1 1 CHALLENGES OF NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS WITH READING AND WRITING IN COMPOSITION 101 CLASSES Abstract It is a fact that many non-native international students, who want to pursue their education in US universities, are required to take a composition course in their first year. Moreover, some universities encourage these students to register for the non-native (ESL) sections of English 101 (Composition). Teachers in these classes are challenged to prepare students for academic writing because the students have different social, cultural, and academic backgrounds. Researchers and coursebook writers have advocated many methods for teaching writing and reading to this group of students. The current study explored some of the challenges that first-year international students face in developing their writing and reading practices in composition classes. The researcher interviewed three international students who were enrolled in an ESL composition course at a public university in Minnesota, US. The results suggest that ESL students performance in composition classes for non-native speakers is heavily affected by the students background knowledge, use of English, and familiarity with new writing genres. Possible solutions for these problems are presented. Introduction It is a fact that many non-native international students who want to pursue their education in US universities are required to take a composition course in their first year. Moreover, some universities encourage these students to register for the non-native (ESL) sections of English 101 (Composition). Teachers in these classes are challenged to prepare students for academic writing because the students have different social, cultural, and academic backgrounds. Researchers and coursebook writers have advocated many methods for teaching writing and reading to this group of students. The current study explores some of the challenges that first-year international students face in developing their writing and reading practices in composition classes.
2 2 Statement of the problem Common sense indicates that in any teaching context, if a teacher knows his or her students problems and takes steps to solve those problems, the efficacy of his or her instruction will be higher. In fact, those who teach non-native composition classes need to know what problems this group of students has in order to help more. However, there is a paucity of research about the challenges that first-year international students face in developing their writing and reading practices in composition classes. Therefore, this study explores some of the challenges that first-year international students face in developing their writing and reading practices in composition classes as well as the factors behind these challenges. Thus, the study questions are: 1) What are some of the challenges that first-year international students face in developing their writing and reading practices in composition classes? 2) What are the main reasons of the non-native students challenges with reading and writing practices in Composition classes? Methodology This study attempts to gain an understanding about the problems of non-native first year international students regarding writing and reading practices in Composition 101 classes. In order to find out the problems and factors behind those problems semicontrolled interviews were conducted with non-native international students in a Composition 101 class. Sampling To conduct the interviews the researcher contacted non-native international students who enrolled in a non-native composition course in a state university in
3 3 Minnesota, US. To select the non-native students, a purposive sampling approach was employed (based on Cohen et al., 2000). This approach selects participants on the basis of the researcher s determination of the individuals typicality (Nunan, 1992, p.142). Participation was completely voluntary. The researcher visited the class and asked for volunteers to participate in an interview (Appendix A). Volunteers were given a consent form to sign which indicated their willingness take a part in the study. Procedures Initially the researcher s intention was to record the interviews in order to listen again and transcribe the data, but when this intention was shared with the participants, all of them mentioned that they would be nervous if the interview was recorded. Therefore, the researcher changed the plan plan and instead of recording the researchers took notes for each of the interviewee s answers. All the interviews were conducted in a quiet environment where the interviewee and the researcher were alone. The interview included 14 questions (see Appendix B) in total, and I wrote participants answers under each question. All the interviewees were given enough wait time till they got ready to give answers to the questions. All the answers were analyzed and some common patterns were created. Results The results of this study are categorized into four main parts: respondents, the effect of background knowledge, language use, and common problems. Each category provides specific data that gives insight into possible answers of the survey question.
4 4 Respondents The researchers got four volunteers in total but one of them did not come to the interview, so only three participants were interviewed in different times individually. In this study these participants will be mentioned as Participant A, B, or C to ensure confidentiality of their information. Table 1.1 summarizes the interview respondents by country and some key characteristics. Table 1.1 Interview respondents by country and key sampling characteristics Participants Age Country First Language Grade Duration in US Participant A 19 Nepal Nepali Freshman 2 Months Participant B 21 China Chinese Senior 2 Months Participant C 20 Ivory Coast French Freshman 8 Months As displayed in Table 1.1, each of the respondents was from different countries: China, Nepal, and Ivory Coast. They spoke different languages: Chinese, Nepali, and French. Their ages were between 19 and 21. Two of them had been in US for two months and one of them for 8 months, but it was the first semester of studying in US for all them. Two of them were at their first year in college but one of them was a senior exchange student. The Effect of Background Knowledge The results indicated that the educational background of the respondents were slightly different in terms of the years of formal English education and the settings for
5 5 this education. Table 1.2 summarizes respondents educational backgrounds in terms of years, setting, and courses. Table 1.2 Educational backgrounds of participants in English Participants Years Educational Setting Courses Participant A 12 Elementary School, Middle School, and High School Participant B 9 Middle School, High School, and Reading, Writing, and Other subjects (CBT) Reading and Writing University Participant C 6 Middle School and High School Reading and Writing As the Table 1.2 demonstrated, although the exposure time is different for each of the respondents, all of them had formal education in English. It appears that they took courses both in writing and reading skills in their countries. However, all the participants mentioned that they saw big differences in terms of teaching techniques and instructors expectations in US when they compare them to their previous experiences. Participant A said all I learned in my reading courses was to read a text in class and answer questions about it, but sometimes we were writing summary too, and Participant B said writing was boring, the instructor was giving lectures and we were taking notes.then, we were given a topic and followed certain patterns to write about it. The situation was similar for the other participants too. All the participants stated that using certain patterns or an outline restricted them to generate ideas. On the other hand, since in their composition class in US they are not given certain patterns or an outline it is hard for them to start the paper and use their creativity. Without exception all of them stated that the concept of
6 6 different written genres such as an analysis, a critique or a research paper is new to them since they used to write only one page essays based on a topic, and usually in memoir or summary genres. In terms of reading, all of them emphasized that they used to have simple and short reading assignments but the situation in US is different since the texts are longer and include many unknown words. However, participant A stated that he has no problem with reading since he used to read a lot of English novels and took a private course to prepare for high-stakes standardized tests such as: Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) and American College Testing (ACT). Furthermore, all the participants mentioned that they had never written more than one draft and never got revising feedback from their teachers in their previous courses. They said they had only one draft, and usually it was written in the class and had been graded by the teacher without his or her revision. Participant B put it in this way Back home I used to write the assignment at once but here it is a long process. But I still try to write my assignment at once which makes the task slow and difficult for me because I want to make it perfect. Moreover, they emphasized that they did not have any assignment sheet which explains the details of the assignment to them. Language Use All the participants stated that they use their first language more than English in America as they live with friends or siblings who speak the same language. They emphasized that their English usage is restricted to classes or simple daily conversations with librarians on campus and clerks while shopping. Participant C said that I think one of the reasons of my reading and writing problems is the lack of English oral practice.
7 7 Kucer (2005) indicates this fact when she says written language builds on and extends spoken language (p. 66). In addition, all of them acknowledged that they do not involve in any reading and writing tasks out of classes except reading magazines and newspapers. Common Problems With regard to participants common problems with reading, participants B and C mentioned that the most difficult thing for them so far had been the vocabulary knowledge. However, in writing, understanding the genres which they are not familiar had been the hardest thing for the entire participants. Participants B and C stated that since they do not know a lot of words, they look them up at dictionary and that makes their reading slow and boring. In terms of writing, the common problems mentioned by the participants were (a) understanding the concept of genres and the instructor s expectations for each genre (the assignment sheets), (b) generating ideas, (c) using academic language, especially word choice, and (d) using various structures. Conclusion and Discussion The study explored that non-native students who come to American universities have certain problems in their writing and reading practices in their composition course. Participants responses in the interviews once more indicated that background knowledge and past experiences of reading and writing have tremendous effect on learners current practices. Additionally, the results displayed that understanding new concepts in writing and reading takes time and within this duration non-native international students need great help from their instructors. Therefore, those who teach this group of students should be aware of what their students bring to the class with them. To find out this, a possible
8 8 technique may be doing survey at the beginning of the semester to learn about students background knowledge and diagnose the factors that may influence their learning. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the common problems of non-native first year international students regarding reading and writing practices in composition courses are (a) difficult and long texts, (b) new genres of writing, and (c) comprehending academic registers of English. Hence, these constraints of students should be taken into consideration in the planning of non-native composition classes. First, instructors should be aware of the students reading problems and choose the coursebook accordingly. The language of the coursebook should not be very hard and the chapters should not be very long; the coursebooks which put the information and present it in small pieces may be preferred. The amount of reading assignments should be reasonable starting from less going up gradually so that students can adjust to the new process. Instructors might also consider teaching different reading strategies in English which most of this group of learners are not familiar with. It is important to teach reading strategies because strategies allow the reader to build a deep structure from the surface structure of written discourse (Kucer, 2005, p. 131). In addition, although the course is writing-oriented the instructors may have students to read authentic short articles from the Internet from certain reliable sources and discuss it through synchronous or asynchronous chat in order to let them have reading practice opportunities. A study done with 15 EFL college learners in Taiwan on the effectiveness of Web texts in improving vocabulary, reading and writing skills shows that use of World Wide Web as a news information source can increase learner s reading and writing performances. The study also indicates that students had positive perspective
9 9 about reading texts from the WEB and write response for them, because they thought it promote reading and writing (Liou, 1997). Zamel (1992) makes the importance of reading more clear when she states that giving students the opportunity to write about what they find interesting/significant/moving/puzzling may help them realize that their understanding of complex texts evolves as they (re)read and that written reflection makes this understanding possible (p.474). Second, to handle the issue of comprehending new writing genres, instructors first should introduce the concept of genres in English to students and tell them why they need different types of writing in academia because the fact that individual and cultural experiences help shape schemata means that the genre knowledge of our L2 students may be very different from our own (Hyland, 2004, p. 56). If the learners do not know what and how to write the genre that has been introduced to them, it may be risky for them since they may write something that does match the characteristics of that specific genre. Hyland (2004) mentions that without adequate genre knowledge, we may find it very tricky to write an unfamiliar genre (p. 55). To prevent this, then, instructors should start introducing the assignments starting with the one that most of them are already familiar with such as memoirs or summary. Hyland (2004) emphasizes this point when he writes more familiar or easier topics can be presented first to engage and motivate students; to recycle vocabulary from earlier courses; or perhaps to work with known genres in new registers (p. 109). Additionally, for each assignment an assignment sheet should be given to students in which clear description of that specific genre, the expectations, due dates, and sources that they can get help are presented.
10 10 Finally, instructors should present a good example of the genre that they ask students to write, to let them to understand the concept. Third, instructors should be aware of the lack of knowledge of academic registers of English writing that these type learners have, so they should give enough time to students to comprehend the rules. To do that instructors should teach the academic English rules explicitly and let them practice these rules in pair- and group- work activities through writing very short samples. The instructors should provide opportunities for collaborative learning in these classes since doing new things may put pressure on students. Hirvela (1999) points out this fact when he says Students often learn more effectively when asked to perform various tasks in pairs, small groups, and teams than when working alone (p. 7). Moreover, instructors can also choose either a coursebook which has chapters designed for non-native speakers or a sourcebook/writing manual where students can get information about using academic rules such as coherence, structure, word choice, citations and so on. Currently many publishing companies provide these type of sourcebooks and they can be found easily. Summary The results suggest that ESL students performance in composition classes for non-native speakers is heavily affected by the students background knowledge, use of English, and familiarity with new writing genres. Most of these problems occur because students had different experiences in their previous reading and writing courses in their countries. Therefore, the instructors should take these characteristics of this group of learners into account and plan their instruction relatively.
11 11 Limitations of the Study This study has some possible limitations. First, the data collection tool, interview, and the time might have limited the responses of the participants. Second, the number of subjects was limited to only the international students in one class and in one university. Thus, the results might fail to represent the overall picture of the current problems of nonnative international students have with reading and writing in composition courses. However, although it is a small scale research, instructors of composition classes might find the findings of the study beneficial and important to consider. Further Research The findings of this study shed light onto some issues that need to be further researched in non-native composition courses: 1. Non-native composition instructors education and their familiarity with common problems of non-native international students with reading and writing 2. What genres are the genres familiar to non-native international students? 3. What can be done to make easier transition between non-native students previous experiences and current practices they face with?
12 12 References Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5 th ed.). London: RoutledgeFalmer. Hirvela, A. (1999). Collaborative writing instruction and communities of readers and writers. TESOL Journal 8 (2), Hyland, K. (2004). Genre and second language writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Kucer, S. (2005). Dimensions of literacy: A conceptual base for teaching reading and writing in school settings (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Liou, H. (1997). The impact of WWW texts on EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 10 (5), Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zamel, V. (1992). Writing one s way into reading. TESOL Quarterly, 26 (3),
13 13 APPENDIX A The statement that was told verbally by the researcher to students when they were asked to participate in the study Your participation is completely voluntary and anonymous. Any information that is obtained in connection with this study cannot be identified with you. Your identity will be known only by the researcher and will not be shared with somebody else. Except sharing your experiences as a student there are no risks and no costs associated with the interview
14 14 APPENDIX B Sample Interview Questions (This was a face-to face interview) 1. Where do you come from? 2. What is your first language? 3. How old are you? 4. How long have you been to America? 5. How often do you speak English/First language? 6. Have you had any formal education in English before you came to US? How many years? Which setting? 7. What kind of reading and writing activities do you involve out of classes? (Do you read anything for pleasure? Do you keep any journals/diaries in English? 8. Have you been taught reading or writing/ have you ever taken reading/writing courses in English before you came to US? How many courses did you take? 9. Do you see any difference between what you learned (in terms of reading/writing skills) in your country and here? 10. What has been the most difficult thing for you in terms of reading and writing so far? 11. If you have any problems with reading (assignments) here, what kind of problems do you have? 12. If you have any problems with writing (assignments) here, what kind of problems do you have? 13. What do you think can be the reason for the problems you have in reading and writing? 14. How do you think your instructors can help you to solve these problems? What are your expectations from them?
Maggie Heeney Ontario Institute in Studies in Education May 6 Opportunities and New Directions Conference University of Waterloo Rationale behind the study Reading and writing expertise is essential for
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences ISSN 2201-4624 Volume 4, Number 1, 2013, 16-23 The Effect of Reading Experience on Using Grammar in Writing in Elementary Iranian EFL Students Mohammad Bagher Shabani
LARSEN CALL ACTIVITY Call Activity LING 526 Assignment 3 Jacob Larsen Iowa State University Spring 2006 LARSEN CALL ACTIVITY 2 Introduction Since its inception in the 1960s computer assisted language learning
Jan/Feb 2007 What Does Research Tell Us About Teaching Reading to English Language Learners? By Suzanne Irujo, ELL Outlook Contributing Writer As a classroom teacher, I was largely ignorant of, and definitely
GUIDE TO THE ESL CENTER at Kennesaw State University The ESL Center: A Brief Overview The ESL Center at Kennesaw State University is housed in University College. The Center has two locations: the Kennesaw
TM parent ROADMAP SUPPORTING YOUR CHILD IN GRADE FIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 5 America s schools are working to provide higher quality instruction than ever before. The way we taught students in the past
THE JOURNAL OF ASIA TEFL Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 191-198, Spring 2005 The Process Approach to ESL/EFL Writing Deqi Zen Southeast Missouri State University, United States The past two decades witnessed an increasing
Sample Masters Thesis Editing Linguistics (National Chiayi University - Taiwan) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION With the paradigm shift from the traditional product-oriented approach to the process-oriented writing
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter presents the statistical analysis of the collected data based on the four research questions. The first section demonstrates the effects of the strategy instruction on the
APEC Online Consumer Checklist for English Language Programs The APEC Online Consumer Checklist For English Language Programs will serve the training needs of government officials, businesspeople, students,
Teacher s and Students Scaffolding in an EFL Classroom Warithorn Samana Dhurakij Pundit University, Thailand E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Doi:10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n8p338 Abstract Scaffolding is a teaching
Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching Ruwaida Abu Rass (Israel) Writing is a difficult skill for native speakers and nonnative speakers alike, because writers must balance multiple
Bull. Mukogawa Women s Univ. Humanities and Social Sci., 57, 53-57(2009) 武 庫 川 女 子 大 紀 要 ( 人 文 社 会 科 学 ) Implementation of Computer-Mediated Communication Utilizing Web Based Video Conferencing Toru SASABE
Helping English Language Learners Understand Content Area Texts English language learners (ELLs) experience intense problems in content area learning because they have not yet acquired the language proficiency
2 The role of background knowledge in language comprehension has been formalized as schema theory, any text, either spoken or written, does not by itself carry meaning. Rather, according to schema theory,
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS TO EFL LEARNERS Marzook Maazi Alshammari Madinah College of Tourism & Hospitality - Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT: The past few years have seen much discussion
Teachers' Perspectives about the Effect of Tawjihi English Exam on English Instruction at the Second Secondary Stage in Jordan Dr. Mohammad Abd Alhafeez Ali Ta'amneh Assistant Professor of Teaching English
24. Learners Awareness and Perceived Use of Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies among Malaysian ESL University Students Ruhil Amal Azmuddin 1* Nooradelena Mohd Ruslim 2 1 Modern Languages, Centre for
Assessing Online Asynchronous Discussion in Online Courses: An Empirical Study Shijuan Liu Department of Instructional Systems Technology Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana, USA email@example.com
Faculty Response to Grammar Errors in the Writing of ESL Students by Lyndall Nairn, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA, firstname.lastname@example.org Many ESL instructors and students alike regard the teaching and
Mission English 2 - Journalism Mitch Martin: email@example.com To educate students to be self-directed learners, collaborative workers, complex thinkers, quality producers, and community contributors
Enhancing Technology College Students English Listening Comprehension by Listening Journals Jung-chuan Chen* Department of Applied Foreign Languages, Nanya Institute of Technology Chung-Li, Taiwan, 32034
GES232 Instruction and Testing of TESOL Professor Lay 1 SAINT LOUIS GES232 Instruction and Testing of TESOL CHRISTIAN COLLEGE Spring 2015 / Professor Lay MISSION STATEMENT Saint Louis Christian College
COMMUNICATION COMMUNITIES CULTURES COMPARISONS CONNECTIONS STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Preparing for the 21st Century Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The
M.A. TESOL Capstone Project Overview: The M.A. TESOL Capstone Project (CP) provides students with an opportunity to demonstrate their in-depth knowledge and practical expertise in a specific area of the
A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING TOEFL IBT SCORES READING SKILLS HIGH (22 30) INTERMEDIATE (15 21) LOW (0 14) Test takers who receive a score at the HIGH level typically understand academic texts in English that
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the background of the study, the statement of problem, the objective of the study, the scope and limitation of the study, the significance of the study, the
ELEMENTARY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION MAJOR LEADING TO PK-4 Recommended Course Sequence 124 Credits Elementary and Early Childhood Education majors will also complete a Reading Education minor within
3 Developing Vocabulary in Second Language Acquisition: From Theories to the Classroom Jeff G. Mehring Abstract This paper examines the theories behind vocabulary acquisition in second language learning
July 2010, Volume 7, No.7 (Serial No.68) US-China Education Review, ISSN 1548-6613, USA Using web blogs as a tool to encourage pre-class reading, post-class reflections and collaboration in higher education
Lindsay Mack Abstract Providing feedback to students is often seen as one of the teacher s most important tasks. It is a chance for the teachers to provide information to students to help them understand
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE PROGRAM for Post-Admitted Students at UMA University of Massachusetts Amherst 308 B Bartlett Hall www. umass.edu/esl 413-545-4210 ESL PROGRAM COURSE OFFERINGS Spring 2016 ESL
Connecting Career and Technical Education to English as a Second Language (ESL) English as a Second Language (ESL) programs assist language minority students whose dominate language is not English, and
CONTRIBUTIONS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING ASSISTANTS TO UNIVERSITIES IN TURKEY: A CASE STUDY Dr. Emrah EKMEKÇİ Ondokuz Mayıs University, School of Foreign Languages, firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract:
Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners Colin Dalton University of Houston-Downtown, United States 0135 The European Conference on Language Learning 2013 Official Conference
The Effects of Classroom Interaction on Vocabulary Development Mastoor Al-Kaboody Northern Arizona University CLASSROOM INTERACTION ON VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 2 Abstract A partial replication of Plonsky
Modern Languages Level II Course Description One Stop Shop For Educators The Level II language course focuses on the continued development of communicative competence in the target language and understanding
Exam Skills Insider Guides 1/8 Exam Skills The Insider Guide to Trinity College London Examinations The Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) The Integrated Skills in English (ISE) By the Trinity
http://www.diva-portal.org Postprint This is the accepted version of a paper published in LMS Lingua. This paper has been peer-reviewed but does not include the final publisher proof-corrections or journal
Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student
The Journal of Interactive Online Learning Volume 2, Number 1, Summer 2003 www.ncolr.org ISSN: 1541-4914 Alternative Online Pedagogical Models With Identical Contents: A Comparison of Two University-Level
Oral Discourse in Science 1 Oral Discourse in Teaching and Learning Science in Relation to the Next Generation Science Standards Okhee Lee Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development
Academic writing requirements of Masters level study in the Humanities: Some issues for testers Clare Furneaux, Department of English Language & Applied Linguistics, University of Reading CRELLA Summer
Social Media and CFL Pedagogy: Transforming Classrooms into Learning Communities Wen-Hua Teng ( 鄧 文 華 ) Department of Asian Studies The University of Texas at Austin email@example.com ABSTRACT With
Cross-cultural Videoconferencing and Online Discussion experienced by College Students in Taiwan Ai-Ling Wang Tamkang University, Taiwan Outline of the presentation Background of the study The research
Lingnan University Digital Commons @ Lingnan University Staff Publications - Lingnan University 7-6-2015 Task-based pedagogy in technology mediated writing Preet Pankaj HIRADHAR Lingnan University, Hong
A Study On The Effects Of Reading On Writing Performance Among Faculty Of Civil Engineering Students Zaidah Zainal & Siti Hajar Binti Mohamed Husin Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Abstract
TExES English Language Arts and Reading 7 12 (231) Test at a Glance See the test preparation manual for complete information about the test along with sample questions, study tips and preparation resources.
Student Learning Outcomes in Hybrid and Face-to-Face Beginning Spanish Language Courses Casilde A. Isabelli University of Nevada, (United States of America) Isabelli@unr.edu Abstract This study investigates
Comparison of Computer Assisted Language Learning Software before Investment Dinçer Biçer , Ramazan Şükrü Parmaksız  Bülent Ecevit University Email: firstname.lastname@example.org  Bülent Ecevit University
Yıl/Year: 2013 Cilt/Volume: 2 Sayı/Issue: 5 Sayfalar/Pages: 1-12 The Effect of Explicit Feedback on the Use of Language Learning Strategies: The Role of Instruction Mohammad Rahi Islamic Azad University,
Language Teaching Research 9,1 (2005); pp. 97 112 Prioritizing practitioner research: an example from the field Cindy Gunn The American University of Sharjah For many ESL teachers, finding time for research
Teacher Development Interactive The Blended Course 20 + 20 online face to face Teacher Development Interactive: The Blended Course deepens and expands the online experience in a face-to-face classroom.
Tips for Choosing a TESOL Master s Program Whether you are just breaking into the TESOL field or have already been in the profession for some time, a great way to increase your knowledge and expand your
Teaching and Managing a Project-based English Course to the College Students in Diverse Levels of English Proficiency Yoshihiko Yamamoto, Syuhei Kimura Ritsumeikan University, Japan 0429 The Asian Conference
Office of Adult Education Follow-Up Manual State of Michigan Workforce Development Agency Office of Adult Education revised September 2014 CONTENTS OVERVIEW OF NRS REQUIREMENTS...2 OVERVIEW OF THIS DOCUMENT...
Insight TOEFL ibt TM Research Series 1, Volume 1 TOEFL ibt TM Test Framework and Test Development oooooooo ETS Listening. Learning. Leading. ETS Listening. Learning. Leading. TOEFL ibt TM Research Series
STUDENT LEARNING SUPPORT TUTORIAL PRODUCED BY THE CENTER FOR TEACHING AND FACULTY DEVELOPMENT CLASS PARTICIPATION: MORE THAN JUST RAISING YOUR HAND CHAPTER 1: LEARNING THROUGH CLASS PARTICIPATION CLASS
69 A Survey of Online Tools Used in English-Thai and Thai-English Translation by Thai Students Sarathorn Munpru, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand Pornpol Wuttikrikunlaya, Srinakharinwirot University,
University of Minnesota NSCI 4100 001 Fall 2012 01/10/2013 Number of questionnaires = 17 Page 1 of 2 Dr. McLoon was one of the best instructors I have ever had. He presented difficult material in an interesting
http://e-flt.nus.edu.sg/ Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 2011, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 108 115 Centre for Language Studies National University of Singapore The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge
WHAMPOA - An Interdisciplinary Journal 57(2009) 119-126 119 A Pilot Study of Some ROCMA Cadets Difficulties in English Speaking Wain-Chin Dana Chen 1 1 Department of Foreign Languages, ROC Military Academy
Programme Specification (Postgraduate) Date amended: March 2012 1. Programme Title(s): MA in Applied Linguistics and TESOL 2. Awarding body or institution: University of Leicester 3. a) Mode of study Campus:
Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners (Linse, 2005, pp. 120-134) Very young children learn vocabulary items related to the different concepts they are learning. When children learn numbers or colors in
A Correlation of Prentice Hall Writing Coach 2012 To the Virginia English Standards of Learning A Correlation of, 2012, Introduction This document demonstrates how, 2012, meets the objectives of the. Correlation
Angelina College Liberal Arts Division Spanish 2311 Intermediate Spanish Instructional Syllabus 4/25/14 I. Basic Course Information A. Course Description (as stated in the bulletin, including necessary
554 Teaching Reading through E-learning Website I Ketut Trika Adi Ana, STKIP AH Singaraja, Indonesia Putu Kerti Nitiasih, Ganesha, University of Education, Indonesia Abstract Teaching English as a foreign
Enhancing Oral Communication Skills through Pairwork Strategies Enhancing Oral Communication Skills through Pairwork Strategies Moaza Aziz Ahmad Abdulla 17 Moaza Aziz Ahmad Abdulla Moaza Aziz Ahmad Abdulla
Using Wikis To Develop Summary Writing Abilities Of Students In An EFL Class Saovapa Wichadee, Bangkok University, Thailand ABSTRACT The research studied and compared students English summary writing ability
University of Minnesota 2011 13 Catalog Degree Completion Bachelor of Arts Degree... 60 Degree Requirements... 60 Specific Provisions... 61 General Education Requirements... 61 Major or Area of Concentration...
Teaching English with Technology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 3-9, http://www.iatefl.org.pl/call/callnl.htm 3 BASIC WEB DESIGN AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB: A CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION COURSE by Kevin Schoepp English
Running Head: QUALITY MATTERS RUBRICS 1 Quality Matters Rubrics: Ensuring Quality for Online Course Development Team LARJ: Tiffany Linc, Adriana Greenlief, Roxanne Witherspoon and Julia Cutler The University
Session 2: Teaching procedures to assist students who have oral language difficulties in the classroom John Munro Pathway followed in this session Using the ICPALER framework to develop teaching procedures
TASIS England Summer School TASIS English Language Program (TELP) Description of Levels and TELP Level Descriptions There are 6 levels of instruction, ranging from classes to serve those with very basic
Teaching English with Technology, 12(4), 16-30, http://www.tewtjournal.org 16 THE DYNAMICS OF BLOG PEER FEEDBACK IN ESL CLASSROOM by Dilani S.P. Gedera The University of Waikato New Zealand dgp3 @ waikato.ac.nz
CHAPTER 11 Business Chinese for Local Businesses Chun-Yi Peng City University of New York 1 Introduction This report proposes a Chinese course for business purposes aimed to help students understand and
College Match A Blueprint for Choosing the Best School for You 1 Self-Survey for the College-Bound Respond carefully to these questions about your educational attitudes, goals, and perspectives. Be absolutely
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.