# Design & Analysis of Ecological Data. Landscape of Statistical Methods...

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1 Design & Analysis of Ecological Data Landscape of Statistical Methods: Part 3 Topics: 1. Multivariate statistics 2. Finding groups - cluster analysis 3. Testing/describing group differences 4. Unconstratined ordination 5. Constrained ordination The Landscape The basic statistical model: Y = deterministic part + stochastic part P Univariate P Multivariate P Linear P Nonlinear P Smoothed P Distribution P Heterogeneity P Autocorrelation P Multiple levels P Random noise

2 Mulivariate statistics Why do we need multivariate statistics? P Reflect more accurately the true multidimensional nature of natural systems P Provide a way to handle large data sets with large numbers of variables P Provide a way of summarizing redundancy in large data sets P Provide rules for combining variables in an "optimal" way Mulivariate statistics Why do we need multivariate statistics? P Provide a means of detecting and quantifying truly multivariate patterns that arise out of the correlational structure of the variable set P Provide a means of exploring complex data sets for patterns and relationships from which hypotheses can be generated and subsequently tested experimentally

3 What is mulivariate statistics? y = x1 + x xj y1 + y yi = x y1 + y yi = x1 + x xj y1 + y yi Multivariate Statistics Regression Analysis of Variance Contingency Tables, etc. Multivariate ANOVA Discriminant Analysis CART,MRPP,MANTEL Canonical Corr. Analysis Constrained ordination Unconstrained ordination Cluster Analysis Mulivariate methods P Finding groups (Cluster analysis) P Testing for groups (e.g., MRPP, MANTEL) P Discriminating among groups (e.g., DA, ISA, mcart) P Unconstrained ordination (e.g., PCA, CA, NMDS) P Constrained ordination (e.g., RDA, CCA, CAPS) Large family of techniques with similar goals; operating on data sets for which pre-specified, well-defined groups do "not" exist; characteristics of the data are used to assign entities into artificial groups

4 Finding groups cluster analysis PCan we organize sampling entities (e.g., sites) into discrete classes, such that within-group similarity is maximized and among-group similarity is minimized? Sites A Species B C D Finding groups cluster analysis Nonhierarchical clustering: P NHC methods merely assign each entity to a cluster, placing similar entities together in order to maximize within-cluster homogeneity K-means clustering + Group Centroids? + Seeds?

5 Finding groups cluster analysis Hierarchical clustering: P HC methods combine similar entities into classes or groups and arrange these groups into a hierarchy that reveals relationships among the entities classified Mulivariate methods P Finding groups (Cluster analysis) P Testing for groups (e.g., MRPP, MANTEL) P Discriminating among groups (e.g., DA, ISA, mcart) P Unconstrained ordination (e.g., PCA, CA, NMDS) P Constrained ordination (e.g., RDA, CCA, CAPS) Family of different methods for testing and/or describing differences among prespecified, well-defined groups based on a set of discriminating variables

6 Discriminating among groups Id Species Ccov Snags CHgt 1 A A A B B B C C C P Are pre-defined groups of entities (e.g,. species) significantly different from each other and, if so, how do they differ? Testing for group differences P Are groups significantly different? (How valid are the groups?) < Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) < Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) < Analysis of Group Similarities (ANOSIM) < Mantel s Test (MANTEL) P How do groups differ? (Which variables best distinguish among the groups?) < Discriminant Analysis (DA) < Classification and Regression Trees (CART) < Logistic Regression (LR) < Indicator Species Analysis (ISA)

7 Mulivariate methods P Finding groups (Cluster analysis) P Testing for groups (e.g., MRPP, MANTEL) P Discriminating among groups (e.g., DA, ISA, mcart) P Unconstrained ordination (e.g., PCA, CA, NMDS) P Constrained ordination (e.g., RDA, CCA, CAPS) A family of different methods for organizing sampling entities (e.g., species, sites, observations, etc.) along continuous gradients based on a set of interdependent variables Unconstrained ordination PCan we organize entities (e.g., sites) along one or more gradients based on their relationships among the interdependent variables?

8 Unconstrained ordination Canopy Snag Canopy Obs Cover Density Height X N Centroid PC1 X 1 PC1 =.8x 1 -.4x 2 +.1x 3 PC2 = -.1x 1 -.1x 2 +.9x 3 X 2 PC2 Unconstrained ordination 2d ordi bubble plot 3d ordi scatter plot

9 Unconstrained ordination Ordi trajectories Ordi overlays Unconstrained ordination Linear Quadratic Smooth Nonlinear P Principal components analysis (PCA) P Factor analysis (FA) P Multidimensional scaling (MDS/PCO) P ML-Unconstrained linear ordination (ULO) P Correspondence analysis (CA & DCA) P ML-Unconstrained quadratic ordination (UQO) P ML-Unconstrained additive ordination (UAO) P Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS)

10 Mulivariate methods P Finding groups (Cluster analysis) P Testing for groups (e.g., MRPP, MANTEL) P Discriminating among groups (e.g., DA, ISA, mcart) P Unconstrained ordination (e.g., PCA, CA, NMDS) P Constrained ordination (e.g., RDA, CCA, CAPS) A family of different methods for extending unconstrained ordination in which the solution is constrained to be expressed by ancillary variables Constrained ordination Species Sites A B C D E Tree cover Snag density Shrub cover P Can bird community patterns be explained by measured environmental variables?

11 Constrained ordination P The triplot displays the major patterns in the species data with respect to the environmental variables Tri =(1) Samples (2) Species (3) Environment Constrained ordination 2d ordi bubble plot Ordi overlays

12 Constrained ordination Variance partioning Space Structure Patch Stand Patch Plot Floristics Abiotic Landscape Misc. Landscape Composition Landscape stand configuration Landscape patch configuration Constrained ordination P Constrained analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) P Redundancy analysis (RDA) Species abundance P Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) Environmental gradient

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