Next Stage Resource Guide. These Shining Lives. World Premiere! By Melanie Marnich Directed by David Schweizer April 24 June 1, 2008.

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1 Next Stage Resource Guide These Shining Lives World Premiere! By Melanie Marnich Directed by David Schweizer April 24 June 1, 2008 The Head Theater

2 Contents In case of emergency (during performances only) Box Office Phone Box Office Fax Administration The CenterStage Program is published by: CENTERSTAGE Associates 700 North Calvert Street Baltimore, Maryland Editor Shannon M. Davis Setting the Stage 3 Contributors Shannon M. Davis, Kathryn Van Winkle, Gavin Witt Cast/Setting 4 The Innocence of Radium 5 Radium Craze 6 Cure to Kiler 8 Chicago s Gilded Age 10 One Helluva Job 12 Glossary 14 Bibliography 16 The Next Stage Resource Guide is sponsored by Art Direction/Design/Illustration Bill Geenen Design Jason Gembicki, Brittany Harper Advertising Sales Adrienne Gieszl: CENTERSTAGE operates under an agreement between LORT and Actors Equity Association, the union of professional actors and stage managers in the United States. The Director and Choreographer are members of the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, Inc., an independent national labor union. The scenic, costume, lighting, and sound designers in LORT theaters are represented by United Scenic Artists, Local USA-829 of the IATSE. These Shining LIves World Premiere! By Melanie Marnich David Schweizer Director Alexander Dodge Scenic Designer Anita Yavich Costume Designer Justin Townsend Lighting Designer Rob Milburn & Michael Bodeen Music Composition & Sound Design Deena Burke Speech Consultant Gavin Witt Production Dramaturg Janet Foster Casting Director Joshua Luxenberg Assistant Director Please turn off or silence all electronic devices. This project is supported in part by an award from: With additional support from: New play development at CENTERSTAGE is made possible in part by: Nathan and Suzanne Cohen Foundation Fund for Commissioning and Developing New Plays The Dramatists Guild Fund, Inc. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation These Shining Lives was commissioned and developed by Northlight Theatre, Skokie, IL. It was also developed at the The History Theatre, St. Paul, MN, as part of their Raw Stages Festival; at TheatreWorks, Palo Alto, CA, as part of their New Works Festival; and at Baltimore s CENTERSTAGE as part of their First Look Festival. Facts from the book Deadly Glow by Ross Mullner were used with permission of the author. CenterStage is a constituent of Theatre Communications Group (TCG), the national organization for the nonprofit professional theater, and is a member of the League of Resident Theatres (LORT), the national collective bargaining organization of professional regional theaters. CENTERSTAGE is funded by an operating grant from the Maryland State Arts Council, an agency dedicated to cultivating a vibrant cultural community where the arts thrive. Season Media Sponsor

3 Set ting the STage These Shining Lives by Shannon M. Davis, New Media Manager Characters: Catherine Donohue: young wife and mother, employed at Radium Dial Tom Donohue: Catherine s husband, a welder Charlotte, Frances, and Pearl: Catherine s co-workers and friends Mr. Reed: Radium Dial manager This isn t a fairy tale, though it starts like one. It s not a tragedy, though it ends like one. As Catherine Donohue narrates her own story, it becomes obvious that what s most important is neither its beginning nor apparent ending, but what happens in between and after. She and her friends Charlotte, Pearl, and Frances have loving families and good jobs painting glow-in-the-dark watch faces at Chicago s Radium Dial Company, and the 1920s seem full of promise. One-of-a-kind work in a one-of-a-kind place in a one-of-a-kind time, as Catherine tells it. The war s over, the economy s booming, and Catherine bobs her hair and treats the girls to banana splits to celebrate their new prosperity. She and her husband Tom have two healthy kids, and even though he tells her that they don t need a second income, she knows that eight cents per watch will add up. That s the fairy tale part. The tragedy comes when Catherine and her colleagues begin falling ill, one by one, with horrible, mystifying ailments. When the cause of their symptoms finally becomes clear, Catherine and Tom must choose how to deal with the inevitable reality. How do you want me to say it? a sympathetic doctor asks, struggling to deliver their prognosis. Like we can take it, says one of the women. Catherine and her friends must find a way to deal with their own inconvenient truth: that the job they love has betrayed them. These Shining Lives, a world premiere play by Melanie Marnich, takes as a lens the strength and determination of women considered expendable in their day, exploring their true story and its continued resonance. Catherine and her friends are dying, it s true; but theirs is a story of survival in its most transcendent sense, as they refuse to allow the company that stole their health to kill their spirits or endanger the lives of those who come after them. When one of the women voices their fears, that Nothing will fix this, Catherine agrees, No. But someone has to let people know it s broken. So, knowing their fates are sealed, they launch an uphill battle to hold companies responsible for employee safety. It s a story that s far too timely and has a lasting legacy as recent events continue to prove, locally and beyond. We re pleased to welcome back Melanie Marnich, who joined us last winter for a First Look workshop of These Shining Lives. Continuing the legacy of Silkwood, Norma Rae, North Country, The China Syndrome, and our own recent production of Naomi Wallace s Things of Dry Hours, These Shining Lives takes its place in the canon of works that honor the survivors, the fighters against circumstances beyond their control. Her shimmering dramatization draws its strength from the women whose story not fairy tale, and not tragedy it tells. Next Stage: These Shining Lives

4 The Cast (in alphabetical order) Cheryl Lynn Bowers* Pearl Kate Gleason* Frances Jonathan C. Kaplan* Tom Donohue Erik Lochtefeld* Mr. Reed Kelly McAndrew* Charlotte Emma Joan Roberts* Catherine Donohue Mike Schleifer* Stage Manager If one woman were to tell the truth about her life, The world would split open. Muriel Rukeyser Jason Linett* Assistant Stage Manager *Member of Actors Equity Association And we have come, Despite ourselves, to no True notion of our proper work, But wander in the dazzling dark Amid the drifting snow Dreaming of some Lost evening when Our grandmothers, if grand Mothers we had, stood at the edge Of womanhood on a country bridge And gazed at a still pond And knew no pain. The Setting Girls on the Bridge Derek Mahone Chicago & Ottawa, Illinois. 1920s 1930s There will be no intermission. This play was in part inspired by Deadly Glow: The Radium Dial Worker Tragedy by Ross Mullner, PhD, MPH (1999), the source of many images in the following pages. Next Stage: These Shining Lives

5 The Innocence of Radium Lavinia Greenlaw With a head full of Swiss clockmakers she took a job at a New Jersey factory painting luminous numbers, copying the style believed to be found in the candlelit backrooms of snowbound alpine villages. Holding each clockface to the light, she would catch a glimpse of the chemist as he measured and checked. He was old enough, had a kind face and a foreign name she never dared to pronounce: Sochocky. Power Adrienne Rich Living in the earth-deposits of our history Today a backhoe divulged out of a crumbling flank of earth one bottle amber perfect a hundred-year-old cure for fever or melancholy a tonic for living on this earth in the winters of this climate. Today I was reading about Marie Curie: she must have known she suffered from radiation sickness her body bombarded for years by the element she had purified It seems she denied to the end the source of the cataracts on her eyes the cracked and suppurating skin of her finger-ends till she could no longer hold a test-tube or a pencil She died a famous woman denying her wounds denying her wounds came from the same source as her power. For a joke she painted her teeth and nails, jumped out on the other girls walking home. In bed that night she laughed out loud and stroked herself with ten green fingertips. Unable to sleep, the chemist traced each number on the face he had stolen from the factory floor. He liked the curve of her eights; the way she raised the wet brush to her lips and, with a delicate purse of her mouth, smoothed the bristle to a perfect tip. Over the years he watched her grow dull. The doctors gave up, removed half her jaw, and blamed syphilis when her thighbone snapped as she struggled up a flight of steps. Diagnosing infidelity, the chemist pronounced the innocence of radium, a kind of radiance that could not be held by the body of a woman, only caught between her teeth. He was proud of his paint and made public speeches on how it could be used by artists to convey the quality of moonlight. Sochocky displayed these shining landscapes on his walls; his faith sustained alone in a room full of warm skies that broke up the dark and drained his blood of its colour. Special thanks goes to Robert Vietrogoski and the Special Collections and Archives at the UMDNJ University Libraries for their research assistance. Dramaturgy by Gavin Witt, Resident Dramaturg and Kathryn Van Winkle, Dramaturgy Fellow. His dangerous bones could not keep their secret. Laid out for X-ray, before any button was pressed, they exposed the plate and pictured themselves as a ghost, not a skeleton, a photograph he was unable to stop being developed and fixed. Next Stage: These Shining Lives

6 Radium Craze Next Stage: These Shining Lives

7 Next Stage: These Shining Lives

8 Cure to ZKiller Fen-Phen The diet that every woman has been waiting for! Diets, exercise and, if you re lucky, a good metabolism. All carbs, low carbs, no carbs. Eat in the zone. So many fads, still so much fat to fight. Fen-phen promises wonderful anti-obesity powers, fueled by twin powers of fenfluramine and phentermine. Some protest, Flim-flam; we say, Phooey! even if thousands of women taking it complain of heart disease and pulmonary hypertension as a result. Even if the FDA has insisted it be taken off the market. Don t we all deserve to be as thin as we can be? Next Stage: These Shining Lives

9 Modern Miracles continued from cover knows that Home brings a sense of security to a man; and to every woman, her home means a setting for gracious living. Industry and science have collaborated to create the modern marvel of asbestos cement siding, which has made building safer and more durable. This material is not only attractive and easy to handle, but strong, tough, and fireproof as well. Once upon a time, asbestos items were worth their weight in gold, fit for emperors and kings. No longer reserved for the high and the mighty, this miracle stone adorns the average home in sheetrock, vinyl floor tiles, ceiling tiles, plasters and stuccos, roofing tars and shingles, acoustical ceilings, putty and caulk. Industrially, its uses include brake pads and shoes, stage curtains, fire blankets, and other forms of fireproofing. Unconfirmed reports reached this correspondent of instances of asbestosis a scarring of the lung tissue so severe that the lungs can no longer function; mesothelioma a cancer of the lungs and the chest cavity, usually fatal within 12 months of diagnosis; and cancers of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and larynx. A spokesman reassured us, however, (cont pg 85) In the best tradition of medical geniuses from Hippocrates to Galen, bleeding can be used to treat any number of conditions, using lancing or leeches to remove a controlled amount of excess or bad blood, usually a symptom of dyscrasia, an imbalance among the four humours long known to regulate our being and behavior. All diseases and disabilities result from an excess or deficit of one of these four: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. Bleeding can help restore the balance. Unfortunately, not everyone survives bleeding; as with purges, emetics, or enemas other proven means of regulating imbalanced humours the treatment can be fatal. George Washington, for instance, did not survive being bled for a sore throat. PHLEBOTOMY The World s Best Cure-a ll Remedy Life can be hectic, and rest hard to find. Mrs. Amelia Pike, Jr. Sleeprite Relaxing Pills Sleep-rite, using the drug Thalidomide, provides a safe, sure sedative to help you recover that deep, calming, soothing sleep you need. It is also recommended for the prevention of epilepsy seizures and morning sickness. Name a life-threatening disease, and odds are that a clinical researcher somewhere is considering Thalidomide. Even now, doctors at Celgene Corp are testing Thalidomide as a treatment for such diseases as leukemias, cancers, rheumatologic conditions, psoriasis, Bechet s syndrome, and lupus. Drawbacks and side effects can inlcude severe nerve damage, as well as serious birth defects and malformation when taken by pregnant women. Look for these tasty, healthy treats in your grocer s aisle: Coca-Cola. For that extra little Pep in your Step, Caffeine and Cocaine can t be beat. Margarine. Our patented hydrogenated trans-fats help keep your hips slim and your wallet bulging. Saccharine. Enjoy your favorite beverages guilt-free, with this tried and trusty sweetener. BGH. The newest advance in genetically engineered foodstuffs, from the lab to your table. B u i l d a B r a n d N e w Y o u! Our extensive line of anabolic steroids will help make you more manly, making muscles like magic. Send for a free sample and catalog. P.O.Box 253, Belvue, KS D o n t l e t p e s t s b u g y o u. Typhus. Malaria. Lice. Even biting midges. Keep these global horrors at bay with the wonders of DDT, the pesticide that helped Win the War. Discounts for bulk orders and registered farmers. Next Stage: These Shining Lives

10 Mayor Big Bill Thompson is running the city. So are Johnny Torrio and Al Capone. Once upon a time there really was a Big Bill Thompson. And he was the tumultuous mayor of the City of Chicago in wild and incredible years. In the beginning he was a fearless hero, by chance a champion of reform, and he strutted and shouted his way into the city s heart. Bill Thompson s the man for me! sang some, and others answered, He has the carcass of a rhinoceros and the brain of a baboon! Some cried, Big Bill s heart is as big as all outdoors! And other replied, The people have grown tired of this blubbering hippopotamus! When this romance started, Chicago was a city of opportunity, no place for the weak, the docile or the squeamish. Its workers slaughtered more pork and beef, loaded more grain, made more soap, tanned more hides, poured more steel, built more plows and railroad cards than any other place in the land. Most of these workers had not journeyed to the city to create a political utopia. They came to make homes and to make money. They created what was needed for the vast commerce that grew up in the wilderness they had opened: houses and bridges and streets, factories, hotels, and skyscrapers. Herman Kogan and Lloyd Wendt, Big Bill of Chicago I am going to St. Petersburg, Florida, tomorrow. Let the worthy citizens of Chicago get their liquor the best they can. I m sick of the job it s a thankless one and full of grief. I ve been spending the best years of my life as a public benefactor. Al Capone, 1927 Chicago s Jazz is playing on Halsted. The White Sox are playing at Comiskey. When we cracked down on the first note that night at the Lincoln Gardens I knew that things would go well for me. When Papa Joe began to blow that horn of his it felt right like old times. The first number went over so well that we had to take an encore. Finally at the very last chorus Joe and Bill Johnson would do a sort of musical act. Joe would make his horn sound like a baby crying, and Bill Johnson would interrupt on that high note as though to say, Don t cry, little baby. Finally this musical horseplay broke up in a wild squabble between nurse and child, and the number would bring down the house with laughter and applause. Louis Satchmo Armstrong, Satchmo Chicago, the jazz baby the reeking, cinder-ridden, joyous Baptist stronghold; Chicago, the chewing gum center of the world, the bleating, slant-headed rendezvous of half-witted newspapers, sociopaths and pants makers in the name of the Seven Holy and Imperishable Arts, Chicago salutes you. Ben Hecht and Max Bodenheim, Chicago Literary Times, 1923 Next Stage: These Shining Lives 10

11 1920s and 1930s in the Windy City gilded age And this amazing, dashing guy made his living welding steel in the sky. Hundreds of feet in the air. Come and show me another city with lifted head singing so proud to be alive and coarse and strong and cunning. Flinging magnetic curses amid the toil of piling job on job, here is a tall bold slugger set vivid against the little soft cities Carl Sandburg, Chicago The most civilized city in America? Chicago, of course! San Francisco? Dead, done, extinct, kaput, murdered by the New Thought and an act of God. Pittsburgh, Baltimore, St. Louis, New Orleans, Washington, Cleveland, Detroit, Newark? Mon Doo! My word, my word! But in Chicago, there is a mysterious something. In Chicago, a spirit broods upon the face of the water. The sharp winds from the lake seem to be a perpetual antidote to that Puritan mugginess of soul, which wars with civilization in all American cities. In Chicago, originality still appears to be put above conformity. The idea out there is not to do what others do, but to do something they can t do. The artist is either an anarchist, or he is not worth a hoot. The only architectural novelty that America has every achieved, the skyscraper, was born in Chicago. In New York its first daring has been flattened out; it is now merely imitative and hideous. I give you Chicago. It is not London-and-Harvard. It is not Paris-and-buttermilk. It is American in every chitling and sparerib, and it is alive from snout to tail. H. L. Mencken, Chicago Tribune, 1917 A million clocks stopped in the city. / Watches closed their eyes. / Their hands folded. Their faces slept. / The earth stopped turning. / And time stood still for just a minute, just for us. Lucy was walking slowly over toward Michigan Avenue. She had never loved the city so much; the city which gave one the freedom to spend one s youth as one pleased, to have one s secret, to choose one s master and serve him in one s own way. Yesterday s rain had left a bitter, springlike smell in the air; the vehemence that beat against her in the street and hummed above her had something a little wistful in it tonight, like a plaintive handorgan tune. All the lovely things in the shop window, the furs and jewels, roses and orchids, seemed to belong to her as she passed them. [T]hey were hers to live among. Edna Ferber, So Big Next Stage: These Shining Lives 11

12 One Helluva Job Women at Work in the 1920s and 1930s 1920: American women win the vote. Half the clerical workers in the United States, but only five percent of doctors, are women. 1927: 8.5 million working women in the workforce, or one in five wage earners. Almost a third are domestics. The average weekly wage: for men, $29.35; for women, $ : A woman earns 58 cents for every dollar earned by a man. One in four women works outside the home; one in four working women is married. 1933: Three hundred thousand women belong to labor unions. 1936: In a national poll, 82% of Americans opine that a woman should not work if her husband is employed. I thought to myself, ten years ago a girl like me couldn t even vote let alone make this kind of money. Couldn t do better than her father and just as good as her husband.but now? I never dreamed I d have a now of my own that looked this good. You left home this morning looking terrific. You came home, sparkling like an angel. Work doesn t usually do that for a person, you know? That s one helluva job you got yourself. It is a warm summer morning; the employment department of the store is crowded with girls for in a department store every woman is a girl girls of every type and of every age: girls who are under seventeen, with and without working certificates; girls who are graduates of the high schools or grammar schools of Manhattan and its environs; girls who have never held any kind of job; girls who have tried out every occupation offered in the want-ad columns of the city newspapers; girls who are brides seeking employment so that their wages may help out until husbands are given promotions or to provide a reserve fund for the time when the first baby will arrive; girls who are mothers with children whom they wish to keep in school well dressed and with money in their pockets to pay for school entertainments, to buy the school annual, or to meet the expenses of the graduation outfit; girls who are grandmothers left without means of support; girls who are widows by grass or by sod whose husbands have died without leaving insurance or from whom alimony cannot be collected; but girls, all girls who if they are successful applicants will become Miss Moore, Miss Smith, Miss Kuntz, Miss Levinsky, Miss Du Costa, or Miss O Brien in the departments to which they will be assigned. Frances R. Donovan, The Saleslady, Next Stage: These Shining Lives 12

13 And a company opened in the Marshall Field s Annex. The Radium Dial Company. It hired women like us. It was the job of the century, the job of our dreams. Never before in civilization have such numbers of young girls been suddenly released from the protection of the home and permitted to walk unattended upon city streets and to work under alien roofs; for the first time they are being prized more for their labor power than for their innocence, their tender beauty, their ephemeral gaiety. Society cares more for the products they manufacture than for their immemorial ability to reaffirm the charm of existence. Jane Addams, The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets, Making good money doesn t come cheap. Work that pays well costs you something. Some girls think that as long as mother takes in washing, keeps ten or twelve boarders or takes in sewing she isn t working. But I say that either one of the three is as hard work as women can do. So if they do this at home and don t get any wages for it, why would it not be all right for them to go to a factory and receive pay for what they do? A worker in a rayon mill, You said, back on my first day on the job, to be careful, because work can cost you something. Remember saying that?... Not this job. It s not like work at all. Within the space of a single day, one can ride in a taxi driven by a woman, directed by traffic signals designed by a woman, to the office of a woman engineer, there to look out of the window and observe a woman steeplejack at her trade, or contemplate the task of the woman blacksmith whose forge was passed on the way.ten years ago a woman in Wall Street was an oddity; today women in Wall Street are almost as frequently met as on Fifth Avenue. Miriam Simons Leuck, Women in Odd and Unusual Fields of Work, the guys at Tom s work ask him why he can t control his wife. One of them said this is what he gets for having a wife that worked. The wife is inescapably the builder of the home and the guardian of its children. These duties are necessarily neglected by working wives. Probably now laws could or should be enacted to bar married women from jobs. But business and industry, by agreement, could establish rules under which married women would be employed in exceptional cases, the first of which would be that the husband was not able to provide a living for the family. We want no dictators telling women what to do; but the country cannot ignore the deterioration of the home, due to the pressure of married women in industry. William B. Arnold, San Antonio Weekly Dispatch, Next Stage: These Shining Lives 13

14 Glossary Anemia: Dr. Dalitsch diagnoses Pearl with anemia, a common disorder of the blood. Anemia is the result of a deficiency of hemoglobin, the molecule inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues of the body. Pearl s anemia is possibly aplastic: her bone marrow does not produce enough cells to replenish her red blood cells. Untreated aplastic anemia generally leads to death within six months; if treated with medicine to suppress the immune system, or with a bone marrow transplant, the patient may survive the disease. Arteriosclerosis: Many, Dr. Rowntree among others, believed that radium could effectively treat arteriosclerosis, a hardening of the arteries caused by plaques forming inside the arteries, and leading to ruptures, aneurysms, and heart attacks. Louise Brooks: An American actress, dancer, and icon ( ) best known for her silent films of the 1920s (including Beggars of Life, A Girl in Every Port, and Pandora s Box), and her distinctive bob cut: the elegant, razor-sharp hairstyle she had worn since childhood inspired women the world over to bob their hair. Style magazines often name it among the 10 most influential hairstyles of all time. Eddie Cantor: The Apostle of Pep ( ) was an American comedian, actor, singer, songwriter, and radio and television personality. Charlotte sings the chorus to the song Since Ma Is Playing Mah Jong, which nowadays reads as a strangely vicious and racist take on the mah-jongg craze of the Twenties, but was very popular in its time. Cantor sang it in the Florenz Ziegfield show Kid Boots, which opened in New York in 1923 and toured the country in Charlie Chaplin: One of the most influential personalities in the early cinema, British comic-actor and mime Chaplin ( ) acted in, wrote, directed, produced, and even scored the music for many of his own films. He is best known for his character The Little Tramp, a vagrant with aristocratic dignity recognizable by his derby, oversized trousers and shoes, bamboo cane, and toothbrush mustache. Chesterfield: One of the most popular cigarette brands of the early 20 th Century, but its sales have declined since. The brand s iconic advertisements ( They Satisfy ) no longer saturate the American market. Collier s: An American weekly published between 1888 and Launched as a magazine of fiction, fact, sensation, wit, humor, news, Collier s was known as a proponent of social reform for its pioneering investigative journalism, and was also popular for its cartoons and serialized novels. Comiskey: The historic ballpark was the home of the Chicago White Sox from 1910 until 1990 (it was demolished in 1991). Douglas Fairbanks: The King of Hollywood ( ) acted in, wrote, directed, and produced many films, but was best known for his roles as dashing, athletic adventure heroes in such costume dramas as The Three Musketeers, Robin Hood, The Mark of Zorro, and The Iron Mask. Flatfoot: American slang term for a police officer, especially one who walks a regular beat. Gout: Many, including Dr. Rowntree, believed that among its miraculous properties, radium could effectively treat gout, a disease usually related to a diet rich in protein and caused by the build-up of uric acid crystals in joint and tendons, leading to great pain, swelling, and immobility. Lumbago: Radium was touted as a miracle cure for lumbago, a general (period) term for back pain. Mah-jongg: This four-player game of tiles and strategy originated in China and created a sensation when it was imported to the U.S. in the 1920s. Americans often played mah-jongg dressed in Chinese costume. Several popular songs of the era reference the game, most notably Eddie Cantor s Since Ma Is Playing Mah Jong. Monte Carlo: On the banks of Lake Michigan, the four women imagine they re sunbathing at Monte Carlo, one of Europe s leading resorts. Notorious for gambling, glamour, and sightings of celebrities, Monte Carlo is located in Monaco, a tiny nation (and the world s most densely populated) bordered by France and the Mediterranean Sea. Next Stage: These Shining Lives 14

15 Neuralgia: Dr. Rowntree hypes radium as a treatment for neuralgia, a chronic painful nerve disorder. Ottawa, Illinois: A city in north-central Illinois and the seat of LaSalle County, about 80 miles away from Chicago. Its nicknames include: Radium City, The Friendly City, The Town of Two Rivers (specifically the Illinois and the Fox), and The Town of Stovepipe Hats. The first of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates took place here in Parcheesi: An American adaptation, first patented in 1867, of a game from India that has been around since 500 B.C., played with dice and pawns and a board. The game Sorry!, introduced in 1934, is in turn based on Parcheesi. Pharyngitis: Can radium cure pharyngitis (an inflammation of the pharynx, or what we might call a sore throat)? Dr. Rowntree thinks so. Real McCoy: This idiom, with obscure and controversial origins, is used throughout much of the English-speaking world to mean the real thing, the genuine article. Sarcoma: Charlotte has developed a sarcoma, throughout her arm, through radium exposure: a cancer of connective or supportive tissue. Sciatica: A set of symptoms caused by compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve or one of its five nerve roots. Pain may be felt in the lower back, buttock, leg, or foot; and there may be numbness, muscular weakness, and difficulty in moving or controlling the leg. While sciatica has many different causes, Dr. Rowntree claims radium as a miracle cure for it in any instance. Vasomotor disturbances: Circulatory disorders, or trouble with the proper functioning of blood vessels. What might Dr. Rowntree prescribe for this, one wonders? Mae West: An American actress, playwright, and screenwriter ( ), famous (and notorious) for years before she performed in her first film in West battled censorship throughout her career, and was known for her quick wit and double entendres ( When I m good, I m very good. When I m bad, I m better; A hard man is good to find; Is that a gun in your pocket or are you just happy to see me? ). Wrigley s gum: The William Wrigley Jr. Company was founded in 1891 selling such products as soap and baking powder. A year later, Mr. Wrigley Jr. introduced Wrigley s chewing gum, which became its most popular, and trademark, item. The corporate headquarters is a landmark on Chicago s Magnificent Mile, and Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs, was renamed after Mr. Wrigley Jr. in In the 1920s, Wrigley s gum came in three flavors: Spearmint, Doublemint, and Juicy Fruit. Rudolph Valentino: Sometimes called the Latin Lover, this Italian actor and dancer ( ) was an international heartthrob and one of the best-known stars of the silent film era. His title role in The Sheik transformed the image of sheik in the Western mind to a sensual, brooding man, and created an entirely new model of male sex symbol. The Valentino craze of the 20s popularized slicked-back hair, gaucho pants, and a suave, seductive manner, although some questioned his masculinity, preferring Douglas Fairbanks All-American image. Next Stage: These Shining Lives 15

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