1 TRIAL LAWYERS AND THE BIBLICAL BASIS FOR WHAT WE DO Thomas J. Methvin, Managing Shareholder Beasley, Allen, Crow, Methvin, Portis & Miles, P.C. Montgomery, Alabama The laws we follow today have a rich history in the Bible. In fact, Biblical laws are the basis of our entire modern day civil justice system. These Biblical laws emphasize justice, the rights of the poor, and even environmental protection. These are righteous causes. Today, trial lawyers are an integral part of the civil justice system which has its roots in the Bible. TRIAL LAWYERS WORK IN A JUSTICE SYSTEM BASED ON THE BIBLE In the Bible, there are many laws which society is to live by. These laws include prohibitions against specific wrongs and remedies for these wrongs. Many of these same rules dealing with wrongs and remedies are in use today. At the very least, they form the basis of our modern tort system. Trial lawyers are working in the modern day justice system which is based on the Bible. In fact, we are an important part of this system. God s laws dealing with specific wrongs and remedies were given to Moses in the Old Testament. The laws dealt with such things as negligence, strict liability, compensatory damages, and even punitive damages. Yes, even punitive damages are Biblical, since they have their roots in the Bible! The most obvious correlation between Biblical laws and our civil laws today is found in the Ten Commandments. The Eighth Commandment states thou shalt not
2 steal. The Ninth Commandment states thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor. Ex. 20: Today, we have criminal laws against stealing and lying. Both stealing and lying can also result in liability in our civil justice system in the form of fraud. There are numerous other correlations between the laws given in the Bible and the laws which form our modern day civil justice system. These Biblical laws and their relationship to our modern civil justice system are best described by Edmund Fudge, J.A., J.D., in his excellent paper The Law of Moses and Modern Tort Law Copyright In this paper, Fudge discusses God s law as given to Moses and how it relates to our modern civil justice system. Fudge explains below: that, The Law of Moses anticipated particular negligent acts or omissions that resulted in civil liability. Four specified circumstances involved: * Digging a pit but failing to cover it (Ex. 21:33-34); * Allowing animals to trespass on to the property of another and do harm (Ex. 22:5); * Kindling a fire but negligently allowing it to get out of control and harm a neighbor s property (Ex. 22:6); and * Building a flat roof on which people foreseeably would spend time, but failing to construct protective parapets to prevent their falling off the sides (Deut. 22:8). Edmond Fudge,The Law of Moses and Modern Tort Law, (2006) Today, just as in the time of Moses, these acts can also result in civil liability. Many of these acts are common in our modern day civil justice system and are taught in all law schools. The similarity between the Bible s law and our current civil laws is obvious.
3 Fudge correctly noted that there were various degrees of negligence and liability under the law of Moses. He writes: Degrees of negligence. An act that foreseeably might cause injury resulted in greater liability than a similar act where no injury was foreseeable. Likewise, one who had notice of a dangerous condition but made no attempt to correct it could be held liable for what we would call gross negligence. These distinctions are illustrated in laws pertaining to a goring ox, as stated in Exodus 21: When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be clear. But if the ox has been accustomed to gore in the past, and its owner has been warned but has not kept it in, and it kills a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned, and its owner shall be put to death. If a ransom [money damages in lieu of execution] is laid on him, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatever is laid upon him. Fudge, supra, at page 7. In the Biblical justice system, as in our justice system today, different degrees of negligence require different degrees of liability. Today as in Biblical times, forseeability is a key element to liability. Not surprisingly, these two systems are strikingly similar. Fudge has also recognized that the bold concept of strict liability can be found in the Law of Moses. He explains: STRICT LIABILITY The Law of Moses also included the concept of strict liability. If a man borrowed a neighbor s chattel and it was hurt or destroyed while in the borrower s custody and control, the borrower was required to make full restitution (Ex. 22:14). Liability here does not require either negligence or evil intent. Nor is this a matter of res ipsa loquitur, for even an intervening cause does not exculpate the person held strictly liable. Fudge, supra, at page 7. This is the basis for our modern day concept of strict liability. Today, as in Biblical times, strict liability can give rise to a tort.
4 DAMAGES As in our legal system today, the person who caused harm, injury or death to the person or property of another, whether intentionally or negligently, faced a considerable range of possible damages under the Law of Moses. Fudge, supra, at page 7. Monetary damages Monetary damages under the Mosaic code were compensatory, punitive and sometimes both. Compensatory damages could include general damages (restitution) or special damages (medical expenses; lost wages). Punitive or exemplary damages ranged from a statutory 20% for most torts to % of the value lost in cases of conversion. Two causes of action provided for open-ended punitive damages, which were determined by the plaintiff s demand and the judgment of the court. Fudge, supra, at page 7 Compensatory (general damages). General damages were most common and were usually measured on the basis of actual restitution of the chattel that had been lost or destroyed. (This rule did not hold in the case of gross negligence ) [W]hen a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed over, or lets his beast loose and it feeds in another man s field, he shall make restitution from the beast in his own field and in his own vineyard (Ex. 22:5). Fudge, supra, at page 7. When fire breaks out and catches in thorns so that the stacked grain or the standing grain or the field is consumed, he that kindled the fire shall make full restitution (Ex. 22:6). When a man leaves a pit open or when a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or an ass falls into it, the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money to its owner, and the dead beast shall be his (Ex. 21:33-34). Fudge, supra, at page 8. Compensatory (special damages). If two men fought physically and one man injured the other, the injured man had a civil cause of action even though the one who caused the injury was not criminally liable. In such a case, the defendant was to pay the injured man s medical expenses until he recovered fully. He also was to reimburse the plaintiff for all his lost wages. See (Ex. 21:18-19). Fudge, supra, at page 8.
5 In reviewing these passages, a learned reader will notice that the modern day concept of compensatory damages is very similar to the law in the Bible as given to Moses. In both time periods, different types of conduct subjected wrongdoers to different amounts of compensatory damages. These damages ranged from simple restitution to payment for lost wages and medical bills. Yes - payment for lost wages and medical bills which are so common in our modern day civil justice system actually have their roots in the Bible. Punitive damages (standard 20%). We have previously seen that the Law of Moses sometimes blended our categories of tort, crime and breach of contract. In cases involving injury to person or property, the general rule of damages for situations not otherwise covered seems to have been restitution of actual value plus punitive damages of 20%. If the plaintiff had no relative to collect the judgment, the award went to the priest instead..numbers 5:58. Fudge, supra, at page 8. Punitive damages (statutory prescriptions). The Law of Moses also prescribed statutory punitive damages for actions arising out of intentional conversion of chattels.. In the case of animals, damages varied with the type of chattel lost. If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and kills it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. He shall make restitution.... If the stolen beast is found alive in his possession, whether it is an ox or an ass or a sheep, he shall pay double (Ex. 22:1-4). If a thief stole property from someone s dwelling, the civil penalty was restitution of the stolen item s value, doubled (Ex. 22:7). Breaches of trust not otherwise covered carried a statutory penalty of twice the actual restitution, whether it is for ox, for ass, for sheep, for clothing, or for any kind of lost thing (Ex. 22:9). Fudge, supra, at page 8. Punitive damages (open-ended). At least two circumstances allowed for open-ended damages with no statutory ceiling. The first was an action for wrongful death involving gross
6 negligence. The second was personal injury to a pregnant woman that resulted in a miscarriage. In the case of wrongful death resulting from gross negligence, the Law of Moses provided for open-ended punitive damages as an alternative to capital punishment. If a man allowed an animal to roam loose which he knew to be dangerous and the animal killed a person, the beast was to be destroyed and its owner executed (Ex. 21:29). Capital punishment could be avoided, however -- and surely it actually was, most of the time -- if the defendant paid monetary damages to the survivor(s) in an appropriate sum. The determination of appropriateness depended on the demand of the plaintiff and the finding of the court: If a ransom [for his life, in the form of punitive damages] is laid on him, the Law said, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatever is laid on him (Ex. 21:30). Fudge, supra, at page 9 The other case of open-ended punitive damages involved the situation in which two men fought physically and somehow injured a pregnant woman so that she suffered a miscarriage. This gave rise to a cause of action in favor of the woman s husband. The person who caused the death of the fetus was to be fined according as the woman s husband shall lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine (Ex. 21:22). Fudge, supra, at page 9. In today s world, there is much criticism of punitive damages. Most of the criticism comes from those who don t understand the public benefit of these damages or from the wrongdoers themselves. As we know, these damages are designed to protect the public and stop the wrongful conduct from happening again. Today, as in Biblical times, punitive damages are a very important part of the law. Professor Fudge s excellent paper shows how our modern day civil justice system relates to the justice system given to Moses by God. There are so many similarities that it is obvious that the system we use today had its beginnings in the Bible. Trial Lawyers are a very important part of a system that has its roots in the Bible. TRIAL LAWYERS FOCUS ON JUSTICE
7 Justice is the most important thing in our court system today. The Bible also emphasized justice in its court system. Trial lawyers are involved in seeking justice for their clients on a daily basis. This is a righteous cause. Several Biblical scriptures about justice are cited below. Amos 5:15 1 Hate evil, love good; maintain justice in the courts. Deuteronomy 16:19-20 Do not pervert justice or show partiality Follow justice and justice alone Psalms 11:7 For the LORD is righteous, he loves justice Isaiah 61:8 For I, the LORD, love justice Psalms 106:3 Blessed are they who maintain justice, who constantly do what is right. Amos 5:22-24 But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream! Proverbs 28:5 Evil men do not understand justice, but those who seek the Lord understand it fully. Micah 6:8 He has showed you, O man, what is good. And what does the LORD require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God. Matthew 23:23 Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites!. But you have neglected the more important matters of the law justice, mercy and faithfulness As can be seen from above, the Bible emphasizes justice in both the Old and New Testament. The Bible required that justice be maintained in the courts. It further states that the evil do not understand justice, but those who maintain justice are blessed. Even 1 Unless otherwise noted, all Bible verses are taken from the New International Version.
8 Jesus referred to the importance of justice as it relates to the law. Trial lawyers seek and help maintain justice on a daily basis and should continue to do so. TRIAL LAWYERS HELP THE POOR In many cases, trial lawyers represent the poor and downtrodden of society. Many times, we are the only ones in our society who will help them hold wrongdoers accountable. It is Biblical to hold these wrongdoers accountable for their wrongful acts to the poor and downtrodden. The Bible has much to say about helping the poor in court and in other ways. In fact, there are several thousand verses in the Bible dealing with the poor and God s response to injustice. Helping the poor in any way is a righteous cause. The Bible clearly illustrates Jesus teachings on the poor. First, let s see what Jesus said about the poor. Luke 6:20 Looking at his disciples, he said: Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God... Luke 4:18 The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. Matt. 25:35, 40 For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me. The King will reply, I tell you the truth, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did it for me. The poor were obviously very important to Jesus. He stated that they are blessed and that he came to preach the good news to them. He also stated that what you do to the poor is what you do to Him. The poor had a special place in his ministry.
9 The scripture is even more clear that the poor are not to be oppressed in our court system. They are to receive justice like everyone else. Trial lawyers help them seek justice when no one else will. The scriptures below are absolutely on point. Proverbs 22:22 Do not exploit the poor because they are poor and do not crush the needy in court Exodus 23:6 Do not deny justice to your poor people in their lawsuits. Proverbs 31:8 Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. Isaiah 3:13-15 (New Living Translation) The LORD takes his place in court. He is the great prosecuting attorney, presenting his case against his people! The leaders and the princes will be the first to feel the LORD's judgment. "You have ruined Israel, which is my vineyard. You have taken advantage of the poor, filling your barns with grain extorted from helpless people. How dare you grind my people into the dust like that!" demands the Lord, the LORD Almighty. Isaiah 11:3-5(The Living Bible) His [Jesus ] delight will be obedience to the Lord. He will not judge by appearance, false evidence, or hearsay, but will defend the poor and exploited. He will rule against the wicked who oppress them. Isaiah 1:17 [L]earn to do right! Seek justice, encourage the oppressed. Defend the cause of the fatherless, plead the case of the widow. Proverbs 29:7 The righteous care about justice for the poor, but the wicked have no such concern. Deuteronomy 24:14 Do not take advantage of a hired man who is poor and needy, whether he is a brother Israelite or an alien living in one of your towns. Proverbs 14:31 He who oppresses the poor shows contempt for their Maker, but whoever is kind to the needy honors God. Psalms 82:1-4 (New Living Translation) God presides over heaven s court; he pronounces judgment on the judges: How long will you shower special favors on the wicked? Give fair judgment to the poor and the orphan;
10 uphold the rights of the oppressed and the destitute. Rescue the poor and helpless; deliver them from the grasp of evil people. The rights of the poor in the court system are emphasized in the Bible over and over. It specifically states that the poor should not be exploited in court, nor should the needy be crushed. The Bible commands us not to deny justice to our poor people in their lawsuits. Scripture says that the Lord will act as a great prosecuting attorney to prosecute those who have crushed the poor, and that Jesus will defend the poor and the exploited. The rights of the poor are very important in the Bible. Trial lawyers work for the poor and downtrodden. Without trial lawyers, they would have nowhere else to turn to receive justice in the courts. Trial Lawyers speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves. Professor Susan Pace Hamil makes many excellent points in her article The Least of These. She describes our Biblical duties concerning the poor much better than I can. She explains: The Bible has a great deal to say about how individual people and their communities must treat the poor, powerless and needy among them. The book of Genesis (1:27, 4:9, 9:5-6), revealing that God created all people in His image, equates the unjust treatment of fellow human beings as a wrong committed against God Himself, for God s image may be seen in even the poorest and neediest people among us. In other words, to sin against the poor is to sin against God. Later Old Testament books expand the protections that must be provided for poor and powerless people. In addition to commanding that they be treated justly, which requires far more than courtroom justice, God also requires that safety nets be created to allow poor and powerless people a minimum opportunity to meet their basic needs and improve their lives. Certain rights to harvest from the land of others and secure ownership of their own land (which was the way to secure economic wellbeing in the ancient world) are among specific examples in the Bible but are not meant to be the only opportunities required, so that the poor and powerless can try to improve their lives.
11 The New Testament further emphasizes the importance of the Old Testament s requirements that poor and powerless people have these minimum protections. In the Gospels of Matthew (5:17, 7:12, 22:37-40), Mark (12:29, 40) and Luke (1:46-55, 3:11-14, 4:16-21, 6:31-36, 16:19-31, 20:47), Jesus declares that He has come to fulfill the Old Testament Scriptures, and His teachings show that the moral requirements of the Old Testament protecting poor and powerless people apply to all Christians. In addition to identifying the love of God and the love of neighbors (even those with no wealth or status) as the two greatest commandments, and announcing that He has come to preach the good news to the poor and release the oppressed, Jesus showed special compassion and concern for the poorest and neediest people of society throughout His earthly ministry. At the very least, Jesus calls for social structures that protect poor people from economic oppression and allow them a minimum opportunity to improve their lives. Susan Pace Hamil, The Least of These, pamphlet, (2002). Professor Hamil is exactly right. The poor deserve to be free of economic oppression. Trial lawyers help the poor get economic justice and help hold wrongdoers accountable that engage in economic oppression. Trial lawyers do this by representing them in the civil court system that has its roots in the Bible. TRIAL LAWYERS PROTECT THE ENVIORNMENT Another Biblical basis for what trial lawyers do is in the area of environmental protection. Yes, environmental protection is also discussed in the Bible. This is also a righteous cause and deserves more attention. God created the earth and put man on it. Man is expected to take care of His creation. Some scriptures on this point are as follows: Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Genesis 2:15 The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it
12 Psalms 24:1 The earth is the LORD's, and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it; Matthew 5:35 or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. As can be seen from above, the environmental protection that some trial lawyers are involved in has roots in the Bible. The Bible tells us to take care of the earth that God created. The earth belongs to God and it is His footstool. When big polluters damage the environment, they are damaging what God made for man to enjoy. Trial lawyers are involved in a civil justice system that helps protect the environment by holding polluters accountable. This too is a righteous cause and has its roots in the Bible. CONCLUSION As can be seen from above, our modern day civil justice is based upon the Bible. The Bible emphasizes justice, the rights of the poor, and environmental protection. Trial lawyers are involved in all of these. Trial lawyers are an integral part of a civil justice system which has its roots in the Bible.
The Biblical Justice Challenge INSTRUCTIONS In your small group, use your Bible to find answers to the following questions. This is a competition that involves prizes, and you will be judged on both how
Verses About The Oppressed, Justice, Freedom & Hope The Oppressed Luke 4:18 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty
Less sson 10 Our Comm mmunity Up to this point we have studied the biblical foundations of Christian stewardship and their application to what we are and have. I hope you have already begun to make these
Psalm 128: The Worshiper s Blessings Blessed are all who fear the Lord, who walk in His ways. You will eat the fruit of your labor, blessings and prosperity will be yours. Your wife will be like a fruitful
Jesus and the Counsellor in John s Gospel In Jesus farewell speech, recorded in John s Gospel (chapters 13-17) Jesus introduces the disciples to one he calls the Counsellor. This Counsellor (the name itself
Is the Law the first 5 books of the Old Testament or all of the Old Testament? The Law is the entire Old Testament. This is especially true to Jesus and to Paul whom argued the application of law and grace
The Spiritual Basis for a Response to Human Trafficking Trafficking in Persons Taskforce May 2012 Educational Objectives At the conclusion of this program, participants should be able to: Compile Scripture
GUESS WHO CAME TO DINNER? (John 12:1-8) Adapted from: www.sermonseeds.org/master%20index.htm For more downloadable teachings see: www.altogetherlovely.org (FREE TEACHINGS) Scripture taken from the HOLY
1 Unit Lessons 1 Think About God When You Pray 2 Come to God the Right Way 3 Listen to God When You Pray 18 W h e n Yo u P r a y LESSON 1 Think About God When You Pray Do you ever wonder why some people
Scripture and Justice Timeline Activity Description: This activity illustrates how Scripture provides a foundation for our concern for those who are poor and vulnerable. Preparation: Before your presentation,
Eternal Life Merited Through Perfect Obedience To God s Commands? Matthew 19:16-21, Mark 10:17-21. Luke 10:25-28, 18:18-23, Romans 2:6-7 1 and 7:10 reveal eternal life can be earned as a totally deserved
Easter Everyday - Week 4 Day 1 - God Is Greater 1 John 3:19-24 (NLV) 19 This is how we know we are Christians. It will give our heart comfort for sure when we stand before Him. 20 Our heart may say that
JUDGMENT DAY And the Books Were Opened 1 And the Books Were Opened Hebrews 9:27 INTRODUCTION: A. Have you thought of the reality of the judgment day? 1. Judgment day is a real day! 2. Judgment day is a
50 scripture verses on worry 1. Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own. Matt 6:34 NIV 2. I can do all this through him who gives
Bible study 1 Isaiah was a prophet, a messenger from God, who lived 740 years before Jesus was born. Read Mark 1:1-8 1. In verse 2, what does Isaiah say will happen before the Lord comes? 2. Who is the
Lesson 2, page 1 HE DWELT AMONG US THE GOSPEL OF JOHN LESSON 2 Chapter 1:19-51 The Beginning of Jesus Public Ministry Very little is recorded about Jesus childhood in the scriptures. We are told, the Child
How Does Jesus Save? The Significance of The Blood of Christ 2 Introduction Jesus Saves... true, but how? He will save His people from their sins. (Mt 1:21) Are we saved... Because of our parents/ancestors?
GCSE Religious Studies Topic 9: Religion, poverty and wealth (revision) Topic 9: Religion, poverty and wealth (revision) What you need to know Topic Learning outcomes Key words Textbook 9.1 Christian beliefs
Easter 2 B Who Is Your Defense Attorney? 1 John 2:1-2 The text for this sermon, the theme of which is, Who Is Your Defense Attorney?, is 1 John 2:1-2 My little children, I am writing these things to you
Graceful Christianity: The Law, Legalism, and Love Matthew 22:34-40 A Sermon Preached by Ernest Thompson June 1, 2014 First Presbyterian Church Wilmington, NC Last Sunday we started a new sermon series
First 10: Understanding the Tithe Under Grace I. Introduction a. My goal in teaching about tithing is to provide you with understanding & Insight into this area. b. To best utilize this outline, you can
BIBLICAL EVANGELISM I. Inadequate Views of Evangelism A. The proclamation of a redemption they have already been given - Denies need for personal conversion B. Presence with hurting needy people C. Meeting
The Doctrine of Restitution Introduction Today's church has little if any understanding of the doctrine of restitution; the word may even be foreign to most of you. And yet, the doctrine of restitution
NEW BELIEVERS STUDY TABLE OF CONTENTS BIBLE STUDY 1: SALVATION 1 BIBLE STUDY 2: FAITH AND ASSURANCE 4 BIBLE STUDY 3: POWER OF THE HOLY SPIRIT 7 BIBLE STUDY 4: TRIALS 10 BIBLE STUDY 1: SALVATION SCRIPTURE
A Woman like Dorcas 5 Bible studies on Christian Service WORKSHEETS Study 1. The story of Dorcas - Acts 9:36-42 Study 2. Doing good : What does it look like today? Study 3. Doing good : What s the Standard?
Devotion NT298 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Paul s First Missionary Journey THEME: God has a calling on the lives of every one of His children! SCRIPTURE: Acts 12:25 13:52 Dear Parents
The Story of God Year 2 OLD TESTAMENT Unit 1 The Story Begins Unit Focus: God s story through the ages begins with an expression of His power as He created all that is. Creation turned away and in this
International Bible Lessons Commentary Hebrews 1:1-14 New American Standard Bible International Bible Lessons Sunday, December 7, 2014 L.G. Parkhurst, Jr. The International Bible Lesson (Uniform Sunday
International Bible Lessons Commentary Hebrews 1:1-14 English Standard Version International Bible Lessons Sunday, December 7, 2014 L.G. Parkhurst, Jr. The International Bible Lesson (Uniform Sunday School
Bible Studies REFUGEES Written by Marike Blok Presented to the organizations working together in the Relief Fund Refugees: 1 Introduction Worldwide there are more than 60 million refugees today. Many of
Bible Knowledge QUIZ Answers Answers in Bold (Requires Personal Interview) 1. Worship only occurs when one is playing an instrument, singing, clapping, or raising the hands. 2. When I worship the Lord,
"Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE, Copyright 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation Used by permission." (www.lockman.org) How To Develop
WHAT DOES THE BIBLE SAY ABOUT DIVORCE AND RE-MARRIAGE? Man Is A Sinner The subject of divorce and re-marriage must begin with this one basic scriptural truth: man is sinful. Romans 3:10-12 As it is written,
Ten Days of Prayer before Pentecost The Story of Pentecost After Jesus rose from the dead, he was seen by many people and he proved that he was alive! He stayed with his followers for 40 days and talked
70 Bible Ethics LESSON 5 God Gives You Standards for Living Imagine that you are considering buying a bicycle. In the shop you see a beautiful bicycle, just the kind you have always wanted. Of course you
This guide is to help you facilitate discussion with your Small Group. Use it as a resource to lead your group in discovering and owning the truths of God s Word. There may be questions you do not want
Three Lessons Learned from Generous Giving s Stewardship Study Notes Project This paper was originally presented to the leadership of Generous Giving to summarize three lessons that were learned from the
Chapter 4 Crimes (Review) On a separate sheet of paper, write down the answer to the following Q s; if you do not know the answer, write down the Q. 1. What is a crime? 2. There are elements of a crime.
Discover The God Who Believes In You I AM LOVED The most basic fact of the Bible is that there is a God. He made everything that is, including you, and loves you with an everlasting love. God has loved
1 Modeling Generosity Monday, Day 1 - God s Provision for All Bible Reading: Deuteronomy 10:12-22 He defends the cause of the fatherless and the widow, and loves the foreigner residing among you, giving
STANDARD A: WHO IS JESUS AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO FOLLOW HIM? Introduction Lesson 3: What Is the Kingdom of God? Jesus and His disciples traveled about in the country where they lived. As they traveled
The Last Sunday after Trinity 1 st Lesson Joel 2:23-32 A reading from the Book of Joel: 23 Be glad, O children of Zion, and rejoice in the LORD your God, for he has given the early rain for your vindication;
Devotion NT226 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Rejection at Nazareth THEME: We need to come to Jesus with hearts of wonder and worship. SCRIPTURE: Mark 6:1-6 Dear Parents Welcome to
Five Major Offerings Leviticus 1:1-2 INTRODUCTION: The five major offerings must first be introduced: Identity of the Five Offerings: The Levitical sacrificial system had five separate and distinct offerings
Introduction STANDARD B: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE IN CHRIST? Lesson 7: How Do We Stay Close to Jesus? Several times, Jesus gave His followers instructions about how to stay close to Him. Many people listened
Clean If Leprosy Covers the Whole Body Q: Pastor, in Leviticus chapter 13 of the Old Testament, it records about how the priest examines patient with a scab and leprosy, and concludes whether it is unclean.
THE SAME (Hebrews 13:8) Adapted from: www.sermonseeds.org/master%20index.htm For more downloadable teachings see: www.altogetherlovely.org (FREE TEACHINGS) Scripture taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL
Life Reference: Psalm 34:8-11 Focus Verse: "Charm is deceitful and beauty is passing, but a woman who fears the LORD, she shall be praised" (Proverbs 31:30, NKJV). What is the first thing that comes to
How Do Crimes and Torts Differ? A crime is an offense against society. It is a public wrong. A tort is a private or civil wrong. It is an offense against an individual. If someone commits a tort, the person
PREPARING AND LEADING SMALL GROUP BIBLE STUDIES SESSION ONE PREPARING A BIBLE STUDY Watch Video 1, The Unprepared Bible Study Leader You are or soon will become a Bible study leader for your small group.
JESUS HEALS A MAN WITH LEPROSY mark 1:40-45 A man with leprosy knelt down in front of Jesus. He begged Jesus to heal him. People with leprosy had to stay away from other people. They could not live with
Devotion NT248 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Good Samaritan THEME: Jesus wants us to show love and mercy towards others. SCRIPTURE: Luke 10:25-37 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible
The Rev. Kristin Krantz Proper 21C St. James, Mt. Airy Jeremiah 32:1-3A, 6-15 9/25/16 Psalm 91:1-6, 14-16 Outside worship in the Memorial Garden 1 Timothy 6:6-19 Luke 16:19-31 Gracious God, take our minds
Chapter 11 Torts in the Business Environment Tort a civil wrong not arising from a breach of contract. A breach of a legal duty that proximately causes harm or injury to another. Two notions serve as the
Devotion NT270 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Master Becomes a Servant THEME: Jesus wants us to serve one another. SCRIPTURE: John 13:1-17 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for
FIRST WEEK OF LENT T he tempter is clever: he does not direct us immediately toward evil but toward a false good, making us believe that power and things that satiate primary needs are what is most real.
(from 2008 preliminary minutes page 183) CATECHISM (adopted 2008) FOR CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CONFESSION OF FAITH 1. Who is God? God is the one living, active Creator of all that is, seen and unseen. 2.
JESUS HEALS A BLIND MAN Mark 8:22-26 Jesus and His disciples were traveling from one town to another. When they came to the next town, some people brought a blind man to Jesus. They begged Jesus to heal
Devotion NT226 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Rejection at Nazareth THEME: We need to come to Jesus with hearts of wonder and worship. SCRIPTURE: Mark 6:1-6 Dear Parents Welcome to
Biblical Study Outline Hesed Ministries 1282 Smallwood Drive West 125 Waldorf, MD 20603 Email: info hesed-ministries.org An Atmosphere Conducive For God s Presence To Come Introduction: Luke 8:10-12 And
The following are the Bible Verses and Prayers you will hear during the 45 minute Christian yoga video, available at www.theyogaprayer.com Prayer 1 The prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective.
God: As He Wants You to Know Him Study Guide Week 1 (Sections 1-2, Chapters 1-3) Day 1 Read Chapter 1 and respond to the following questions: Why and how does the pursuit of knowing God lead to: o A right
CHURCH What is the Role of the Church in Today s Society? 1 The Role of the Church in Today s Society Ephesians 3:10 INTRODUCTION: A. Familiar sayings in threes... 1. Ready... Set... Go 2. Hop... Skip...
Scripture Memory Sequence 2016-2017 Unit 1 (1 Week) Matthew 5:1-2 Now when Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, 2 and he began to teach them. Unit
HOW WERE PEOPLE SAVED BEFORE JESUS CAME? BOB BRYANT Cypress Valley Bible Church Marshall, Texas I. INTRODUCTION How were people saved before Jesus came? Some suggest that people were saved by sincerely
Less sson 2 Man God s Stewar ard Have you already studied Lesson 1? Congratulations! Now you realize, don t you, that God is your master and the owner of everything that you have. But you have probably
Devotion NT257 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Jesus Heals Blind Bartimaeus THEME: Jesus always has time for us! SCRIPTURE: Mark 10:46-52 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids!
LIVE GIVE 10 REFLECTIONS ON GENEROSITY Additional copies can be downloaded from our website at www.belrose.unitingchurch.org.au/live2give/ Belrose Uniting Church On the corner Forest Way and Morgan Road
A is simply 1-2 paragraphs of what you believe about God, faith, Jesus, salvation, etc. Every Confirmation student will pick out a Confirmation verse as a basis of their faith statement. You can use one
KG (CLASS LKG & UKG) GENESIS 1 Enoch walked with God. 5:24 2 Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord. 6:8 3 All the people on earth will be blessed through you. 12:3 4 Abram gave him a tenth of everything.
BIBLE STUDY (Ephesians 2:1-9) What s This Passage All About? Writing to the Christians in the city of Ephesus (modern-day Turkey), St. Paul calls on them to take a step back and examine their salvation
The Presentation of Christ in the Temple (Candlemas) Also called The Purification of the Virgin Or The Naming of Jesus Or The Presentation of the Lord Celebrated on 2 nd February Malachi 3.1 5 Psalm 24.[1
First Reading Joel 2:23-32 A Reading from the book of the prophet Joel. O children of Zion, be glad and rejoice in the Lord your God; for he has given the early rain for your vindication, he has poured
-32- Not everyone who says to me, Lord, Lord, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 7:21) -33- If you hold to my teaching, you are really
Death: A Theological Position Statement By Corey Keating Professor Al Glenn ST503 Systematic Theology III Theological Position Statement Fuller Theological Seminary, Phoenix Extension Spring Quarter 2002