. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 83(9): Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, Paterson J (2011) A systematic review of observed climate change adaptation in developed nations. Clim Change 106(2): Füssel H-M, Klein RJT (2006) Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Clim Change 75(3): Goosen H (2006) Spatial water management: supporting participatory planning and decision making. Techne Press, Amsterdam Goosen H, Janssen R, Vermaat JE (2007) Decision support for participatory wetland decision-making. Ecol Eng 30(2): Harley JB (1989) Deconstructing the map. Cartogr Int J Geogr Inf Geovis 26(2):1 20 Harley JB (1990) Cartography, ethics and social theory. Cartogr Int J Geogr Inf Geovis 27(2):1 23 Harrower M, Brewer C (2003) Colorbrewer. Org: an online tool for selecting colour schemes for maps. Cartogr J 40(1):27 37 Horn RE (1999) Information design: emergence of a new profession. In: Jacobson RE (ed) Information design, MIT press, Cambridge, pp Hulme M (2009) Why we disagree about climate change: Understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK Hurlimann AC, March AP (2012) The role of spatial planning in adapting to climate change. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 3(5): Jacobson R (2000) Information design. MIT Press, Cambridge Kazmierczak ET (2003) Design as meaning making: from making things to the design of thinking. Design Issues 19(2):45 59 Keller PR, Keller MM (1993) Visual cues: practical data visualization. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA KNMI (2011) Bosatlas van het klimaat. Noordhoff Uitgevers B.V, Groningen Mastrandrea MD, Heller NE, Root TL, Schneider SH (2010) Bridging the gap: linking climate-impacts research with adaptation planning and management. Clim Change 100(1): Meinke H, Howden SM, Struik PC, Nelson R, Rodriguez D, Chapman SC (2009) Adaptation science for agriculture and natural

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