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1 Solutions Business 2007 Forum Charleroi (Belgique), KM pour TPE / PME : Le capital humain des TPE / PME peutil remplacer le service documentaire? All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of the copyright owner FBC>s WEB April A propos de l animateur et premier intervenant Daniel C. Renson Brussels, Belgium. Ec. Sc., Applied Communications, IBM GI, SAP Academy, MIS Member of several networks of competencies and founderpartner of FBC>s (www.fbc e.com), a virtual organization founded in 1989 in Denver (CO., USA) : business mgmt, BPR/BPM, Organizational Culture / Change (ERP implementation), transformational organization, project and KM management (first international / multicultural KM implementation in 1975), intellectual capital evaluation investment management, conflict and crisis resolution, interim management, SAP competencies head search). Activities in Belgium, France, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Algeria, HK, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Turkey, USA, Vietnam, etc. Member of 3 EC (European Commission, DG Information) work groups: Knowledge & Mobility, CWE (Collaborative Working Environment), einclusion. Export expert attached to the CCIb (Brussels Chamber of Commerce), editor of KMiB on the EC KnowledgeBoard.com platform, editor of the FBC>s Business Magazine, board member of the IHECS Alumni Association and editor of its News Letter. Coordinator of 3 NGO (cohesion and einclusion). Member of the AME (Management Association). 25 April

2 L info? Non! La connaissance? Oui! «La» question!! + WEB2.0 Une contextualisation réduite A Londres, la Berkeley School a fait un «petit» calcul. Il semblerait que, au cours des 3 prochaines années, nous allons, sur le WEB2.0 et partout ailleurs dans le monde, produire plus d informations que tout ce qui a été généré au cours de notre histoire humaine (dé) passée! Alors que vaton faire? Le métier du stockage en profite. C est un métier d avenir mais Et le «data mining», la «BI» Cela ne suffira pas Sans faire de sciencefiction, elle nous a cependant déjà suggéré quelque chose de «rude» On va en parler pour expliquer le titre de mon intervention Le capital humain des TPE / PME peutil remplacer le service documentaire? «la» méchante contrainte The undecoded actuality is a mere preliminary instant before the inevitable surging reality severe sanction! DCR editorial FBC mag1 25 April Organisation de la journée 6 sessions Qui sommesnous? Objectifs / contenus? Interactivité des questions! C est très important : la gestion est multidisciplinaire et nous sommes dans un univers en expansion rapide. La collaboration planétaire se poursuit en se multipliant et les entreprises s y retrouvent tout naturellement absorbées de fait! Alors, tous les points de vue sontils intéressants! Commençons à échanger nos connaissances le plus tôt possible! 25 April

3 Organisation de la journée Avec le concours des experts (ordre alphabétique) : Mme Houria Grana (AIMS International) et Messieurs Jean Meleux (BBM International, France) AndréYves Portnoff (Futuribles International, France) JeanFrançois Raskin (IHECS et RTBF) Daniel C. Renson (FBC>s et WBM) 25 April Organisation de la journée Les experts rassemblés ce jour vous aideront à faire le point sur 5 aspects essentiels : Le capital humain des TPE / PME peutil remplacer le service documentaire? Il s agit de la «maîtrise» du capital humain dans la croissance pour l adaptabilité et l usage des «outils» avec Daniel C. Renson et AndréYves Portnoff, animateur Vos concurrents les plus dangereux ne sont pas ceux que vous connaissez mais ceux qui vont arriver d ailleurs! la dimension de ce même capital humain dans les relations numériques et l innovation avec AY Portnoff et D.C. Renson, animateur La gestion du changement pour la mise en place d une culture organisationnelle! «Le» point critique dans l évolution d une PME passe par le contrôle de sa croissance avec Jean Meleux et Dan C. Renson, animateur Acquisition et rétention des talents dans votre entreprise : une méthodologie éprouvée pour les TPE / PME avec Houria Grana et D.C. Renson, animateur Quels sont les nouveaux profils que nous préparent les hautes écoles, quelles sont les tendances pour évoluer dans le sens de la rencontre avec les nouveaux métiers avec JeanFrançois Raskin et Dan C. Renson, animateur + Débat: comment construire une stratégie de KM en TPE / PME La stratégie se valide par la disponibilité des ressources. Comment associer la transformation individuelle et entrepreneuriale dans la continuité!? 25 April

4 The undecoded actuality is a mere preliminary instant before the inevitable surging reality severe sanction! (Dan C. Renson) Solutions Business, Charleroi, le 19 avril 2007 L innovation! Cela paie beaucoup plus En quête de la meilleure route? Ou du meilleur organisateur? Un visionnaire,, peutêtre? Nous allons déchiffrer la chose! Innovation path 25 April et les autres Communication Integration Synchronization Possible? Individuals as Cost Center Individuals as Profit Center 25 April

5 ???? In the year 56 about half a century ago, knowledge became an adjective after the Peter Drucker s saying : knowledge worker? About 30 years after, did it come back as a fundamental parameter to some researchers and foreseeing / forerunners managers. To start with and say the least, they have contributed to some solid changes at the top parade of the new Fortune 500! During the preceding days we ve taken some hours to depict the business big picture emphasize the living vital part of the business explain the way they have to interact focus on what they are relying to move on etc An adjective and a fundamental parameter : knowledge attitude It s a dynamic attitude that doesn t wait! Now is it obvious without knowledgesupport no profitable longterm successes : the market positioning won t be defendable any more! Tom Davenport he did work with Michael Hammer too has said Knowledge is information combined with experience, context, interpretation, and reflection Remember his analysis framework containing the elements that have contributed to the New Economy emergence? Also what is characterizing a real New Economy? We ll see more in the coming pages as we need to add very precise complimentary notions for moving ahead! 25 April KM 001 Gestion des connaissances???????? KM is about the infinite : Unlimited subject that is approached as from all people points of view and concepts because we all chase after the ULTIMATE Knowledge (1) even though we are well aware than we won t be able to get it! But, as far as the business is concerned, that represents a fantastic challenge: something like the famous sky is the limit a promise in many cases! Let s make the strategy keeping with it for as long as possible (2) Another (good?) question : We want to manage «the» knowledge BUT what do we know about knowledge for managing it? (3) (1) or the final truth according some religions. Problem : it implies a concept of objectivity. (2) Dan C. Renson, FBC>s: knowledgebased strategy, 2000 (3) Peter Drucker again if you can t measure it you won t be able to manage it! 25 April

6 KM 002 YOU are what YOU know! (the individual is the measure of all «things» thanks to the use of his knowledge and as stated by the Greek philosophers, long time ago and without any PC! ) Remember also the famous : know, know what, know why, knowhow (to do, to be, to let know, to share ). We ll see more in the coming slides. Dan C. Renson, FBC>s: knowledgebased strategy, 2000 Fortune not only favors the brave, but the wellinformed (CNN) 25 April The dimensions and the potential of KM Knowledge = Power! Correct IF knowledge is accurate coherent meaningful wellorganized checked / controlled accessible continuously updated and managed and made available (widespread) to motivated people who are effectively sharing both ways! Daniel C. Renson, RAS Inc. See the knowledge repository That claim is also paradoxical : people are reluctant to let the others know about what are their competencies or the information they have got on their side. If knowledge = power why would you give it to your colleagues? On the other hand people seek knowledge to succeed in their job! If it is made both direction (balanced sharing) it could become a very profitable game for all parties (enterprise and its collaborators). Organizational communication culture has to be set up for supporting the process! Mister CKO (Chief Knowledge Officer), please come along 25 April

7 An original triple approach for a better understanding Some KM fundamentals : life (Anaxagore) and business (P. Drucker), the village culture and the corporations /guilds knowledge transfer. Intelligence and Knowledge : a set of nonrelated to business and IT definitions Knowledge leads to profit and ignorance to failure : some proof elements. Mc Kinsey 25 April KM is fundamental Next to that, the history of the corporations and guilds corporations and guilds has also showed the power of the mixture of the (explicit) paper documented knowledge with the (almost or full) secret apprenticeship : transmission of the implicit part via a direct exchange. Both of them were MAKING the whole knowledge! And it could be the same now But it doesn t come most of the time! That s the reason why up to now we did insist so much on that point : => communication and exchange! Crisis are also coming out of bad / unreliable communication and absence of relationship. Relationship means socialization. People are sharing «a» first concern and continue as from that first starting point (don t forget to maintain the process!). > Question : how to initiate and maintain that process? Knowledge is very delicate, complicate (various dimensions of different natures. Including culture) and that s the reason why KM fails most of the time 25 April

8 KM fails most of the time Real KM fails most of the time! Why? Real Knowledge is made of culturallybased tacit and explicit knowledge! Something like Environment and / or Environment with their OWN marks: the traditionally assimilated social guide lines people are «easily» dealing with VERSUS the professional reality S T MM PP SD O Environment Don t t forget: each relation with the environment is unique WEB2.0 The corporation is too often an artificial world. Its marks are also of the same nature. People don t assimilate them quick (or, worst, they refuse them) at the time they are far from the (ideal) balanced / fair reality they are expecting for planning their life 25 April KM fails most of the time (2) Considering that situation as (quickly) described in the preceding slides the people interest in the corporation is somewhat mitigated the organizational contributions are low and rather insignificant etc As a matter of consequence, companies are restricting their knowledge interest and concern in what is visible (1), immediately available, manageable, storable, communicable, (they did the same when they selected this kind of desperate issue the pyramids for organizing (?) the business). That is explaining the overemphasis of the explicit knowledge versus the village oral tradition and combined learning processes (explicit + implicit = systemic approach of all related knowledge and sources) of the trade corporations and guilds. These organizations did proceed with a sort of TKM already (Total KM)! (1) prevention 25 April

9 2nd approach Intelligence and Knowledge intelligence (*) (in tel jns) n. [[OFr < L intelligentia, perception, discernment < intelligens, prp. of intelligere : see INTELLECT]] 1 a) the ability to learn or understand from experience; ability to acquire and retain knowledge; mental ability b) the ability to respond quickly and successfully to a new situation; use of the faculty of reason in solving problems, directing conduct, etc. effectively c) Psychol. measured success in using these abilities to perform certain tasks d) generally, any degree of keenness of mind, cleverness, shrewdness, etc. 2 news or information 3 a) the gathering of secret information, as for military or police purposes b) the persons or agency employed at this. 4 an intelligent spirit or being intel ligential (jenl) adj. (*) Excerpted from The Complete Reference Collection, The Learning Company, Inc. No PC, no IT in these definitions 25 April The KM principle (1) So, let s work on the IMPLICIT / TACIT knowledge for making the DIFFERENCE : the innovation (what the companies are needing the most) is in that difference. Remember what we were talking about under the first title. At the beginning, an enterprise starts with an idea that is supported by knowledgeable motivated / persisting people. That same enterprise will pursue with people who will keep the knowledge level up to the evolving strategical challenges! Remember also the story of the company that has grown too fast and lost the capacities of the lone entrepreneur (the upside down pyramid)! The KM principle is to make all the enterprise collaborators working like the lone entrepreneur being 10 or 1000 or more people! 25 April

10 The KM principle (2) Skandia Financial Services had very significantly reduced the installation of its subsidiaries from 9 months to 9 weeks (Leiff Edvinsson has developed his IC theory as from those successes) Chevron has saved $150 millions by sharing its knowledge about energy use and management. Arcelor (has been taken over by Laksmi Mettal) and its world cases banking + experts list! Those examples show that knowledge could drive value and are also explaining why companies are now investing so much money in KM. BUT more in KMS and not enough in ( real( real ) ) Knowledge And that doesn t t work at all time, of course! Because of the focus on the explicit knowledge only We ll start some discussions as from the following statements, common understanding, frequently heard comments. 25 April To know and think means classifying! Clémenceau Mobilization of the intelligence capacities Graham Wallas and its description of the creation process 1 Discovery of the environment = > questions about what is missing. The list of questions is conducting the search of the documentation 2 Analysis of the documentation and organization as from different points of view (discussions and scenarios) for listing the possible solutions. 3 The elements are maturing and an evidence comes out of a particular assembly of all or certain elements. 4 Verification, validation and final organization of the elements for the definition of a theory and / or a project and its deployment planning. Because of that (relative) process standardization, many people started to say that it should be possible to automate it and use computers to run it! 25 April

11 A Knowledge definition (many others do exist) After that long introduction, we could come to a conclusion such as knowledge is an almost infinite sensible / evolving tank containing essential utilities, accumulated along our experiences of all kinds, that are continuously reorganizing themselves. It is empowering individuals in their activities. The information is a combination of various origins : accumulation of lessons (class and life) with the time ; added researches ; Latin «informatio» = others give a shape to something that is recorded and has a sense (subjectivity) The target is the ultimate knowledge and it is not reachable! BUT it is a challenge for all : individuals, groups, enterprises! 1? 1 Remember : information is a product (input / output). It has various forms, usages and a cost! 25 April The TWO knowledge EXPLICIT objectbased : words, numbers, formulae, business objects rulesbased : rules, routines, procedures IMPLICIT / TACIT no codes visible in the action, in the results That s what the company tries to extract! That s what the company tries to maintain The context is structured : employees are talking about facts in an objective way it s formally explicit (documented) the output is identifiable and the internalization is possible The context is unstructured : people are guessing (conjecture), they act subjectively and in an unformal way they could do it shapelessly tacitly That is mostly belonging to the workers 25 April

12 The knowledge cycle (*) Individuals intelligence in the companies I E Implicit Socialization experience sharing is creating an implicit knowledge = mental model Internalization Acceptation of what has been made explicit through adopted shared practices Note : implicit = tacit (*) As from Nonaka and Takeuchi : The knowledge creating company Explicit Externalization Dialog activated : it could be based on stories, analogies, metaphors Combination What has been externalized can be further upgraded and disseminated Story telling PKW + WEB April Information management and knowledge management: Knowledge a big step forward People and culture are the keys to effective knowledge management and transfer because sharing knowledge is a social activity; you have to connect people who are willing to share their tacit knowledge. Once people start sharing with one another, it becomes a reinforcing cycle. Moonja P. Kim, Chief of the Business Process Branch, US Army Research Center Important to look at because most of the time IT targets on data and Information (processing) and not on knowledge However, both of them share information (more than data) for activating the system. 25 April

13 KM balance (debit & credit) What creates knowledge & IC Information (continuous & structured) Strategybased recruitment Skills maintenance management Vocational training (it has a view ) Regular coaching for continuity Teams (dynamism, proactivity) Problem solving people Sense of community (e.g. sport) What destroy knowledge & IC No information No HRM and punctual recruitment Leftover people No career planning Fragmented human planning Individual behavior No corporate culture concern Individualism 25 April In between strategy, tactics and operations. Increase profit in keeping up with leadingedge thinking Solutions expertise Tools People People Processes Processes Consistency Change Why? How? managing change building teams enhancing personal performances WEB2.0 Products Environment Organization The business framework Organization made of motivated people simplified processes changing the role of the manager develop strategy in a better way Jobs ideas encourage creativity 25 April

14 ? La petite structure performante («ma petite entreprise qui ne connaît pas la crise») Mythe ou réalité? Mythe on se ferait donc des illusions!? Réalité alors, c est vrai, pas besoin de KM dans les TPE / PME!? Large company compensating matrix FBC>s Alors «c est quoi la vérité»? Bonne question et il n y a pas qu une réponse. Mais on peut dégager une explication très large Small company + IT + ecommerce 25 April Décrypter la chose que nous vivons!? Une simple triade suffit pour entamer une entreprise qui va réussir Communication Intégration Synchronisation Alors, pourquoi estce si difficile de réussir? Parce que certaines parties sont visibles tandis que d autres sont invisibles! 25 April

15 Communication et Information sont nécessaires pour élaborer un consensus à propos du démarrage (qu allonsnous faire précisément) de la définition de ce qui devra être intégr gré et rendu viable à long terme (synchronisation) C est quelque peu visible! Hum, pourquoi quelque? L IT dispose d une force considérable (bande passage, stockage, vitesse), est aussi devenue très adaptable (communication, distribution), tandis qu elle peut encore faciliter la gestion (analyse, collaboration, support à la décision), etc. Mais, estce suffisant pour garantir le positionnement défendable à long terme?? We ll have to look at more triads a very minimum to be familiar with 25 April The ebusiness + models ICTD business model + VIRTUEL => REEL Many «C» Content (attraction value) (Tapscott) + Context (and WEB2.0) Communication (interactive essentials) (Tapscott) Community (of practices: CoPs) Commerce («best practices») Collaboration (knowledgeaided rationality) Computer (data bank, network, integration and more) (Tapscott) + Knowledge => innovation (value and positioning) Assets (new assets : IC brain first ) Network => boundaryless enterprise => globalization Pyramid => VO for more integrated knowledge within the outsourced process => new culture (change and organizational communicationbased organizational change!). Vertical => Horizontal and remote operations / knowledge & mobility. 25 April

16 The (very simplified) background of the sociotechnological life the most accurate trajectory in the geometry of the activities + WEB2.0 Suppliers (SRM) processor Partners (PRM) Product and / or service (PLC) They are all attachable or detachable! (VO dimension) Customers (CRM) + WEB2.0 suppliers partners Product and / or service employees Employees (ERM) customers Culture, system, structure behind! FBC>s Environment They are all having life WEB2.0 cycles! (it s critical) Don t t forget the visible (OM) and invisible (OB) aspects of the management 25 April Global view on data and flows (Don Tapscott nice to read + Wikinomics) Document Management ( antique way of doing but text comes from weave look at the weaver ) versus Network (communication) Management : socially and digitally (back to Metcalf and the nodes. They contribute to the value of the NW. Solution : the documental chain on Sequential organization (sequenced tasks within limited process) to Relational organization (extended collaborative continuous flows : people, blocks of competencies, CoPs, RDB, workflow) multievents activated through all available channels / media (see CRM in the clientcentered organization chapter, and the macroorganizational CRM : the very important collaborative dimension it manages) 25 April

17 let s start with the gaps Knowledge for bridging the gap between technology and business and the gap between theory and practice. More precisely, the best innovating practices (innovation => no precooked standard practices)! WEB2.0 New world? New rules! Changing world? Keep updating!* * and try anticipating! Stressing the sociotechnical aspect! 25 April Stressing the sociotechnical aspect More technologies (for producing and or servicing) WEB2.0 + $ More choices More expectations $ More risks More technologies (for access and related services) More technologies (for preventing and managing)? $ More technologies (for counting the money and bringing it where it could be more profitable) Technologies and People Etc! More technologies (for etc ) many more = complexity behaviors More technologies (for reducing it and keeping it manageable!?) 25 April

18 SME estrategic management As from the definition of the Xeconomy, the users extended control and the attached concept of the SpaceTime Universe (*) (we will talk about later on) it could be interesting to look at an actualized definition of the «(e) management» that is more precisely corresponding to the multidisciplinary and multidimensional challenging economy. Dimension and flexibility! The management consists in the definition of the most accurate trajectory for the enterprise in the geometry of the activities that are the elements of our interacting markets. (*) The SpaceTime Universe is the continuously expanding «4D framework» individuals, groups, enterprise are living in. They need to be fast, intelligent and agile (see KM) for progressing within that new environment. Those critical contingencies require new learning methods and behaviors. The undertaking of the change may not be delayed. Otherwise, individual and entrepreneurial profit won t come out of the «game» 25 April Elementary forms Selfmade man, selfoperating commerce : the directorowner is the actor. He is the top manager, the salesman, the Purchase, preparation, selling, maintenance office clerk and + the etools = the truck driver. * big firm Strategy (vision) appearance and motivation * ubiquity (decision) are *... One man or together everywhere woman at all time. show : all departments and levels! O T S discussion 25 April

19 Purchase, preparation, selling, maintenance MM PP SD S T O O T S From the elementary form to the organized entrepreneurial structure Many positive fundamentals have been lost in between the initial state and the structured form. That s what we are going to talk about : people (knowledge worker we ll try to bring back in the center of the enterprise), best collaborative practices, global integration, dynamic tools... Inside barriers flows are suffering from 25 April Humanbased business model : a simple synthetic view raw + The enterprise is a transformer. Awaited performances have to be in accordance with its : vision strategy mission (coordinated within the participating entities) Resources determination Profile, job description, matching CV, machines machines trucks... trucks... FG Transformational ratio =? Input a Output a Input b Output b Transformational ratio =? Output a +b Formal part + Unformal part alone group What the management needs to do for obtaining more and sustain for as long as possible Result could be less in case of nocollaboration + discussion about some economical laws value production as from more resources and less raw usage individual motivation collective motivation (depending on a problematic socialization within a formal social organization) 25 April

20 BPR / CMM : Defined and share: 1st level of Kn TRANSACTION KNOWLEDGE* PHYSICAL PART buy * We ll have a «KM reading» later on sell Aspect Software engineering Organizational change General focus on organizational structure understanding of organizational of SW development team setting required to achieve common goals, often focus on selfmanaging teams understanding of distribution of understanding of activities and work and responsibility and workflow improved management capability capability of assessing risk for of risk assessment and proactivity process derivation, proactive adjustment Key process organization process focus. Assign Organization process focus. Deterareas ment of task and responsibilities mination of process team responto project members sibilities, consideration of members core capabilities organization process definition. organization process definition. Definition of SW processes, aiming Definition of organizational processes at improved process performance. within builtin improvement capability Improved visibility and process and monitoring mechanisms. measurement. training programs. Provide team training programs. Provide process members with skills and knowledge. team members with skills and know Includes identification of knowledge ledge, identification of knowledge gaps and training needs. gaps and training needs. integrated SW management. Integr Integrated change management. egation of SW development and org integration of change process and anizational processes according to organizational processes according organizational processes assets to process performance capabilities SW product engineering. Alignment change mgmt practice. Alignment of development processes with SW of change activities with change engineering practices. Mgmt principles and practices. intergroup coordination. Establishment process coordination. Establishment of communication mechanisms of coordination and communication between groups for coordination of mechanisms between different activities and work practices. processes, development of ITsupport for effective collaboration e.g. workflow technology. peer review. Identification and peer review. Identification and removal of software defects removal of process pathologies for further improvements. Often performed in «quality circle» manner. 25 Copyright April Strategy Results We will see more with LAWSON software later on. 25 April

21 COMMUNICATION! (in a much gentle manner + some other views on it) Qui que ce soit qu on veuille persuader, il faut avoir égard à la personne dont il faut connaître l esprit et le cœur, quels principes elle accorde, quelles choses elle aime, et ensuite remarquer dans l objet dont il s agit quels rapports il a avec ces principes et ces goûts. De sorte que l art de persuader consiste autant en celui d agréer qu en celui de convaincre, tant les hommes se gouvernent plus par caprice que par raison. (Pascal) Pascal could have been a great marketer : if you are willing to make somebody changing his mind, you need to know him (his mind and heart, principles and relationships) to leverage his expectations / trigger his motivation! 25 April Efficiency of some communication tools + a special one Complexity Low High Value transfer Snail Mail Classic form Memo Fax WEB2.0 Phone Note : the best & the worst?where? Everywhere? Web ( old ) Instant Messaging Video Conference (hologram?) Face to Face + selection of the meeting place Low Time impact High 25 April

22 storytelling What about the famous storytelling (highly promoted by Dave Snowden of Cynefin / IBM and Steve Denning, past KM director of the WB / World Bank)? Very good but not new : everybody likes stories and they have proven their power by themselves over the time: the Bible is full of parables (Daniel C. Renson in Knowledge Management, ARK Edition, London, May 03). The technique is highly applicable and recommended. Especially when that is concerning an actual problem or something that need to be said for bringing the problem within (culturally) rational parameters or something like the audience has already heard about and that isn t dramatic any more. E.g. (fun / soft socializing examples) : the coffee machine or the timer Applicable also to the cases that have originated the enterprise culture for precipitating important decisions (don t abuse), creativity, enlarge the views on a new foreseen positioning, reduce the conflicts during the fusion, facilitate crosscultural communications (select them carefully : it must be federating), Solution for the enterprises : the banking of the most practical stories 25 April The pyramid of ages : the pappy boomerang! In Europe, the first babyboomers will retire in 2005 (people born in between 1945 and 1955). In France, that represents more than 5 millions persons. They are part of many enterprises memory and some sectors are already suffering from their departure! Employers are invited to plan and manage that already coming phenomenon for avoiding the «for sure to occur» subsequent problems. Think about what the trade corporations and guilds were doing with the apprentices and replicate the system as soon as you can with the soontoleave good guys!!! The new technologies are also available to make it easy and practical (elearning + «real human» coaching). Actual managers recognize that the «old» work mates aren t rapid BUT they know a lot of good tricks that aren t taught at school. The enterprise can t afford loosing that practical knowledge!!! Example of the old Joe who is recalled for repairing the machine Example of the association of the CAD click generation with the brushandpencilmade designs developers Sales levels need care BUT don t forget the pyramid of ages! 25 April

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