1 Malignant Mesothelioma What is malignant mesothelioma? Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer that starts in cells in the linings of certain parts of the body, especially in the linings of the chest or abdomen. Cancer starts when cells start to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? The mesothelium A layer of specialized cells called mesothelial cells lines the inside of the chest, the abdomen, and the space around your heart. These cells also cover the outer surface of most of your internal organs. The lining formed by these cells is called the mesothelium. The mesothelium helps protect your organs by making a special lubricating fluid that allows organs to move against each other. For example, this fluid makes it easier for your lungs to move (expand and contract) inside the chest when you breathe. The mesothelium has different names in different parts of the body: The pleura coats the lungs and the space in the chest containing the lungs. The peritoneum lines the inside of the abdomen and many of the organs in the abdomen. The pericardium covers the heart and creates the space that holds the heart in the chest. The tunica vaginalis lines the testicles. Mesothelial tumors can start in any of these linings. These tumors can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).
2 Malignant mesothelioma A cancerous tumor of the mesothelium is called a malignant mesothelioma, although this is often shortened to just mesothelioma. Mesotheliomas can start in 4 main areas in the body. Pleural mesotheliomas start in the chest. About 3 out of 4 mesotheliomas are pleural mesotheliomas. Peritoneal mesotheliomas begin in the abdomen. They make up most of the remaining cases. Pericardial mesotheliomas start in the covering around the heart and are very rare. Mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis are very rare tumors that start in the covering layer of the testicles. Malignant mesotheliomas can also be classified into 3 main types based on how the cancer cells are arranged: About half of mesotheliomas are epithelioid. This type tends to have a better outlook (prognosis) than the other types. About 10% of mesotheliomas are sarcomatoid (fibrous). Mixed (biphasic) mesotheliomas have both epithelioid and sarcomatoid areas. They make up the remaining 30% to 40% of mesotheliomas. Benign tumors of the mesothelium Benign (non-cancerous) tumors can also start in the mesothelium. These tumors are typically removed by surgery, and there is often no need for additional treatment. Localized fibrous tumor of the pleura This type of benign tumor can form in the pleura surrounding the lungs. It used to be called benign fibrous mesothelioma, but doctors now know that this tumor actually does not start in mesothelial cells. This disease is usually benign, but about 1 in 10 are cancerous. A similar condition that starts in the peritoneum is called solitary fibrous tumor of the peritoneum. Adenomatoid mesothelioma This benign tumor can develop in the mesothelium of certain reproductive organs. In men, it often starts in the epididymis (ducts that carry sperm cells out of the testicle). In women, this tumor can begin in the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus).
3 Benign cystic mesothelioma This rare non-cancerous tumor often begins in the peritoneum. Only malignant mesothelioma will be discussed further in this document. What are the key statistics about malignant mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is fairly rare in the United States, with about 3,000 new cases being diagnosed each year. The rate of mesotheliomas in the United States increased from the 1970s to the early 1990s, but since then it has leveled off and even gone down slightly. These changes have largely been seen in men, and are probably related to changes over time in workplace exposures to asbestos. (See What are the risk factors for malignant mesothelioma? ) The rate of mesothelioma is lower in women and has been fairly steady for some time. In many other countries, the rate of mesothelioma is still increasing. Mesothelioma is more common in whites and Hispanics/Latinos than in African Americans or Asian Americans. Mesotheliomas are much more common in older people than younger people. The average age at the time of diagnosis for pleural mesothelioma (mesothelioma in the chest) is 69. Information on survival rates can be found in the section Survival statistics for mesothelioma. Visit the American Cancer Society s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. What are the risk factors for malignant mesothelioma? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person s age or family history, can t be changed. But having a known risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. And some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors. Researchers have found some factors that increase a person s risk of mesothelioma.
4 Asbestos The main risk factor for pleural mesothelioma is exposure to asbestos. In fact, most cases of pleural mesothelioma have been linked to asbestos exposure, usually from high levels of exposure in the workplace. Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur naturally as bundles of tiny fibers. These fibers are found in soil and rocks in many parts of the world. When asbestos fibers in the air are inhaled, they can get into the lungs. Fibers that stay in the lungs can travel to the ends of the small airways and enter the pleural lining of the lung and chest wall. These fibers can then injure the cells of the pleura, and eventually cause mesothelioma. Asbestos fibers can also damage cells of the lung and result in asbestosis (scar tissue in the lung) and/or lung cancer. Peritoneal mesothelioma, which forms in the abdomen, can result from coughing up and swallowing inhaled asbestos fibers. Many people are exposed to very low levels of naturally occurring asbestos in outdoor air in dust that comes from rocks and soil containing asbestos. This is more likely to happen in areas where rocks have higher asbestos content. In some areas, asbestos can be found in the water supply as well as in the air. In the past, asbestos was used in many products because of its heat and fire-resistant properties. The link between asbestos and mesothelioma is now well known, so its use in the United States has gone down dramatically. Most use stopped several decades ago, but it is still used in some products. Still, millions of Americans may already have been exposed to asbestos. People at risk for asbestos exposure in the workplace include some miners, factory workers, insulation manufacturers and installers, railroad and automotive workers, ship builders, gas mask manufacturers, plumbers, and construction workers. Family members of people exposed to asbestos at work can also be exposed because the workers can carry home asbestos fibers on their clothes. Asbestos was also used to insulate many older homes, as well as commercial and public buildings around the country, including some schools. Because these particles are contained within the building materials, they are not likely to be found in the air in large numbers. The risk of exposure is likely to be very low unless the particles somehow escape into the air, such as when building materials begin to decompose over time, or during remodeling or removal. The risk of developing mesothelioma is loosely related to how much asbestos a person is exposed to and how long this lasts. People exposed at an early age, for a long time, and at higher levels are more likely to develop this cancer. Still, most people exposed to asbestos, even in large amounts, do not get mesothelioma. Other factors, such as a person s genes, may make them more likely to develop mesothelioma when exposed to asbestos.
5 Mesotheliomas related to asbestos exposure take a long time to develop. The time between first exposure to asbestos and diagnosis of mesothelioma is usually between 20 and 50 years. Unfortunately, the risk of mesothelioma does not go down over time after the exposure to asbestos stops. The risk appears to be lifelong. For more detailed information on asbestos, see Asbestos. Zeolites Zeolites are minerals chemically related to asbestos. An example is erionite, which is common in the rocks and soil in parts of Turkey. High mesothelioma rates in these areas are believed to be caused by exposure to this mineral. Radiation There have been a few published reports of mesotheliomas that developed after people were exposed to high doses of radiation to the chest or abdomen as treatment for another cancer. Although the risk of mesothelioma is higher in patients who have been treated with radiation, this cancer is still rare in these patients. There have also been reports linking mesothelioma to injections of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast). This radioactive material was used by doctors for certain x-ray tests until the 1950s. Thorotrast was found to cause cancers, so it has not been used for many decades. SV40 virus Some studies have raised the possibility that infection with simian virus 40 (SV40) might increase the risk of developing mesothelioma. Some injectable polio vaccines given between 1955 and 1963 were contaminated with SV40. As many as 30 million people in the United States may have been exposed to this virus. Some lab studies have suggested that SV40 infection might cause mesothelioma. For example, infecting some lab animals like hamsters with SV40 causes mesotheliomas to develop. Researchers also have noticed that SV40 can cause mouse cells grown in lab dishes to become cancerous, and that asbestos increases the cancer-causing effect of SV40 on these cells. Other researchers have found SV40 DNA in some biopsy specimens of human mesotheliomas. But fragments of SV40 DNA can also be found in some noncancerous human tissues. So far, the largest studies looking at this issue in humans have not found an increased risk for mesothelioma or other cancers among people who received the contaminated vaccines as children. But the peak age range for diagnosis of mesothelioma is 50 to 70 years. Some researchers have pointed out that this issue may remain unresolved until more of the people accidentally exposed to SV40 between 1955 and 1963 reach that age range. Most experts have concluded that at this time we still don t know if SV40 is responsible for some mesotheliomas. This important topic is still being researched.
6 Age The risk of mesothelioma increases with age. Mesothelioma can occur in young people (even children), but it is rare in people under age 45. About 2 out of 3 people with mesothelioma of the chest are 65 or older. Gender Mesothelioma is much more common in men than in women. This is probably because men have been more likely to work in jobs with heavy exposure to asbestos. Do we know what causes malignant mesothelioma? Researchers have found several factors that increase a person s risk of mesothelioma, but it s not yet clear exactly how all of these factors might cause this cancer. Cancers, including mesotheliomas, occur when cells in the body suffer damage to their DNA. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells that makes up our genes the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look. Some genes control when cells in the body grow, divide into new cells, and die at the right time. Changes in these genes may cause cells to grow out of control, which can lead to cancer. Asbestos exposure is the main cause of pleural mesothelioma. When asbestos fibers are breathed in, they travel to the ends of small air passages and reach the pleura, where they can cause inflammation and scarring. This may damage cells DNA and cause changes that result in uncontrolled cell growth. If swallowed, these fibers can reach the abdominal lining, where they can have a role in causing peritoneal mesothelioma. But most people exposed to asbestos, even in large amounts, do not get mesothelioma. Other factors, such as a person s genes, may make them more likely to develop mesothelioma when exposed to asbestos. For example, researchers have found that some people who seem to be at high risk have changes in BAP1, a gene that normally helps keep cell growth under control. Other genes are probably important as well. Radiation treatments for other cancers have been linked to mesothelioma in some studies. Radiation can damage the cells DNA, leading to out-of-control cell growth. It is still not known if infection with the SV40 virus increases the risk of mesothelioma, or exactly how it might do so. In lab studies, researchers have found that the virus can affect certain genes that have been linked with cancer, but further research in this area is needed.
7 Can malignant mesothelioma be prevented? Being exposed to asbestos is by far the biggest risk factor for mesothelioma, so the best way to reduce your risk is to limit your exposure to asbestos at home, in public buildings, and at work. People who might be exposed to high levels of asbestos at work include some miners, factory workers, insulation manufacturers and installers, railroad and automotive workers, ship builders, gas mask manufacturers, plumbers, and construction workers. If there is a chance of on-the-job exposure, such as during the renovation of old buildings, you should use all protective equipment and safety procedures designed for working around asbestos. Older homes may have insulation containing asbestos or other materials. A knowledgeable expert can check your home to find out if there is any asbestos and whether it poses any risk of exposure. This may mean testing the air for asbestos levels. Just because asbestos exists in a home does not necessarily mean that it needs to be removed. As long as the material is not damaged or disturbed, for example by drilling or remodeling, the fibers will not be released into the air. If asbestos needs to be removed from your home, you should hire a qualified contractor to do this to avoid contaminating your home or causing any exposure to your family or to the workers. You should not attempt to remove asbestos-containing material yourself. Asbestos can also be found in some commercial and public buildings (including some schools), where the same basic principles apply. Intact, undisturbed materials containing asbestos generally do not pose a health risk. They may pose a risk if they are damaged, are disturbed in some way, or deteriorate over time and release asbestos fibers into the air. By federal law, all schools are required to inspect materials with asbestos regularly and to have a plan in place for managing them. Can malignant mesothelioma be found early? Mesothelioma is uncommon, and there are no widely recommended screening tests for this cancer in people who are not at increased risk. (Screening is testing for cancer in people who don't have any symptoms.) For people with known exposure to asbestos, some doctors recommend imaging tests such as chest x-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans to look for changes in the lungs that might be signs of mesothelioma or lung cancer. But it is not clear how useful these tests are in finding mesotheliomas early. In recent years, doctors have found that people with mesothelioma often have high levels of certain substances in their blood, including osteopontin and soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs). Blood tests for these substances may one day be useful in finding mesotheliomas early, as well as for monitoring the course of the disease in people who have mesothelioma.
8 Most mesotheliomas are found when a person goes to a doctor because of symptoms. People who have been exposed to asbestos should know the possible signs and symptoms of mesothelioma. Many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than mesothelioma, but it s important to report any new symptoms to your doctor right away so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed. Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma Many of the early symptoms of mesothelioma are more likely to be caused by other conditions, so at first people may ignore them or mistake them for common, minor ailments. Most people with mesothelioma have symptoms for at least a few months before they are diagnosed. Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma (mesothelioma of the chest) can include: Pain in the side of the chest or lower back Shortness of breath Cough Fever Excessive sweating Fatigue Weight loss (without trying) Trouble swallowing (feeling like food gets stuck) Hoarseness Swelling of the face and arms Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma can include: Abdominal (belly) pain Swelling or fluid in the abdomen Weight loss (without trying) Nausea and vomiting Constipation These symptoms can be caused by mesothelioma, but more often they are caused by other conditions. Still, if you have any of these problems (especially if you have been exposed to asbestos), it s important to see your doctor right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
9 How is malignant mesothelioma diagnosed? Mesothelioma is most often diagnosed after a person goes to a doctor because of symptoms they are having. If there is a reason to suspect you might have mesothelioma, your doctor will examine you and use one or more tests to find out. Symptoms might suggest that the problem could be mesothelioma, but tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis. Medical history and physical exam If you have any signs or symptoms that suggest you might have mesothelioma, your doctor will want to get your medical history to learn about your symptoms and possible risk factors, especially asbestos exposure. A physical exam can provide information about possible signs of mesothelioma and other health problems. Pleural mesothelioma can cause fluid to build up around the lungs in the chest (called a pleural effusion). In cases of peritoneal mesothelioma, fluid can build up in the abdomen (called ascites). In pericardial mesothelioma, fluid builds up in the sac around the heart (called a pericardial effusion). Rarely, mesothelioma can develop in the groin and look like a hernia. All of these might be found during a physical exam, such as when the doctor listens to these areas with a stethoscope or taps on the chest or abdomen. If mesothelioma is a possibility, tests will be needed to make sure. These might include imaging tests, blood tests, and other procedures. Imaging tests Imaging tests use x-rays, radioactive particles, sound waves, or magnetic fields to create pictures of the inside of your body. Imaging tests might be done for a number of reasons, such as: To look at suspicious areas that might be cancer To learn how far cancer has spread To help determine if treatment is working People thought to have mesothelioma may have one or more of these tests. Chest x-ray This is often the first test done if someone has symptoms such as a constant cough or shortness of breath. Findings that might suggest mesothelioma include an abnormal thickening of the pleura, calcium deposits on the pleura, fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall, or changes in the lungs themselves as a result of asbestos exposure.
10 Computed tomography (CT) scan The CT scan uses x-rays to make detailed cross-sectional images of your body. Instead of taking one picture, like a regular x-ray, a CT scanner takes many pictures as it rotates around you while you are lying on a narrow table. A computer then combines these into images of slices of the body. CT scans are often used to help look for mesothelioma and to determine the exact location of the cancer. They can also help determine the stage (extent) of the cancer. For example, they can show if the cancer has spread to other organs. This can help determine if surgery might be a treatment option. Finally, CT scans can also be used to learn if treatment such as chemotherapy is shrinking or slowing the growth of the cancer. A CT scanner has been described as a large donut, with a narrow table that slides in and out of the middle opening. You will need to lie still on the table while the scan is being done. CT scans take longer than regular x-rays, and you might feel a bit confined by the ring while the pictures are being taken. Before the test, you might have to drink a liquid called oral contrast. This helps outline the intestine so that certain areas are not mistaken for tumors. You might also need an IV (intravenous) line through which a different kind of contrast is injected. This helps better outline structures in your body. The injection can cause some flushing (redness and warm feeling). Some people are allergic and get hives or, rarely, more serious reactions like trouble breathing and low blood pressure. Be sure to tell the doctor if you have any allergies (especially to iodine or shellfish) or have ever had a reaction to any contrast material used for x-rays. Echocardiogram This test uses sound waves to look at the heart. It may be done if your doctor suspects that you have fluid around your heart (a pericardial effusion). This test can also tell how well the heart is working. For the most common version of this test, you lie on a table while a technician moves an instrument called a transducer over the skin on your chest. A gel is often put on the skin first. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan For a PET scan, a radioactive substance (usually a type of sugar related to glucose, known as FDG) is injected into the blood. The amount of radioactivity used is very low. Because cancer cells grow quickly, they absorb more of the sugar than most other cells. After waiting about an hour, you lie on a table in the PET scanner for about 30 minutes while a special camera creates a picture of areas of radioactivity in the body. The picture from a PET scan is not as detailed as a CT or MRI scan, but it can provide helpful information about whether abnormal areas seen on these tests are likely to be cancerous or not. For example, it can give the doctor a better idea of whether a thickening of the pleura or peritoneum seen on a CT scan is more likely cancer or merely scar tissue. If you have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, your doctor may use this test to see if the
11 cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. A PET scan can also be useful if your doctor thinks the cancer may have spread but doesn t know where. Some machines can do both a PET and CT scan at the same time (PET/CT scan). This lets the doctor compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET scan with the more detailed appearance of that area on the CT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan Like CT scans, MRI scans make detailed images of the body s soft tissues. But MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays. A contrast material called gadolinium is often injected into a vein before the scan to better show details. This contrast is different than the one used for CT scans, so being allergic to one doesn t mean you are allergic to the other. MRI scans can sometimes help show the exact location and extent of a tumor since they provide very detailed images of soft tissues. For mesotheliomas, they may be useful in looking at the diaphragm (the thin band of muscle below the lungs that helps us breathe), a possible site of cancer spread. MRI scans take longer than CT scans often up to an hour. You may have to lie inside a narrow tube, which can upset people with a fear of enclosed spaces. Special, more open MRI machines may be an option in some cases. The MRI machine makes buzzing and clicking noises that you might find disturbing. Some places will give you earplugs to help block this out. Blood tests Blood levels of certain substances are often higher in people with mesothelioma: Osteopontin Soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs), detected with the MesoMark test Mesothelioma can t be diagnosed with these blood tests alone, but high levels of these substances can make the diagnosis more likely. These tests are not routinely used in most doctors offices because of their limited value. Tests of fluid and tissue samples Symptoms and test results may strongly suggest that a person has mesothelioma, but the actual diagnosis is made by removing cells from an abnormal area and looking at them under a microscope. This is known as a biopsy. It can be done in different ways, depending on the situation.
12 Removing fluid for testing If there is a buildup of fluid in part of the body that might be due to mesothelioma, a sample of this fluid can be removed by inserting a thin, hollow needle through the skin and into the fluid. Numbing medicine is used on the skin before the needle is inserted. This may be done in a doctor s office or in the hospital. Sometimes ultrasound (or an echocardiogram) is used to guide the needle. These tests use sound waves to see inside the body. This procedure has different names depending on where the fluid is: Thoracentesis removes fluid from the chest. Paracentesis removes fluid from the abdomen. Pericardiocentesis removes fluid from the sac around the heart. The fluid is then tested for its chemical makeup and is looked at under a microscope to see if it contains cancer cells. If cancer cells are found, special tests might be done to see if the cancer is a mesothelioma, a lung cancer, or another type of cancer. Even if no cancer cells are found in the fluid, a person might still have cancer. In many cases, doctors need to get an actual sample of the mesothelium (the pleura, peritoneum, or pericardium) to determine if a person has mesothelioma. Needle biopsies Suspected tumors in the chest are sometimes sampled by needle biopsy. A long, hollow needle is passed through the skin in the chest between the ribs and into the pleura. Imaging tests such as CT scans are used to guide the needle into the tumor so that small samples can be removed to be looked at under the microscope. This is often done using just numbing medicine. Needle biopsy can also be used to get samples of the lymph nodes in the space between the lungs to see if the cancer has spread there (see Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsy ). Needle biopsies do not require a surgical incision or overnight hospital stay. But the downside is that sometimes the samples removed are not big enough to make an accurate diagnosis. This is especially true for mesothelioma. A more invasive biopsy method may be needed. There is a slight chance that the needle could put a small hole in the lung during the biopsy. This can cause air to build up in the space between the lung and the chest wall (known as a pneumothorax). A small pneumothorax might not cause any symptoms. It may only be seen on an x-ray done after the biopsy, and it will often go away on its own. But a larger pneumothorax can make part of a lung collapse and might need to be treated. The treatment is placement of a small tube (a catheter) through the skin and into the space
13 between the lungs. The tube is used to suck the air out in order to re-expand the lung and is left in place for a short time. Endoscopic biopsies Endoscopic biopsy is commonly used to diagnose mesothelioma. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument used to look inside the body. It has a light and a lens (or tiny video camera) on the end for viewing and often has a tool to remove tissue samples. Endoscopes have different names depending on the part of the body where they re used. Thoracoscopy: This procedure uses an endoscope called a thoracoscope to look at areas inside the chest. It can be used to look at the pleura and take tissue samples for biopsies. Thoracoscopy is done in the operating room while you are under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep). The doctor inserts the thoracoscope through one or more small cuts made in the chest wall to look at the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This lets the doctor see possible areas of cancer and remove small pieces of tissue to look at under the microscope. The doctor can also sample lymph nodes and fluid and see if a tumor is growing into nearby tissues or organs. Thoracoscopy can also be used as part of a procedure to keep fluid from building up in the chest. This is called pleurodesis and is discussed in the section Palliative procedures used for malignant mesothelioma. Laparoscopy: For this test, the doctor uses an endoscope called a laparoscope to look inside the abdomen and biopsy any peritoneal tumors. This is done in the operating room while you are under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep). The laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen through small cuts on the front of the abdomen. Mediastinoscopy: If imaging tests such as a CT scan suggest that the cancer might have spread to the lymph nodes between the lungs, the doctor may want to sample some of them to see if they really contain cancer. The area between the lungs is called the mediastinum, and looking at it with an endoscope is called mediastinoscopy. This is done in an operating room while you are under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep). A small cut is made in the front of the neck above the breastbone (sternum) and a thin, hollow, lighted tube (called a mediastinoscope) is inserted behind the sternum. Special instruments can be passed through this tube to take tissue samples from the lymph nodes along the windpipe and the major bronchial tube areas. Lung cancers often spread to lymph nodes, but mesotheliomas do this less often. Testing the lymph nodes can help show whether a cancer is still localized or if it has started to spread, which might affect treatment options. It can also sometimes help tell lung cancers from mesotheliomas. Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsy: For this test, a bronchoscope (a long, thin, flexible, fiber-optic tube) with an ultrasound device at its tip is passed down the throat and into the windpipe. The ultrasound lets the doctor see the nearby lymph nodes. A hollow needle is then passed down the bronchoscope and through the airway wall into the
14 nodes to take biopsy samples. This procedure may be done with either general anesthesia (where you are asleep), or with numbing medicine (local anesthesia) and light sedation. Open surgical biopsy Sometimes, endoscopic biopsies aren t enough to make a diagnosis, so more invasive procedures are needed. By making an incision in the chest (thoracotomy) or an incision in the abdomen (laparotomy) the surgeon can remove a larger sample of tumor or, sometimes, remove the entire tumor. Testing the samples in the lab No matter how they re obtained, all biopsy and fluid samples are sent to the pathology lab. There, a doctor will look at them under a microscope and test them to find out if they contain cancer cells (and if so, what type of cancer it is). It s often hard to diagnose mesothelioma by looking at cells from fluid samples. It can even be hard to diagnose mesothelioma with tissue from small needle biopsies. Under the microscope, mesothelioma can often look like other types of cancer. For example, pleural mesothelioma can resemble some types of lung cancer, and peritoneal mesothelioma in women may look like some cancers of the ovaries. For this reason, special lab tests are often done to help tell mesothelioma from some other cancers. To learn about some of the tests that might be done on tissue samples, see Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer. If mesothelioma is diagnosed, the doctor will also determine what type of mesothelioma it is, based on the patterns of cells seen in the microscope. Most mesotheliomas are classified as either epithelioid, sarcomatoid, or mixed/biphasic. Pulmonary function tests If mesothelioma has been diagnosed, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) may be done to see how well your lungs are working. This is especially important if surgery might be an option to treat the cancer. Surgery often requires removing part or all of a lung, so it s important to know how well the lungs are working to start with. These tests can give the surgeon an idea of whether surgery may be an option, and if so, how much lung can safely be removed safely. There are a few different types of PFTs, but they all basically have you breathe in and out through a tube connected to a machine that measures your lung function. How is malignant mesothelioma staged? The stage of a cancer is a standard way for doctors to sum up how far the cancer has spread. Your treatment and prognosis (outlook) depend, to a large extent, on the cancer s stage.
15 The stage of a mesothelioma is based on the results of physical exams, biopsies, and imaging tests (CT scan, PET scan, etc.), which are described in the section How is malignant mesothelioma diagnosed? Pleural mesothelioma, the most common type, is the only mesothelioma for which a formal staging system exists. The TNM staging system The system most often used to describe the growth and spread of pleural mesothelioma is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system. The TNM system is based on 3 key pieces of information: T sums up the extent of spread of the main (primary) tumor. N describes the spread of cancer to nearby (regional) lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped collections of immune system cells to which cancers often spread first. M indicates whether the cancer has spread (metastasized) to other organs of the body. (The most common sites are the pleura on the other side of the body, the lungs, and the peritoneum.) Numbers or letters appear after T, N, and M to provide more details about each of these factors. Higher numbers mean the cancer is more advanced. T groups TX: The main tumor can t be assessed for some reason. T0: There is no evidence of a main tumor (the cancer is found elsewhere instead). T1: Mesothelioma is in the pleura lining the chest wall on one side of the chest. It may or may not also affect the pleura lining the diaphragm (the thin breathing muscle below the lungs) or the mediastinum (the space between the lungs). It may also have spread to the pleura covering the lung. T2: Mesothelioma is in the pleura lining the chest wall on one side of the chest. It is also in the pleura coating the diaphragm, the mediastinum, and the lung. It also has grown into at least one of the following: The diaphragm The lung itself T3: The mesothelioma has grown further but may still possibly be removed with surgery. The tumor is in the pleura lining the chest wall on one side of the chest, as well as the pleura coating the lung, the diaphragm, and the mediastinum. It also has grown into at least one of the following:
16 The first layer of the chest wall (called the endothoracic fascia) The fatty tissue in the mediastinum A single place in the deeper layers of the chest wall The surface of the pericardium (outer covering layer of the heart) T4: The mesothelioma has grown too far to be removed completely with surgery. The tumor has grown into the pleura lining the chest wall on one side of the chest, as well as the pleura coating the lung, diaphragm, and mediastinum on the same side. It also has grown into at least one of the following: More than one place in the deeper layers of the chest wall, including the muscle or ribs Through the diaphragm and into the peritoneum Any organ in the mediastinum (esophagus, trachea, thymus, blood vessels) The spine Across to the pleura on the other side of the chest Through the heart lining (pericardium) or into the heart itself N groups NX: The nearby lymph nodes can t be assessed.
17 N0: No spread to nearby lymph nodes. N1: Spread to lymph nodes within the lung and/or around the area where the bronchus enters the lung (called hilar or bronchial lymph nodes) on the same side as the main tumor. N2: Spread to other lymph nodes on the same side as the main tumor, such as the subcarinal (around the point where the windpipe branches into the left and right bronchi) and the mediastinal lymph nodes. Also includes spread to the lymph nodes in the space just behind the breastbone (called internal mammary lymph nodes) and those near the diaphragm (called peridiaphragmatic). N3: Spread to lymph nodes near the collarbone on either side (supraclavicular lymph nodes), and/or spread to hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes on the side opposite the main tumor. M groups M0: No spread to distant organs or areas. M1: The cancer has spread to distant sites. This can be to distant lymph nodes or to other organs. Stage grouping for pleural mesothelioma Once the T, N, and M categories have been assigned, this information is combined in a process called stage grouping to assign an overall stage of I, II, III, or IV. Patients with lower stage numbers tend to have a better prognosis. Stage I T1, N0, M0: Mesothelioma has grown into the pleura lining the chest wall on one side of the chest. It might or might not also affect the pleura lining the diaphragm (the breathing muscle) or the mediastinum (the space between the lungs). It may also have spread to the pleura covering the lung (T1). It has not spread to the lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0). Stage II T2, N0, M0: Mesothelioma has grown into the pleura lining the chest wall on one side of the chest. It also is in the pleura coating the diaphragm, the mediastinum, and the lung. The cancer has also grown into the diaphragm or the lung itself (T2). It has not spread to the lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0). Stage III Either of the following: T1 or T2, N1 or N2, M0: Mesothelioma has grown into the pleura lining the chest on one side, and might or might not have grown into the pleura lining the lung, the
18 diaphragm, or the mediastinum. It might also have grown into the muscle of the diaphragm or the lung itself (T1 or T2). It has spread to lymph nodes in the chest on the same side as the main tumor (N1 or N2). It has not spread to distant sites (M0). OR T3, N0 to N2, M0: Mesothelioma is in the pleura lining the chest on one side, and has grown into the first layer of the chest wall, the fatty tissue in the mediastinum, a single place in the deeper layers of the chest wall, or the outer covering layer of the heart (T3). It might or might not have spread to lymph nodes in the chest on the same side as the tumor, but it has not spread to lymph nodes near the collarbone or on the opposite side of the chest (N0, N1, or N2). It has not spread to distant sites (M0). Stage IV Any of the following: T4, any N, M0: Mesothelioma has grown into the pleura lining the chest on one side and has grown into more than one place in the deeper layers of the chest wall (including the muscle or ribs), through the diaphragm and into the peritoneum, into any organ in the mediastinum, into the spine, across to the pleura on the other side of the chest, and/or through the heart lining or into the heart itself (T4). It might or might not have spread to lymph nodes (any N). It has not spread to distant sites (M0). OR Any T, N3, M0: The tumor may or may not have grown into nearby tissues (any T). It has spread to lymph nodes near the collarbone on either side and/or to hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes on the side opposite the main tumor (N3). It has not spread to distant sites (M0). OR Any T, any N, M1: The mesothelioma might or might not have grown into nearby tissues (any T). It might or might not have spread to the lymph nodes (any N). It has spread to distant sites (M1). Resectable versus unresectable cancer The TNM system divides mesotheliomas into several stages that help give doctors an idea about a person s prognosis (outlook). But for treatment purposes, doctors often use a simpler system based on whether the cancer is likely to be resectable (where all visible tumor can be removed by surgery) or unresectable. In general terms, most stage I, II, and III mesotheliomas are potentially resectable, but there are exceptions. Whether or not the cancer can be removed depends not only on how far the tumor has grown, but also on its subtype (most doctors believe only epithelioid and mixed/biphasic tumors are potentially resectable), where it is located, and if the patient is healthy enough to have surgery.
19 Even for resectable mesotheliomas, in most cases cancer cells that can t be seen are left behind after surgery. For this reason, many doctors use other forms of treatment (radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy) along with surgery when possible. Other prognostic factors Stage is an important factor in predicting a person s prognosis (outlook), but other factors also play a role. Some factors linked to longer survival times include: Good performance status (being able to carry out normal tasks of daily life) Younger age Female gender Epithelioid subtype Not having chest pain No significant weight loss Normal levels of a substance in the blood called LDH Normal red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, and blood platelet counts Survival statistics for mesothelioma Survival rates are often used by doctors as a standard way of discussing a person s prognosis (outlook). Some people want to know the survival statistics for people in similar situations, while others may not find the numbers helpful, or might not even want to know them. If you don t want to read about the survival statistics for mesothelioma, stop reading here. To get survival rates, doctors have to look at people who were treated at least several years ago. Although the numbers below are among the most current we have available, improvements in treatment since then could result in a better outcome for people now being diagnosed with mesothelioma. Survival rates are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had the disease, but they can t predict what will happen in any person s case. Knowing the type and the stage of a cancer is important in estimating outcome. But many other factors can affect survival, such as a person s age and overall health, the treatment received, and how well the cancer responds to treatment. Even taking these other factors into account, survival rates are at best rough estimates. Your doctor can tell you if the numbers below apply, as he or she is familiar with your situation. Mesothelioma is a serious disease. By the time the symptoms appear and cancer is diagnosed, the disease is often advanced. Regardless of the extent of the cancer, mesothelioma can be very hard to treat.
20 5-year survival rate When discussing cancer survival statistics, doctors often use a number called the 5-year survival rate. The 5-year survival rate is the percentage of people who live at least 5 years after their cancer is diagnosed. Of course, some people live longer than 5 years. Relative 5-year survival takes the proportion of people with cancer that have survived 5 years and compares it to the survival expected in a similar group of people without the cancer. This helps adjust for deaths from causes other than the cancer. Based on data from the National Cancer Institute s SEER program, the relative 5-year survival rate for mesothelioma is between 5% and 10%. People diagnosed at a younger age tend to survive longer. Median survival times The numbers in the table below are from a large international study that looked at the median survival time of patients with pleural mesothelioma who were treated with surgery between 1995 and Median survival is the length of time it took for half the people in a certain group (like those with a certain type and stage of cancer) to die. It is kind of like an average half the patients in the group live longer than that and half the patients don t. Stage I II III IV Median Survival 21 months 19 months 16 months 12 months As a general rule, survival times are likely to be longer for people with mesotheliomas that can be operated on than for those with cancers that have spread too far to be removed. Other prognostic factors, such as those listed in the section How is malignant mesothelioma staged? can also affect survival. How is malignant mesothelioma treated? Making treatment decisions After the cancer is found and staged, your cancer care team will discuss your treatment options with you. The main factors in selecting treatment for mesotheliomas are the
21 location and extent of the tumor, whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other organs, and your health and personal preferences. Based on these factors, your treatment options may include: Surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy More than one of these treatments may be used in many cases. To learn about the most common approaches to treating mesothelioma, see Treatment of mesothelioma based on the extent of the cancer. Mesothelioma can be hard to treat because it typically does not grow as a single tumor mass. It tends to spread along nearby surfaces, nerves, and blood vessels. This often makes it very hard to get rid of the cancer completely with surgery and/or radiation. For some people, palliative procedures might be used to help treat some symptoms of mesothelioma. Because mesothelioma is a rare cancer, it has been hard for doctors to compare the value of different treatments. Only a few large clinical trials of treatments for mesothelioma have been done. In addition, many doctors have very little experience treating this disease. They usually refer patients to specialists who treat large numbers of mesothelioma patients at major medical centers. You might have different types of doctors on your treatment team, depending on the stage of your cancer and your treatment options. These doctors may include: A thoracic surgeon: a doctor who treats diseases of the lungs and chest with surgery A surgical oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with surgery A radiation oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with radiation therapy. A medical oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy A pulmonologist: a doctor who specializes in medical treatment of diseases of the lungs Many other specialists might be part of your treatment team as well, including other doctors, physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), nurses, respiratory therapists, social workers, and other health professionals. See Health Professionals Associated With Cancer Care for more on this. Before deciding on a treatment plan, it s very important to have an idea of its likely benefits and possible risks. You will probably have many questions about the treatment options suggested. You can also find some other questions to ask in the section What should you ask your doctor about malignant mesothelioma?
22 Mesotheliomas are rare, so if time allows it s often a good idea to get a second opinion from a doctor who has a lot of experience in treating people with these cancers. A second opinion can give you more information and help you feel more confident about the treatment plan you choose. Thinking about taking part in a clinical trial Clinical trials are carefully controlled research studies that are done to get a closer look at promising new treatments or procedures. Clinical trials are one way to get state-of-the art cancer treatment. In some cases, they may be the only way to get access to newer treatments. They are also the best way for doctors to learn better methods to treat cancer. Still, they are not right for everyone. If you would like to learn more about clinical trials that might be right for you, start by asking your doctor if your clinic or hospital conducts clinical trials. You can also call our clinical trials matching service at for a list of studies that meet your medical needs, or see the Clinical Trials section on our website to learn more. Considering complementary and alternative methods You may hear about alternative or complementary methods that your doctor hasn t mentioned to treat your cancer or relieve symptoms. These methods can include vitamins, herbs, and special diets, or other methods such as acupuncture or massage, to name a few. Complementary methods refer to treatments that are used along with your regular medical care. Alternative treatments are used instead of a doctor s medical treatment. Although some of these methods might be helpful in relieving symptoms or helping you feel better, many have not been proven to work. Some might even be dangerous. Be sure to talk to your cancer care team about any method you are thinking about using. They can help you learn what is known (or not known) about the method, which can help you make an informed decision. See the Complementary and Alternative Medicine section of our website to learn more. Help getting through cancer treatment Your cancer care team will be your first source of information and support, but there are other resources for help when you need it. Hospital- or clinic-based support services are an important part of your care. These might include nursing or social work services, financial aid, nutritional advice, rehab, or spiritual help. The American Cancer Society also has programs and services including rides to treatment, lodging, support groups, and more to help you get through treatment. Call our National Cancer Information Center at and speak with one of our trained specialists on call 24 hours a day, every day. The treatment information given here is not official policy of the American Cancer Society and is not intended as medical advice to replace the expertise and judgment of your cancer care team. It is intended
23 to help you and your family make informed decisions, together with your doctor. Your doctor may have reasons for suggesting a treatment plan different from these general treatment options. Don't hesitate to ask him or her questions about your treatment options. Surgery for malignant mesothelioma Surgery for mesothelioma may be done for 2 reasons: To try to cure the cancer (potentially curative surgery) To relieve pain and other symptoms caused by the tumor (palliative surgery) Potentially curative surgery may be an option if you are in otherwise good health and the cancer has not spread too far to be removed completely. Unfortunately, even when the surgeon can remove all of the cancer that can be seen, some cancer cells are often left behind. These cells can grow and divide, causing the cancer to come back after surgery. Because of this, not all doctors agree on the exact role of surgery. In most cases it s not likely to cure you, but it may help you live longer. Still, potentially curative surgery is being done in some major cancer centers, and a small number of people who have had the surgery have had long remissions of their disease. Palliative surgery may be an option if the tumor has already spread beyond where it started and would be hard to remove completely, or if you are too ill for a more extensive operation. The goal of this surgery is to relieve or prevent symptoms, as opposed to trying to cure the cancer. Surgery for pleural mesothelioma Surgery for pleural mesothelioma can be done either to help prevent or relieve symptoms or to try to remove all of the cancer. Unfortunately, these tumors often have spread too far to be removed completely. Sometimes, the surgeon might not be able to tell the full extent of the cancer and therefore which type of surgery might be best until the operation has started. Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP): This is an extensive operation, but it may offer the best chance to remove all of the cancer for many patients. It s most often used when the surgeon thinks a cure is possible typically in patients with resectable epithelioid mesothelioma that has not spread to the lymph nodes. In this operation, the surgeon removes the lung on the side of the cancer along with the pleura lining the chest wall on that side, the diaphragm on that side, the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and nearby lymph nodes. The diaphragm and the pericardium are then reconstructed with man-made materials. This is a difficult operation that is done only by experienced surgeons in large medical centers. You must be in good overall health with good lung function and no other serious illnesses to withstand this surgery. Several tests must be done beforehand to be sure you re healthy enough for this surgery. Major complications can occur in as many as 1 in 3 people who have this operation.
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Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone
Salivary Gland Disorders Introduction Located in your mouth and throat, the salivary glands make saliva. Saliva is the watery fluid in the mouth. There are many problems that can affect the salivary glands.
Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Introduction Breast cancer is a common condition that affects millions of women every year. It usually shows up as a lump that can be felt and/or seen on