1 UMTR MEDICAID TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INJURY CLAIMS IN MICHIGAN, J. D. Flora, A. C. Wolfe, J. O'Day July 1983 MTR 81-6 Office of Highway Safety Planning Lansing, Michigan University of Michigan TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE Ann Arbor, Michigan 4819
3 Tocbaical Ropwt Documontatiol, Pap. 1. Report No. 2. Cmmmc Accessia No. 3. R.cip~.nt's Colalog No. UMTR Title ad Subtitle 5. R-rt Dote Medicaid Traffic Accident Injury Claims ~uly 1983 in Michigan, Pabminq Orpoclizotion CO& 7. Auc)m's) J. D. Flora, A. C. Wolfe, J. O'Day I UMTR I 9. Pwbming Or-i don Nao md Address 1 1. WorC Unit No Paforninq Organization R.pat No. t Transportat ion Research Ins ti tute The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan wuri n- a d Address Office of Highway Safety Planning South Capi to1 Avenue, Lower Level Lansing, Michigan This is the final report of a project entitled "Analysis of Traffic Injuries in Medicaid Data." The aim of the project was to investigate the Medicaid claims data to determine the number and cost of Medicaid claims resulting from traffic accident injuries in the State of Michigan. The Medicaid l npat i ent General Hospi ta 1 Cl aims data from 198 and 1981 were used to determine the number and costs of Medicaid claims resulting from traffic accidents. There were 41 such claims identified in the 198 data and 298 in the 1981 data. These resulted in Medicaid charges of 1.1 mi 1 lion do1 lars in 198 and one mi 1 1 ion do1 lars in The State of Michigan pays forty-nine percent of these costs from state tax revenues (the federal government pays the balance from federal tax revenues). The direct cost to the State of Michigan for Medicaid hospi tal c 1 aims was $545, i n 198 and $58, i n The average cost per claim was $277 i n 198 and $348 i n 1981, correspondi ng to average hospi tal izat ions of 8.9 and 1.2 days, respectively. Medicaid hospital claims resulting from traffic accidents represent a very small part of Medicaid hospital expenditures, approximately.32 percent. Medicaid also pays only a small part of the medical costs from traffic accident injuries. Michigan's legislature, particularly through the no-fault automobile insurance law, has determined that medical costs from traffic accidents will primarily be paid from private insurance (auto or health). The intent to have the public pay for medical costs of traffic accidents through private auto or health insurance seems to largely accomplished. Id. Disnibutia Stotrmt I I. Gnlroet or Gmnt NO. MTR TYF of R.porr ond Period Corered Final April 1, April 3, Sponsoring Aqency Cod. I 19. Soeunw Clu*f. (ef this ~ cl) 2D. karrity Clossif. (of this pqe) 21. No. of Poqes 3 22 Price iii
5 1. l NTRODUCT l ON This is the final report of a project entitled "Analysis of Traffic Injuries in Medicaid Data." The project was sponsored by the Michigan Office of Highway Safety Planning under project number MTR-81-6~. The aim of this project was to investigate the Medicaid Claims data to determine the number of Medicaid claims that resulted from traffic accidents, their resulting costs to the State of Michigan, and any specific information about them that might be useful in reducing the number and cost of such claims in the future. This project is a sequel to an earlier study (1) that estimated state costs resulting from traffic accidents. That earlier study estimated Medicaid costs from traffic accident injuries by extrapolating the proportion of medical costs paid by Medicaid to the estimated costs of traffic accident injuries. The present effort uses Medicaid records to determine the reported amount of these state costs. The University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute obtained computer tapes of Medicaid claims data for 198 and 1981 from the State of Michigan's Department of Social Services. There are a total of fifteen categories of Medicaid services, each with separate claims data (2). This report uses only the claims data from Inpatient General Hospital Services. While this is likely to be the major component of traffic accident injury claims, there would clearly be other sources, such as physician's services, and possibly skilled nursing home services. However, only the inpatient general hospital service claims data were available. These amount to approximately onethird of all Medicaid expenditures, although they amount to only about 17 percent of the number of claims. This report uses the Medicaid Inpatient General Hospital Services Claims data to estimate the costs to the State of Michigan from traffic accident injuries resulting in hospitalization costs paid by Medicaid. In addition, the information in the claims data was used to provide information about the types of injuries and associated costs and length of hospitalization. Other relevant information about the accident
6 victims, such as age, sex, and whether passenger car occupant, pedestrian, etc., are summarized.
7 2. DATA AND METHODS Medicaid claims data are kept separately for fifteen different types of provided medical services (2). The UMTRl was able to arrange to obtain and use the claims records for 198 for the Inpatient General Hospital Services claims data. Later the same data for 1981 were also provided. These would appear to be of primary importance in determining the medical costs arising from traffic accidents paid from Medicaid. However, these data would not include all the traffic accident medical costs. Indeed, except for Family Planning Services, one can imagine that all of the other classifications include some medical costs from traffic accident injuries. The other claims files are very voluminous, even compared to the approximately 15, plus claims in the hospital data, but probably involve smaller costs. Although attempts were made to arrange to use the data from Skilled Nursing Home Services and Intermediate Care Services, these data were unavai lab1 e. The l npat ient General Hospi tal Services represent about 16 percent of the number of claims but nearly one-third of all Medicaid expenditures, a total of $352,511,23 out of $1,71,68,997 in 198. The data utilized in this effort thus represent two years of Medicaid hospital claims data: the calendar years 198 and The data contain a variety of information. One variable of importance is the accident variable. This variable has five coding levels, corresponding to non-accidents, two types of non-traffic accidents, traffic accidents, and a certain type of referral. In addition to this variable to identify traffic accidents, there is a three-digit diagnosis variable that represents a categorization of a more detailed diagnosis code. This three-digi t diagnosis variable has a specific code (45) to identify traffic accidents. Finally, all cases use the ICD-9-CM classification scheme (International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification) for both the primary and secondary diagnoses. This is a standardized coding system for classifying diseases and injuries. I t includes a series of "E-Codes" (for External Cause) that identify accident victims and contain specific information about them.
8 For example, such a code might indicate that a person was the driver of a passenger car or a passenger on a motorcycle. Generally the external cause, if coded, would be the secondary diagnosis code. In selecting the subset of cases that represent traffic accident claims, the following criteria were used. A l l cases coded traffic accident on the accident variable were included. In addition, any cases coded "45" on the three-digit diagnosis code were included. Finally, cases with an "E-Code" in either the primary or secondary diagnosis code that indicated traffic accidents (I CD-9-CM E81-E829, E929) were included. This resulted in a total of 41 cases from the 198 data and a total of 298 cases from the 1981 data. Very few cases (only 2) were identified from the three-digit diagnosis code that were not included in the accident variable. However, a substantial number of additional cases were identified from the E-Codes (about 1 in 198 and about 4 in 1981). Only three cases had an E-Code as the primary diagnosis. The fact that there were substantial numbers of cases identified as traffic-related based on the E codes, which were not shown as trafficrelated on the accident code, indicates that the accident code is not always accurately filled out in hospital claims submissions. Thus there may be other Medicaid hospitalization cases which are related to traffic accidents which are not identifiable in the available data. Many of the traf f i c accident cases had two i nj ury d i agnoses and so did not contain the E-Code. In the total cases for two years only 16 of 699 cases had the E-Codes present. Thus, only about 23 percent of the injuries had the external cause coded. Consequently, any analysis of the information resulting from the E-Code information must be viewed with caution. It is likely that these represent a biased set of cases. There were substantially more non-traffic accident claims in the data than traffic accident cases. In 198 the non-traffic accident claims numbered 622, while in 1981 there were 479 claims resulting from non-traffic accidents.
9 3.1 TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Table 3.1 summarizes the total costs for Medicaid hospitalization claims resulting from traffic accidents for 198 and Note that two cost figures are presented. The larger, denoted "Facilities Cost," is the amount charged or billed by the hospital for the treatment provided. The smaller, denoted "Medicaid Cost," is the amount actually paid by Medicaid. Since there is a cost-containment ceiling on the amount of medical expenses that Medicaid will pay, hospitals are actually reimbursed for only a portion of their charges. In these data the Medicaid costs represent about three-fourths of the facilities costs. Of the amount allowed as a Medicaid cost, the State of Michigan's share is 49 percent, while the remainder is paid from federal (as opposed to state) tax revenues. TABLE 3.1 Michigan Medicaid Hospitalization Costs from Traffic Accidents, 198 and I tern Number of cases Facilities Cost Medicaid Cost Average per Claim cost to state Days hospitalized Total person-days Average per claim Average cost per claim Medicaid Faci 1 i ty $1,482,555 $ 1,111,727 $2,772 $544,746 3, $312 $ $1,49,391 $1,36,159 $3,477 $57,718 2, $349 $475 From the table it can be seen that the cost to the state of Michigan state tax revenues resulting from the hospitalization part of Medicaid claims due to traffic accident injuries has been somewhat over
10 half a million dollars per year. The total cost to Michigan taxpayers (in both federal and state taxes) has been sl ightly more than twice that: about 1.1 million dollars a year. Because of the cost containment programs limiting the amounts that Medicaid will pay, this amount has been slightly less than three-fourths of the total facilities costs. (The actual fractions were 74.9 percent in 198 and 73.5 percent in 1981.) It should also be noted that Medicaid general ly does not include claimants over 65 years of age. These persons are general ly el igible for Medicare (a health insurance program funded by federal tax revenues, primarily a part of Social Security). The number of claims dropped substantial ly in 1981 compared to 198, but the cost per claim increased, so that the total expenditure remained nearly the same. The average length of hospitalization increased by slightly over one day. The average cost per day hospitalized increased by about 14 percent, while the amount actually paid by Medi'caid increased by about 12 percent. The exact reasons for the dramatic drop in the number of Medicaid hospital claims resulting from traffic accidents are not known. The reduction is somewhat surprising, coming at a time when the general economic situation in Michigan was worsening. There appear to be at least three factors that may have contributed to the decrease in the number of Medicaid claims resulting from traffic accidents. First, there was a general decrease in the number of traffic accidents, and of injury accidents in particular, in Michigan from 198 to Table 3.2, abstracted from Michigan Traffic Accident Facts 1981 (3), presents the relevant information. As the data in Table 3.2 show, the number of police-reported accidents decreased by 3.7 percent from 198 to 1981, whi le the number of injury accidents decreased by 5.6 percent. There was a 1.4 percent reduction in the number of persons killed in traffic accidents, while there was a reduction of 5.9 percent in the number of persons injured. While these are important reductions, they do not seem large enough to explain the (25.7 percent) reduction in the number of Medicaid claims resulting from traffic accident injuries from 41 to 298.
11 TABLE 3.2 Mi chi gan Traffic Accidents, Accident Type % Change Personal Injury 96, , % Al! Accidents 3 14, , % Persons Killed 1,774 1, % Persons l njured 144, , % Total Killed or Injured 146, ,44 SOURCE: Michigan Traffic Accident Facts % Medicaid is the medical cost payer of last resort. Other sources of payment for medical expenses must be exhausted or be unavailable before a person qualifies for Medicaid. In particular these sources include personal hospitalization or accident insurance, automobile i nsurance, personal resources exceed i ng a cer ta i n amount, and other programs, such as Medicare for el igible persons over 65. The State of Michigan's no-fault auto insurance law is designed to provide insurance coverage for essentially all medical expenses for injuries sustained in traffic accidents. There is neither a time limit nor an amount limit on the payment of medical expenses. With few exceptions, persons injured in traffic accidents should have their medical expenses covered by the no-fault automobile insurance. The exceptions are persons operating motor vehicles illegally (e.g., stolen cars), or without the insurance coverage made mandatory by the no-fault law. Occasional other exceptions could occur, involving out-of-state cars, or pedestrians injured by hit-and-run or uninsured motorists, if the pedestrians did not own cars or were not members of a family with an insured car. For several years, persons have been able to renew vehicle registrations and purchase license plates by mail. Beginning in March, 1982, persons renewing registrations by mai 1 were requi red to include
12 certificates of insurance or their registrations were refused and returned. Prior to that time, insurance certificates were requested, but registrations were not actually refused without them. Prior to the period when the certificates of insurance were requested, motorists merely had to sign a statement certifying that they had the required insurance. These progressively more stringent checks on the required insurance may have resulted in increased compliance with the mandatory insurance provisions of no-fault and so reduced the eligibility of claimants for Medicaid. However, the compliance with no-fault among motorists registering vehicles by mail is estimated to be very high-- about 99 percent--so the possible contribution of this factor to the reduction in Medicaid claims is open to question. A factor that may be the most important source of the reduction is in the administration of the Medicaid program itself. According to Tom Mctusker of the Department of Social Services, a more detailed attempt to identify availability of other insurance, particularly auto insurance, was made in 1981 than in 198. In part this resulted from continuing pressure for cost containment in Medicaid programs. Some internal evidence from the claims data is available for this factor. Substantially fewer cases were identified from the E-Codes in 1981 that did not have the accident variable coded as traffic accident than were identified in 198. In the 198 data, such additional cases amounted to 25 percent of the total (an addi ti onal 12 cases), wh i 1 e in 1981, they represented less than 15 percent of the cases. The data in Table 3.2 may also be used to place the traffic injuries paid through Medicaid in perspective to the total number of such injuries in the state. In 198, there were 41 Medicaid hospital claims out of a total of 146,746 persons injured in traffic accidents statewide. This represents a rate of 2.7 Medicaid hospital claims per thousand traffic accident injuries. In 1981 a total of 298 Medicaid claims out of 138,44 persons injured represents a rate of 2.2 Medicaid claims per thousand traffic accident injuries. Of course the great majority of traffic accident injuries do not require hospitalization, but still it is apparent that only a very small proportion of hospitalized traffic injuries result in a Medicaid claim. Evidently the
13 legislature's intent to provide insurance coverage through no-fault or hospitalization insurance rather than Medicaid has largely been successful. It is of interest to note that the hospital claims resulting from traffic accidents represent a very tiny fraction of either the total number of Medicaid hospital claims or the total do1 lar amount of Medicaid hospital claims. For example, the 198 traffic injury claims in Medicaid represent only.26 percent of the number of hospital claims, and only.32 percent of the dollars spent on such claims. The average age of the claimants was very similar in the two years, 29.4 in 198 and 29. in Of more interest is the detailed age distribution of claimants in the two years. Table 3.3 provides information on the number, total cost, average cost, and average length of stay for several age groups, The age groups were defined to correspond to groups of particular interest. For example, the youngest group consists 'of those children subject to the child restraint law. Another group of interest is the persons aged 18 to 2, because of their relationship to the changes in the legal drinking age (from 21 to 18 in 1972 and back to 21 in 1979). Persons over age 65 would general 1 y be eligible for Medicare; consequently, Medicaid expenses for this group would only reflect charges not covered by Medicare that were in excess of what the individuals could pay. The agedistributions for 198 and 1981 seem rather similar. The child restraint law appears to apply to about five percent of the claims. I t is to be hoped that the increased use of child restraints in 1982 resul ti ng from the law wi 11 reduce the number and sever i ty of chi ld injuries. However, given the small number of such claims in the Medicaid data (19 and 12 in 198 and 1981, respectively), it is unlikely that much effect will be observed in the Medicaid claims. Only 16 out of the two-year total of 699 Medicaid traffic accident claims had the second diagnosis variable used for the E-code. Table 3.4 shows the data arranged by the last digit of the E-code which identifies the victim by type of vehicle, whether driver, passenger, pedestrian, etc. These data must be viewed with caution because of the possible biases in their selection. Table 3.4 shows the distribution of these
14 TABLE 3.3 Traffic Accident Injury Claims in Medicaid by Age Age Number % of Cases Total Cost ($ Average Cost ($ Average Length of Stay (Day) ,638 15, ,238 19, ,588 38, ,42 131, ,282 13, ,39635, ,95 81, ,53 116, ,448 6, , cases among the several categories, the average cost per claim for each, the average length of hospitalization, and the average age. Of the 23 percent of the total cases which contain this information that indicates the type of accident, only 3 percent involve occupants of passenger cars. An additional nine percent are motorcyclists. Bicyclists account for 25 percent of the cases, while pedestrians represent 16 percent. The unspec i f i ed category conta i ns 19 percent of these cases. I f only the 13 cases with identification of the type of accident are considered, passenger car occupants account for 37 percent of the cases, motorcyclists for 1 1 percent, pedestrians for 2 percent, and bicyclists for 31 percent of the claims. Presumably bicyclists and pedestrians were struck by a motor vehicle, probably a passenger car.
15 TABLE 3.4 Medicaid Claims by Type of Involvement Number Average of Medicaid Cost ($) Average Length of Stay ($) Average Age (Year) Dr iver Passenger Motorcycle Pedestrian , Bicycle Other (Unknown) Tota The distribution of Medicaid claims among passengers, motorcyclists, pedestrians, and bicyclists differs from the corresponding distribution in all Michigan traffic accidents. Passenger cars hitting other passenger cars, trucks, buses, fixed objects, etc., account for 79 percent of the vehicles in traffic accidents. Motorcycles represent only 1.34 percent of the vehicles in accidents. Pedestrians were struck by vehicles in 1.47 percent of the accidents, whi le pedalcycl ists (primarily bicycl ists) were struck by vehicles in 1.42 percent of the accidents (3). Compar i ng these figures to the figures from the Medicaid claims, occupants of passenger cars are underrepresented in the Medicaid claims data reporting type of accident, while pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists are over-represented, This over-representation is to be expected for a number of reasons. Occupants of passenger cars are much better protected in a crash than are motorcyclists, bicyclists, or pedestrians. in fact, while many
16 TABLE 3.5 Medicaid Claims by Traffic Unit Traffic Unit Number Percent of Total Percent Identified Auto Dr i ver Passenger % 16.3% 37% Motorcycle % 11% Pedestrian % 2% Bicycle 4 25.% 31% Other (E Unknown) % Total 16 reported passenger car accidents do not result in personal injury, almost all reported motorcycle, bicycle, and pedestrian accidents do. Owners of passenger cars are required by Michigan's no-fault law to carry insurance, which would pay for any medical expenses resulting from injury in traffic accidents (except for rare exceptions discussed previously), but pedestrians and bicyclists have no insurance requirements. Their injuries would have to be covered by the motorist's insurance, leading to the possibility that they would not be covered if the motorist was not identified. Motorcyclists have been exempted from certain provisions of the no fault insurance law (5). Whi le many motorcycl i sts do carry insurance, not all do. This combination of less complete coverage, coupled with higher chance of serious injury in a crash, has resulted in motorcyclists appearing in the Medicaid claims data in a higher proportion than they appear in the accident data. In fact, the proportion of E-code Medicaid claims resulting from motorcycle accidents is 8.2 times the proportion of accidents involving motorcycles.
17 Table 3.6 INJURY DIAGNOSES IN MEDICAID TRAFFIC CLAIMS D i agnos i s 1 Mean Mean / Number Facility Medicaid cost ($1 Cost ($1 Mean Length of Stay (Days) Fractures Vault of Sku1 1 Base of Skull Face Vertebral Col Ribs, Sternum, Larnyx,Trachea Pelvis Arm Humerus Radius and ulna Mi sc Leg Neck of femur F emu r Tibia and Fibula Misc. Other and Mu1 ti pl e Dislocations Sprain of knee 1 spra i n of back I 22 Other Musculosketal Concussion I l ntracranial injury Internal Injury thoracic I nternal l njury Lacera t i on of eye Other laceration of head and neck Other laceration Other superficial injury I o Traumatic complications
18 The entries in Table 3.6 give the most common primary injury diagnoses in the Medicaid hospital claims data. In addition to the name of the diagnosis, the combined number of cases for the two years 198 and 1981 combined is given as are the mean faci 1 i ty cost, the mean cost paid by Medicaid, and the mean length of hospitalization. There were many more individual diagnoses, generally with only one or two cases. The ones detai led in Table 3.6 represent about 8 percent of the cases. Injuries to the head and face are the most common, representing nearly a quarter of the injuries (23.6 percent). lnjur ies to the leg represent an additional 17 percent of the cases, while arm injuries are 8.4 percent. Fractures are the most frequent type of hospitalized injury, represented by 239 cases or 34 percent of all injuries. Sprains, strains, and dislocations occurred in 43 cases or six percent. There were 68 concussions, nearly 1 percent of the total, and 5 other intracranial injuries (seven percent). Lacerations, particularly of the head, face, and neck, were frequent, accounting for 56 cases or eight percent. There were 8 cases or sl i ght 1 y over 1 1 percent reported as other superficial injuries. Despite calling these superficial, they averaged 3.4 days of hospi tal i zat i on. In the 198 claims data, 59 percent of the claimants were male, while in the 1981 data, only 47 percent of the claimants were listed male. This is an unusually large change. No specific explanation is avai lable. However, if there was a more extensive effort in 1981 to identify persons for whom medical expenses could be covered by other insurance sources, this might explain the difference. Males might be more 1 ikely to be the registered owners of automobi les and so to have no-fault insurance. Likewise, males might be more likely to have hospitalization and/or medical insurance through employers. Consequently, the reduction in the proportion of male claimants seems consistent with an increased effort to find other sources for medical expenses. In 19828percent of the claimants were black. In 1981 this proportion was 27 percent, virtually identical. Table 3.7 presents the average Medicaid claim, average length of stay, and average age of the as
19 claimants by race and sex, for the two years, 198 and The average cost follows the average length of stay. However, both sh~w different patterns in the two years. In 198, white males have the highest average claim, and black males the lowest, while in 1981, black males had the highest average claim. The overall average claim cost increased in 1981, but the patterns also changed considerably. In 198, the average age of the claimants was quite similar in the four groups, except for black males, who were about seven years younger than the others. In 1981, white males and black females averaged about 23 years old, while white females were somewhat older, about 29 years of age, and again, the black males were considerably younger, only about 17 years of age. The average cost per day is also presented. White females consistently averaged lower cost per day than any other group. In fact, they showed a small decrease from 198 to 1981, quite different from the other patterns. White males and black females showed slight increases in cost per day, while black males showed a large increase ($148) in cost per day. The Medicaid claims were expressed as a fraction of the population for each county in Michigan as well as for the state as a whole. Table 3.8 presents these rates by county. The numbers reported in the table are rates of Medicaid traffic accident claims per ten thousand population (198 census). Statewide therewere.43medicaidclaims resulting from traffic accidents in 198 and.32 such claims per ten thousand population in Most of the county rates are based on only one or two claims. Only for the largest few counties are the numbers large enough to be of any significance. Very small deviations from the state-wide average are found, except for Oakland County, which appears to have a somewhat lower than average rate. Average costs and average length of stay were also calculated by county, but are not presented. Neither showed any significant differences. Overall, there appear to be few if any significant differences by county. The only differences that are present in the data seem to be explained by the differences in the county populations.
20 TABLE 3.7 Average Cost, Stay, Age, and Cost Per Day by Race and Sex Sex Wh i te 1 98 Black White 1981 Black > Med i ca id Cost ($) Ma 1 es Fema 1 es Length of Stay (Days) Males Females O Age (Years) Ma 1 es Femal es Cost Per Day ($) Ma1 es Fema 1 es NON-TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN MEDICAID CLAIMS While the main interest and focus of the effort is on the traffic accidents and their costs, it is of some importance to mention the additional hospital claims for non-traffic accidental injuries. Table 3.9 summarizes the total number of hospital claims, facility cost, medicaid cost, and days hospital ized for the two years 198 and For the two years combined, there were a total of 1,911 non-traffic accidental injuries resulting in payment of Medicaid The total hospital claims. amount paid as a result of these accidental injuries was $17,382,759. Of this, the State of Michigan paid 49 percent, or an average of $4,258,776 per year. Thi s average of four and a quarter million dollars per year for Medicaid payment for hospitalized
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FACT SHEETS This page left intentionally blank GENERAL FACTS The driver, the roadway, and the motor vehicle contribute in some measure to every crash. A preponderance of evidence, however, points to driver
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