The effects of organization on convective and large-scale interactions using cloud resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale dynamics

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1 The effects of organization on convective and large-scale interactions using cloud resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale dynamics Emily M. Riley, Brian Mapes, Stefan Tulich, Zhiming Kuang University of Miami, RSMAS-MPO 15 th CMMAP Team Meeting 7 August 2013

2 Forms of convective organization 20N 20N 10N 10N Eq 6E 30E One Coherent Clump Eq 6E 30E Sca$ered Blobs Are these differences important? Tobin et al. (2012)

3 Approach: SAM + PLSD (Kuang 8) More or less organized convection via altering domain geometry, or adding shear Double x-dimension, halve y-dimension x

4 CSRM: System for Atmospheric The set up: z (km) (a) TOGA-COARE w-pr ofile 20 Modeling (SAM) (b) Radiation profile Fixed SST: 29.5 C Periodic boundary conditions 102 km horizontal grid spacing vertical levels (top = 32 km) 5 5 Fixed V sfc in flux formula, but stability 0 0 dependent exchange coefficients Constant -2 m/s K/day background forcing on CSRM Prescribed radiation profile Prescribed background vertical velocity profile z (km) 20

5 SAM with parameterized large-scale dynamics λ= 5,000 km (arbitrary) With feedbacks CSRM x x = x 0 CSRM domain avg. T v T v (density) Pure Scale Separation advection of T and q by LS w Large Scale 2D Linear Gravity Wave Equation LS w T v ' ( z) = T ( z,t) " T ( v CRM v ref z) Kuang (8)

6 128 km Snapshots of 15 min avg. rainfall 128 km 128 km

7 128 km

8 128 km x 128 km +Shear 128 km

9 128 km

10 512 km x 32 km 32 km 512 km

11 128 km x 128 km Time (days) T v ref sfc prec (mm/day)!! T v ' z ( ) = T v CRM z,t ( ) " T v ref z ( )

12 128 km x 128 km 128 km x 128 km + shear Time (days) sfc prec (mm/day) P (hp) 10 ms - 1 Wind speed

13 128 km x 128 km 128 km x 128 km + shear sfc prec (mm/day) 256 km x 64 km Time (days)

14 128 km x 128 km 128 km x 128 km + shear sfc prec (mm/day) 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km Time (days)

15 128 km x 128 km 128 km x 128 km + shear sfc prec (mm/day) 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km 1024 km x 16 km Time (days)

16 128 km x 128 km 128 km x 128 km + shear sfc prec (mm/day) 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km 1024 km x 16 km 2048 km x 8 km Time (days)

17 128 km x 128 km 128 km x 128 km + shear sfc prec (mm/day) 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km 1024 km x 16 km 2048 km x 8 km 8192 km Time (days)

18 Domain Shape vs. Max Precip 120 (a) 20 (b) 100 max sfc prec (mm/day) wavespeed (m/s) shear x domain size (km) 128 shear Can we understand the 512 km x 32 km optimum?

19 Can changes in precipitation oscillation magnitude be explained by sensitivity differences to a prescribed perturbation? e.g. Tulich and Mapes (2010), Jones and Randall (2012)

20 Prescribe large-scale vertical velocity CSRM domain avg. T v T v (density) advection of T and q by LS w Large Scale 2D Linear Gravity Wave Equation LS w Specify w & T ref, q ref CSRM given same largescale forcing across domain setups! "T $ "t = w "T ref 128 & % "z "q "t = w # "q ref 128 % $ "z # g c p ' ) ( + $ "T ' conv & ) #* % "t ( T & # ( + "q & conv % ( )* ' $ "t ' q

21 Specified large-scale w profile ms -1 Vertical velocity chirp 1-hr positive burst balanced by subsidence spread evenly over remaining time of 10-day period 7 ensemble members

22 Ensemble avg. precipitation response to specified large-scale vertical velocity Precip (mm/day) km x 128 km Shear 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km 1024 km x 16 km 2048 km x 8 km 8192 km 10 0 Systematic decrease in prec max beyond 256 km x 64 km domain

23 Pressure (hpa) Ensemble avg. convective heating anomalies to specified large-scale vertical velocity (a) 128 km x 128 km 3D K day (b) Shear Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) hpa) (c) 256 km x 64 km (e) 1024 km x 16 km (g) 8192 km -15 (d) 512 km x 32 km (f) 2048 km x 8 km - Each contour 6 K day -1 - Thick line is zero contour - Integral over 10-day period is zero

24 Pressure (hpa) Ensemble avg. convective heating anomalies to specified large-scale vertical velocity (a) 128 km x 128 km 3D K day (b) Shear Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) hpa) (c) 256 km x 64 km (e) 1024 km x 16 km (g) 8192 km -15 (d) 512 km x 32 km (f) 2048 km x 8 km - Each contour 6 K day -1 - Thick line is zero contour - Integral over 10-day period is zero

25 Pressure (hpa) Ensemble avg. convective heating anomalies to specified large-scale vertical velocity (a) 128 km x 128 km 3D K day (b) Shear Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) hpa) (c) 256 km x 64 km (e) 1024 km x 16 km (g) 8192 km -15 (d) 512 km x 32 km (f) 2048 km x 8 km - Each contour 6 K day -1 - Thick line is zero contour - Integral over 10-day period is zero

26 Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) hpa) Ensemble avg. convective heating anomalies to specified large-scale vertical velocity (a) 128 km x 128 km 3D K day (c) 256 km x 64 km (e) 1024 km x 16 km (g) 8192 km (b) Shear (d) 512 km x 32 km (f) 2048 km x 8 km Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) Pressure (hpa) (c) 256 km x 64 km Q1 weakens and localizes from 3D -> 2D 3D more inhibited (e) 1024 km x 16 km - Each contour 6 K day -1 - Thick line is zero contour - Integral over 10-day period -6-4 is zero Pressure (hpa) 2D (g) 8192 km

27 Domain Shape vs. Max Precip 120 (a) 20 (b) 100 max sfc prec (mm/day) wavespeed (m/s) shear x domain size (km) 128 shear Can we understand the 512 km x 32 km optimum?

28 Summary & Conclusions Ø Shear simulations results: Ø Convective squall lines Ø Shear and non-shear runs similar in 3D isotropic domain Ø Change in domain shape results: Ø Infinite line of convective blobs spaced increasingly farther apart Ø 512 km x 32 km optimum (i.e. largest post-coupled precip.) Ø Mean state sensitivity experiments: Ø Coupled system indifferent to changes in background mean state Ø Prescribed large-scale w experiments: Ø 3D more inhibited than 2D more intense, both local & non-local convective heating response Ø Organization via shear and degree of 2D-ness give different convective oscillations for the coupled system.

29 Ways Forward... Ø SST forcing experiments like Wang and Sobel (2011) Ø Larger 3D domains Ø Different shear profiles Ø Apply multiple k s in LS wave equation Ø Superparameterization full physics of large scale

30

31 ! Results robust to: 2,500 & 10,000 vs. 5,000 km large-scale λ 2- and 4-day vs. 10-day damping Different combos of u-, T-, and q-damping Large-scale w advecting T(z, t) & q(z, t) Fixed " 2 vs. $ "( stability #w)' dependent $ exchange coefficients & in ) = the *k 2 #g sfc. T ' ' v "z 2 "t & flux formulas % ( % T v ref ( ) *+ " 2 ( #w ) "z 2 Fixed rad profile from uncoupled interactive "T rad $ run vs. fixed idealized rad profile "t = w "T ref & # g ' % "z c ) p ( + $ "T ' conv & ) #* % "t ( T Background vertical velocity (TOGA w- "q profile) advecting instantaneous domainaveraged "t = T w # "q & ref # % ( + "q & conv % ( )* & $ q "zvs. ' T$ ref "t & q' q ref!

32 Mean State Sensitivity 3D 2D Shear 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km 1024 km x 16 km 2048 km x 8km 8192 km Comparing the average over the last 50 days of a 100 day uncoupled run in indicated domain set-up to 128 km x 128 km uncoupled average. Longer, narrower domains drier, yet more unstable (in vertically averaged sense) Perhaps stretched domains too dry to support convectively coupled waves.

33 Are changes in precipitation oscillation magnitude due to mean state differences vs. form of $ ( ) " 2 " #w & "z 2 "t T v ' % convection? ' $ ) = *k 2 #g& ( % T v ' T v ref128 ' ( ) *+ " 2 #w "z 2 ( z) = T ( z,t) " T ( v CRM v ref 128 z) ( )!! CSRM domain avg. T v T v (density) advection of T and q by LS w Large Scale 2D Linear Gravity Wave Equation LS w

34 Sfc prec (mm/day) 128 km x 128 km uncoupled sounding in each domain setup Own T, q ref profile 128 km x 128 km T, q ref profile 256 km x 64 km 512 km x 32 km 1024 km x 16 km 2048 km x 8km Domains got moister sounding than they would otherwise compute Indifferent to specified T v ref profile km Time (days) Coupled system adjusts to foreign snd.

35 EO top (km) A B C D F E Units: 10 3 horizontal pixels per bin EO base (km) Riley et al Glimpse form-function relationship with CloudSat Organized vs. Unorganized (Wide vs. Narrow) Width > km ~20 km (Cloudsat deep echo objects) rain rain rain rain rain rain Width km

36 Mean lat, lon of wide (red) and narrow (blue) EOs Column water vapor (MIMIC) shows summertime low-level flow

37 Representative summer 6-9 cloudsat radar echo objects <km in horizontal width

38 now with >km ones in red OrganizaKon (wide cbs) prevails in environment that generally favors suppressed conveckon

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