BIOLOGY COMPARATIVE VERT. ANATOMY WEEK 9, Abdominal Circulation (Cats) & Urinary Systems of Mammals

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1 BIOLOGY COMPARATIVE VERT. ANATOMY WEEK 9, Abdominal Circulation (Cats) & Urinary Systems of Mammals Assignments Readings Kardong & Zalisko Chapter 8: , & Chapter 9: 179, Presentation Use my notes as a guide for what you should see & examine, but you must use the lab manual or text for explanatory Assignment information & supplementary images. You will be expected to know the terms used in my laboratory notes; use my notes as the guide for what to learn in Kardong & Zalisko. Each team will present their dissection of the abdominal circulation & urinary system to another team. Work Some teams will dissect their cat as described below. Share the work amongst your team so you can take time to read & do your coloring too. Compare your cat with the other specimens. Color & Quiz Test yourself & color code the blood vessels in the unlabeled images in the Student Art: Fig. 8.17, 8.18 Learning Goals 1. Review the phylogeny in Lab Notes 14 & know the shared derived traits for the cardiovascular system of the amniotes. 2. Know the pathway of blood through the heart of a cat or sheep, including the arteries & veins that exit & enter the heart. 3. Identify the systemic arteries, systemic veins, visceral arteries & hepatic portal veins in cats as listed. 4. Know 1 organ that each artery delivers blood to & 1 organ that each vein receives blood from. 5. Be able to trace the flow of blood from any starting point to another part of the path. This is a common lab practical question, where you are given 2 marked positions & then are asked to trace the pathway of blood between the points. 6. What does it mean when we say the kidney is retroperitoneal? 7. Know 1 function & identify these urinary system structures in a cat: metanephros kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, & urethra. 8. Know these regions of the pig kidney: renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pyramid, renal calyx, renal papilla & renal pelvis. Specimens Type of material Fluid-preserved, whole animal Fluid-preserved, organs, misc. Specimens to Examine Cat Pig: kidney Additional Sources of Information CAT CARDIOVASCULAR Derting T Circulatory System: Felis domesticus. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Atlas. Murray State Univ. Fankhauser, D.B Dissection of cat to show circulatory features. Anat. & Physiol. Univ. of Cincinnati Clermont College. Heithaus, P Internal Organs. Cat Anatomy Tutorial. Kenyon College. Strauss JA Circulatory System. Biol. 29 (great series of photos!!) Penn. State Univ. Univ. of Minnesota Carnivore Diss.: Lab 18 Abdominal vessels & pelvic diaphragm & nerves. CVM 6903 Vet. Gross Anat. MAMMAL URINARY Fankhauser DB Urinary tract anatomy. Anat. & Physiol. University of Cincinnati Clermont College. University of Wisconsin A/P Lab A Website for Human Anatomy & Physiology. Urogenital System of a Male Cat. Urogenital System of a Female Cat. Valdosta Univer Photographs of Urinary System. Biol Lab. Human Anat. & Phyiol. II. Washington State University Urogenital System of the Cat. Pet Health Topics, College of Veterinary Medicine.

2 Cat Abdominal Systemic Pathways of Arterial Blood Flow: Dorsal aorta Celiac artery Hepatic artery liver Dorsal aorta Celiac artery Splenic (Lienic) artery spleen Dorsal aorta Celiac artery Left gastric artery stomach Dorsal aorta Superior (Cranial) Mesenteric Artery Posterior Pancreaticoduodenal artery duodenum & pancreas Dorsal aorta Superior (Cranial) Mesenteric Artery Intestinal arteries small intestines Dorsal aorta R & L Renal arteries kidney Dorsal aorta Inferior Mesenteric artery colon & rectum Dorsal aorta R & L Iliolumbar (Deep Ilial Circumflex) A. Lateral abdominal wall muscles Dorsal aorta R & L External Iliac Arteries pelvis & pelvic limbs Major Vessel Dorsal Aorta Celiac Artery branches into Superior (Anterior/Cranial) Mesenteric Artery branches into R & L Renal Arteries Inferior (Posterior) Mesenteric Artery R & L Iliolumbar (Deep Ilial Circumflex) A. R & L External Iliac Arteries Blood Destination Oxygenated blood to all part of the body Hepatic artery - liver Splenic (Lienic) artery - spleen Left Gastric artery - stomach Posterior Pancreaticoduodenal A.; duodenum & pancreas Intestinal A.; small intestines in intestinal mesenteries Kidneys Colon & rectum Lateral abdominal wall muscles Pelvis & pelvic limbs Cat Abdominal Systemic Pathways of Venous Blood Flow: Liver -> Hepatic veins Inferior (Posterior) Vena Cava (Postcava) Right Atrium Kidney -> Renal veins Inferior (Posterior) Vena Cava (Postcava) Right Atrium Abdominal wall muscles R & L Iliolumbar (Deep Ilial Circumflex) Veins Inferior (Posterior) Vena Cava (Postcava) Right Atrium Pelvis & pelvic limbs R & L Common Iliac Veins Inferior (Posterior) Vena Cava (Postcava) Right Atrium Major Vessel Inferior (Posterior) Vena Cava (= Postcava) Hepatic Veins R & L Renal Veins R & L Iliolumbar (Deep Ilial Circumflex) Veins R & L Common Iliac Veins Receives Blood From Hepatic veins R & L Renal Veins R & L Iliolumbar (Deep Ilial Circumflex) Veins R & L Common Iliac Veins Inside liver Kidneys Muscles of the lateral abdominal wall Pelvis & pelvic limbs Cat - Hepatic Portal Circulation The hepatic portal circulation will have yellow latex & may look "greenish". The hepatic portal vessels travel in the mesenteries of the digestive system and these mesenteries can be filled with fat, so look carefully & clean off some of the fat to find these vessels. Cut deeply into one lobe of the liver, near the diaphragm, to expose hepatic veins leading into the inferior/posterior vena cava. The hepatic veins should be blue & the hepatic portal branches in the liver will still be yellow. Cat Hepatic Portal System Pathways of Blood Flow: Colon & rectum Inferior Mesenteric vein Superior Mesenteric vein Hepatic Portal vein liver capill. Hepatic vein Duodenum & ventral pancreas Post. Pancreaticoduodenal v. Sup. Mesenteric v. Hepatic Portal v. liver capill. Hepatic vein Small intestines Intestinal veins Superior (Anterior) Mesenteric vein Hepatic Portal vein liver capill. Hepatic vein Dorsal pancreas, stomach, spleen Gastrosplenic vein Sup. (Ant.) Mesenteric vein Hepatic Portal vein liver capill. Hepatic v. Major Vessel Hepatic Portal Vein Gastrosplenic Vein Superior (Anterior) Mesenteric Vein Receives Blood From Superior (Anterior) Mesenteric Vein Pancreas, stomach, spleen Inferior (Posterior) Mesenteric Vein - colon & rectum Posterior Pancreaticoduodenal Vein - duodenum & pancreas Intestinal Veins - small intestines

3 MAMMALIAN (CAT) MAJOR ARTERIES

4 MAMMALIAN (CAT) MAJOR VEINS (EXLCUDES HEPATIC PORTAL)

5 Cat Hepatic Portal Circulation Posterior/Inferior Vena Cava Hepatic Veins Liver Sinusoids Hepatic Artery Hepatic Portal Vein Superior/Anterior Mesenteric V. Gastrosplenic V. Post. Pancreaticoduodenal V. Inferior/Post. Mesenteric V. Intestinal V. Intestinal V. Mammal Spleen It is is an accessory cardiovascular & lymphatic organ with 2 types of tissues, red & white pulp. It is a fragile organ that often ruptures during severe physical trauma or as a result of swelling caused by some infections. Red pulp refers to the blood sinuses that fill most of the organ. It produces red blood cells during fetal development and filters out old red blood cells. White pulp refers to lymphatic nodules that are scattered throughout the red pulp. These regions are concentrations of lymphocytes & other white blood cells. It also produces & releases white blood cells during infections. Identify the spleen in the cat & rabbit. Dissection Advice: The greatest difficulty with finding abdominal blood vessels in the cats may be the abundance of body fat that must be removed to reveal the vessels beneath. Fat deposits may occur along the dorsal body wall, especially around the kidneys. Look at the urogenital illustrations in your lab manual so you can identify & NOT destroy your ureters, vas deferens, uterus, urinary bladder or other urogenital organs when you are looking for the series of abdominal vessels. When you look for the paired systemic arteries and veins in this region, clean the fat from just 1 side to save time.

6 Splenic A. Heavy black arrows indicate direction of the head Gastric A. Celiac Artery Renal vein & artery Hepatic A. in forceps Stomach Posterior Mesenteric Vein & Artery Iliolumbar A. & V., External Iliac A. & Common Iliac v. (deep) Vena cava (paired) Large intestine Superior (anterior) Mesenteric artery & intestinal a. & v. Posterior Pancreaticoduodenal a. & v. Duodenum Anterior (Sup.) mesenteric v.

7 Intestinal arteries & veins Celiac artery, Gastrosplenic vein, Anterior Mesenteric a & v. Vena cava Hepatic Artery, Bile duct & Hepatic Portal vein Hepatic Portal vein (yellow) & Hepatic vein (blue) Liver lifted up Liver opened to find veins Kidney & Urinary Ducts Kidneys develop from mesomere mesoderm that lies below the segmental or epimere mesoderm and above the lateral plate or hypomere mesoderm. Thus, kidney tissue is posterior to or dorsal to the coelomic membranes (i.e. kidneys are retroperitoneal). The most primitive type of kidney runs above the entire coelomic cavity and is called holonephros [hol = whole, nephros = kidney] or archinephros [archi = first]. Hagfishes have a kidney that is close to this original design. The archinephric duct forms as an outgrowth from the most anterior segment(s) of the developing kidney. This duct is assumed to have drained the original holonephros kidney. This duct can have a variety of different names, depending on the type of kidney & whether the duct is used for gamete transport: archinephric = holonephric = pronephric = opisthonephric = mesonephric = Wolffian. Most fishes and amphibians have an opisthonephros [opistho = behind] kidney. Some of the most anterior (cranial) kidney segments are lost. The more posterior portions of the kidney tissue branch into more nephrons and thus lose their original segmentation. In male sharks, one or more accessory urinary ducts have developed to drain urine from the caudal region of the kidney. This duct will probably be too small to be visible in our sharks, although within the cloaca you can find the urogenital papilla. The cloaca encloses the urinary papilla, plus the genital & digestive tract exit points. Adult amniotes develop a metanephros [meta= beyond, after] kidney. This kidney develops only in the most posterior or caudal segments of mesomere, but has complex branching to increase the total number of nephrons. The amniote metanephric kidney develops a new duct to drain all of the urine from the metanephric kidney, called the ureter [ureo = urine] or metanephric duct. This duct forms as a budding or outgrowth from the archinephric duct in a manner similar to the accessory urinary ducts. Mammals have the capacity to store urine in the urinary bladder. Urine then exits the bladder via the urethra.

8 Cat: Find the metanephros kidney, ureter (metanephric duct), urinary bladder & urethra. Ureter & Kidney Urinary Bladder & Urethra Cat & Pig Kidney Internal Anatomy: Bisect the kidney of your cat and the look at the bisected pig kidneys. Identify the structures in the table below. Most of the pig kidneys are triple injected; but quite often the injection pattern is inaccurate. Red latex should fill the renal artery & its branches. Blue latex should fill the veins. Yellow latex should fill the pelvis region & its calyces. Latex from the pelvis injection may begin to enter the renal papillae, coloring part of the medulla region of the kidney. Renal cortex [= shell] Renal medulla [= pith] Undivided outer rim of tissue contains renal corpuscles & renal tubules. Divided into renal pyramids. Each pyramid contains loops of Henle & collecting ducts. Each pyramid ends in a pointed renal papilla [papill = nipple], the exit for urine Renal pelvis [pelv = basin] Cavity in kidney that funnels urine into ureter. Small space in a cat, larger in pig kidney. Branches called calyces (calyx) drains urine from each renal pyramid & empty into renal pelvis. Ureter Muscular tube that exits renal pelvis & carries urine to the bladder Cat Kidney Sectioned: Label the renal cortex & renal pyramids Normal Double : Right & Left Kidneys failed to split in development Pig Kidneys, Sectioned: Label the renal cortex, renal pyramids, calyces & ureter The specimen on the left has a large cyst (cause unknown). (These section are from 2 different kidneys)

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