Mi chaet BUrrow. A. the,sis. submitted in partial. fuiftllment. o:. t.h.&. requir.ement.s.fbr the: de:gr.e:e, o.f"" Ba.chel.or o:r Ar.chitee.

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1 AN APARTMENT COHPIEX Mi chaet BUrrow A. the,sis submitted in partial. fuiftllment. o:. t.h.&. requir.ement.s.fbr the: de:gr.e:e, o.f"" Ba.chel.or o:r Ar.chitee.ture-, in the: Department o:r Anchi:te:d.t:ur.e and Allied Art s of' T~xa:- s TechnO'lo g:t~al Calle;g~ 1966.

2 TElESIS My thes~s i.s> ta bilil.d an apartment c-omplex t!ia:.t wiljl. se1t a hig~elt design standard for. multira.mny housing in Lubbo: ck,, and wi'll help to stimulate the r:e-de:vel.opment.. o~ ' dcnmtow: Lubbo-ck. Texas Tecch May, 1966

3 CONTENTS MULTI-FAHILY HOUSING ECONOMIC GONSIIJE.RATIONS OWNERSHIP' RESIDENT$ DK:SIGN STANDARDS tinyt DESIGN AUXILIARY BUILDING: REQUIRE}lENTS SI.TE' PLANNING. HANAGEI ll!:nt CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY DRAWINGS

4 AN APART}iENT COMPIEX FOR_ LUBBOCK, TEXAS

5 J.IDLTI-FAHILY HOUSING When Amer:Lca was young there was plenty or land and the : population was small. A tight urban pattern vlith high density housing was not ne ce,ssar.y, as i.t v1as in Euro:p:e :, where: many people had to live on a smaljl amount of' land. Housing in thi.s country was genefally single-family houses on separate plo.ts. Then, with the coming of the Industrial Revolution, many people were ne.eded close to manufacturing. F'ac.t.or.y workers 1 wage.s. were very lovt, and they had little money to spend far housing. In some instances, housing for factory worke'r s belonged to the factory o-vme rs, and the:se we re built with as little funds and imagination as p.oss±ble. Te-nement housing resulte:d. Although some high density housing built at this tine was good,. mast dete riorated into. slums.. Then c.ame the automobile. It gave people mobility and they began to. move int.o single-family dvrellings,. and tj:t...r.ough the ye--ar.s the "suburban sprawl" has resulted.. Families left the- cities in

6 search of sunlight, f:tesh air, better school and civic faeilitie:s and re,lie.r from urban noise: and traffic., T:b..i s has been e spe c±al].y true of' ' the years since the second World War, par:tieula:aly in vievl or- the enormous incr_ease ih population. All. of' the problems the, suburbs sought to solve could have: been srrlved in urban housing, but were not at the time the exodus to the suburbs was: i:n full swi ng. BUt in the suburbs there is wide:-spread,. dreary samene-ss. Nany areas are 11 developemnt" houses, in vrhich large trac_ts of' land ar.e~: develope d vrith identical or. nearly identical house:s marching acr.o:ss the space s: like an ar.ll1y. Confusion of spaces s ti:ll prevails as it did vii thin the city. ~.There tenement housing pre:serves 1.mity ±n undesirable ways, subur.ban sprawl dest1~oys it and it becomes amorphous.. The subdivision often fails to gi've sufficient consideration to the relati.onship. of streets, yards, and houses. Play are as are- interrupte d by dr.ivevray s and picture windows look out onto traffic-l'aden streets.. The ve-ry conditions people were e s capi'ng crept up on them again. Ftlr.ther, land costs have risen so much because of the low de nsity, that many people can no longer buy the houses. ":Students of regional planning are agreed that the post-war phenomenon knmm as 'the flight to: the

7 3 suburbs is los±ng i ts momentum, and its end is in the fore-,seeable:- fttture The new proble-ms fac.e.d by many familie-s who left the- city a:re serving to r.e duce the enthusi asm of tho se who have nttt yet moved. The pr oblem is how the exploding population is to be ho:use d, and t he logical answer. seems to be controlled multi."ple, housing. This "controlled multiple- hous ingn can be low-rise apartments and tovmhouses 1.vi th two: to four times suburban de nsity, high density high-r.ise. apar.t~ents, : or a combina- tion or the twm.. The successful urban project is largely dependent. upon the ax.chite,ct' s skillfulness and ingenuity to correct the : faults of suburban sprawl and cr.e:ate a well-ordere:d environment that uses less land. A l ook at crowde d New Yo11k City and at sprawling Los Angelos points up the difference in the-: philosop.by of housing between the eastern and weste.r.n part.s or our country. The availability or land is the basic factor. in the greater pride in "home ownershipn in the western regions. Lubbock has gr.o-vm up unde r the influence of the latter philosophy and mor.e and more: valuable farm land has been 1 11 :Apar tments House's: Their New Sigiilificance:,n Progre,ssive Ar.chitec tur.e-, XXXVIII (April, 1957), 1 0'7.

8 take:n over by the rapidly growing city.. Until about five: years ago, there were not many apartments in Lubbock, o.r in the Lubbock area. The present density in Lubbock is about four families per acre. In _ s:ome. areas, concentrations oi' apartment houses have raised the density somewhat, but it is yet extremely low for an urban area. Nore and more people have realized the advantages of apartment living, which has caused an apartment "boom 11 in Lubbock. Lubbock fs a tryoung" apartment city. "The average of apartment dwellers is currently fr.om twenty-five to thirty-five years o ld, but the average is rising slowly each year as the people get older and continue to live in apartments. 112 Hith the addition each year of nev1, younger residents and the incre_asing number of college students, j:;jie 11 apartment population" is growing.. Thus,, the density of the city is growing, especially in the area beti leen the central business district and Texas Tech. This area is about one mile square, and many apartment projects are now being built within it. Present zonine; la1,.rs concerning density in Lubbock need to be changed because the minimum area uer family in multi-family d'l.vellings is 2,000 square feet. 2 Information in an inte11view by the author 'l. li th Nrs. P eggy Noney, Nanager, Le Chateau Apartments, Lubbock, Texas, November 29, 1965.

9 5 Thi.s is a density of' only seven famil±e s pe r. acre,: about half' the minimum needed in an ur.ban area...ano.ther problem Lubbock now faces is the quality of the: multi-family projects now bering built. The:y tm~ being built. by pe:opleo who.se ~ only copce rn is fihanc:i ar gain.. The'se. pr.crjee:ts: have no de:sirable de:si gn,. construc;tion or. l.iving qualiti'e,s.. The city government and Lubbo-ck ~r.chite cts '\vi'j.l have to~ work together. to: r.ai.se' the design standards o--r mult±:pie housi'ng in Lubbo.ck.

10 ECONO:HIC CONSIDERATIONS In or_de:r : f :t1l! an apar.tment c.omplex t-o e.x:tst,: _it muat pay fbr itser.r.. It ±:s. the anchi~tect' : s jab t.o giv:e the owners. an es.tima.te. o::r. the construction co~st so:. that the financing can ber arrcanged and rents can be estimated.. It. must: be: dete\i'mined whe:ther. pe ople' \dll pay the ne cessar:y,: r.e-nt.. rr no.t, ~ adjustme nts must be made' sa that they will. The-: succe ss of.' an apartment compl:ex will be dependent upon a high pe rcentage of occupancy. What the complex has to offer its residents will' dete;rmine its pc:cupancy. The' number. or apartment pr_oject.s that have been built in Lubbock in re:cent years shovts that Lubbock reosidents wi.ll live in apar.tment.s, and that there should be ample available re siden ts., Prices in this. comple-x can be slightly highe r than thosse of average existing apartments in Lubbock. This :ts because this complex is giving its r.e~ s±dents much more than the ave:r.age;apro!tme:nt house in the city.

11 7' A survey or articles in leading archite.ctural magazines vrith special sec.tions on apartments shows that pe:ople will pay more if they get more. Also,. Lubbock is fortunate in that its average income pe-r person or farni"ly is above the national average.3 This is due in par.t to the. prospe.ri ty or the agricultural area o.f vrh±ch it is the cen te:r. There i"s no re.ason to believe that higher. rents will keep the project fr.om being a success, if it gives peo:ple a more enjoyable place to live. 3u. s.. Bureau of the Census. U. s. Census of' Hous:i:J!g_: 196Q. Vol. III, City Blocks

12 OWNERSHIP A. corporation formed by a group of Lubbock men vi±ljl build. and O'W!l the complex. The corporation's aim is to build an apartment compolex in Lubbock thrt will set a h:i.gher standard of multi--family housing in the city and will help to stimulate the redevelopment of the downtown area. They are busine ss men who believe that a strong CBD ( Central Business District) is what Lubbock needs to fulfill its role as the "Huh of the Plains. n They believe that providing people with an enjoyable place to live nea-r the downtown area is one of the first requirements needed to- strengthen its CBD. Their aim is not to determine the shape,. form, density or overall plan of the CBD, but to stimulate the beginning of the overall plan, formulated and designed by eve.ryone concerned. The planning of a new or existi-ng city cannot and must not be done by a

13 9 private. group of this size. It is a civic project and the needs, idees, and desire.s of the entire' city have to be considered. All of the stock of the c orporation is owned within the gr_oup, and its assets have enabled it to obtain a substantial loan from a large, natipna.l insurance company. The insurance company has financed several projects of this size throughout the United States, as this type of investment is a standard investment of insurance companies.. The insurance company believes: that the aims and ideas of the corporation make i :t a sound investment.

14 RESIDENTS EveTy person or family is a potential apartment res.ident. Sizes of families, incomes, occupations, s.ocial standards, ac:tivities, cultural backgrounds or any other factors will not preve nt certain groups from living in apartments. While it may be very difficult to design a complex that will fit the needs of everyone, many of these people can be appealed to, and the project will be a financial success. Apartment residents will naturally fall into two groups--families and unmarried peop:r.e. Families will usually have children, but \,vhether or not they do will have little to do with whether or not they live in an apartment.4 This is because the advantages for. children in an apartment will greatly outweigh the 4 Interview, lv1rs.. Peggy 1-!oney.

15 11 disadvantages in a '\<TelJ!.-designe-d project. Adequate recreational spaces and equipment are sometimes hard for a single family to provide, but can easily be provided by an apar.tment complex for many families. To fit the most families possible, a variety of apartment sizes and costs should be provided. Adults will entertain friends and will need spaces vli thin the apartment and spaces outside, both large and small. Occasionally, a couple will have- a large party and they will need a large space indoors, outdoors, or both. Adults also enjoy swimming, walking, reading and lounging outside, as \vell as enjoying indoor games, such as table tennis, hillards, shuffle board and table games. A small dance floor 'tvould be used by many residents of the complex. Host of these activities will be enjoyed by both married and unmarried adults. Unmarried people make up a large percentage of apartment residents. People without children ofte-n do not lil{e to live around children. Separa.tion should be considered for people with and without children. Single people may prefer to live alon~ or may prefer sharing a larger apartment with somepne. Although there is a wide variety in the lives and activities of people, an apartment complex can be designed to fit the needs of most of them..

16 DE.SIGN S.TANDARDS. In almos_t any building pro:j e ct, the budget w:i::ll de:termine size and quality, the the archi teet must design the be st buildi.(lg fox the money. This is especially true in an apan.tmen t proj e c:t, because the financial success of' the venture:- is de pendent upon occupancy o:f the apartments. Occupancy in turn de-pends upon location and resident amenities. Densitie-s, unit numbers, room size s, and unit apportionment are usually suggested by the owner, consultant, or gove rnmen t agency Never the less, it is the architect's duty to examine these requirements in the light of -his own experience and, if necessary,. revise them to reflect his o:vm evaluation of human needs. For each project, particular conditions determine the narticular character the project ;,.J'ill assilme. These- include density and unit types, required areas of units and rooms, possible orientation, provisions for parking, selection of structural and mechanical systems, and choice of materials. each choice must perforce relate to the total expression; each solution for a detailed problem

17 13 must plaint toward a strong unity. 5. "Apartments re main the fastest growing area in housing (about 35% in 1963 ).,.. 6 The problem is that a large percentage of these are built by building contractors for people who do not care about quality or. amenities, but only about how many units can be crammed onto a given site. They have no idea what it would be like. to live there, and they do not re ally care. What they do not realize is that people actually \-rant to live in better apartment houses..as the 1963" "Home s for :Setter Living~'" award winners show: "Vacancies in these. buildings are almost non-existantsuggesting that the public., pay for good design.n 7, will. choose and. The imp ortant basic fact about apartments--the consideration that overshadmvs all others in real significance --is the fact that people_ live. here - ~, it is elementary that apartment building design for pleasant living must be based upon the individual living units themselves; and that these can be successful only when their spaces, traffic patterns, furnishings, and all the other considerations of daily living affecting interior design 5 Gyo Oba ta, n some Suggestions for Urban Housing, n iu'chitectural Record, CXXIX (March,, 1961), ntoday t:s Best in Apartment Design, u House & Home, XXIV (August, 1963), 87 7 Ibid.

18 14 have' been thoroughly studied and solved. 8 Lubbock is a very good example of a city wheremany below standard apartment have been built. Only one project is neede-d to bring a better concept of apartment design to the city. When people see what can be rented at a reasonable price, they will create a demand for better designed apartments. Millions of people are now choosing to live in apartment dwellings f or a variety of reasons. Some prefer large apartment towers while others choosetownhouses.. But whatever the apartment type, no one is willing to give up dignity and individuality commonly associated with life in one's house. Providing a background for living is the archite-ct's responsibility. The great buildings are never crowded--there is plenty of space--and the well designed apartment vti'll provide space for doing all thethings that require doing, plus a me& sure of extra space to set off and make more- beautiful the 9reas designed for specific functions. Up until novl, people in Lubbock have not had an outstanding project vli th which to compare, but architects can and vlill help the citizens to a more adequate and richer v1ay of life, at a price they can pay. 8 James s,. Hornbec, "A Reminder,n Architectural Re cord, CXXY (June:,, 1959 )', Eleanor Peppe r,. "'Apartments for Pleasant Living, r Architectural Record, CXXV (June, 1959), 196.

19 UNIT DRSIGN The interi:or of the apar.tment must be a: place to live that c.an be furnished and decorated in a manner that 'tvill provide attractive sur.rm.mdings and a pleasant backgr.ound for. living. The interior of the apartment. It. must. be much more than a me re stringing togethe r of a g;roup of minimum-sized areas, l nd ther.e:.ds a?ne cessity fbr a varie ~ty of' shade:s and tt1 spaces in apa!rtments; Host. interiors of apar.tment.s are ve-ry much the same both in interi or decoration and floor plan. While a vaxiety of: floor plans wi.ll work well in circulat.ion, size, etc., something must be done that 't-iill make them more appealing than other apartments. A good plan 't rill pe-r.mi t more than a single arrangement, so that the patt ern of living r-trr different tenants of different tastes can be approached in diffe rent ways. 10 Ibid.

20 16: The better plans also shmv space distr.ibutia:n, witb enough change. in shape and volume to create variety and interes.ting sequences.. Even when a plan is open, with one space flow±ng into another, privacy can be achieved if a clear sepfration of func.tfon is carefully studied. One of the mo st important aspects o-r apartment living is the relationshi-p of indo-or and outdoor living. Private patios, big private balconies fbr upper level uni!ts and gla ss 'valls help to ihtegrc.te outdoor and indoorliving areas. In pleasant weather, people want to get outside and enjoy many different activities. This- applies to reside-nts of all ages. Nore and more: of our tenants are older couples \ Tho have sold their homes be cause their children have grmm up and moved avray. They grew accustome.d to. ou tdoo:r living in their houses, and they expect it in an apartment. To give: rente.rs house-l:ike outdo.or. living,. you can: 1 Build balconie s tha.t a:t!e hig enough: tro u:se (FF..A minimum-- 6:1x1119'"). 2. lfuild patios fbr ground-floor apartments ( enclosed). 3. Se~ t aside out.door space fbr landscaped gar.de ns. 4. Hake it e-asy for tenants to hold cookouts.. 5. Make play are-as more than barer. bones playgrounds. 6. Instat~ a landscaped s-v;irnming pool. 11 Ibid., pp "To:day 1 s Good Ne1.v Apartments : Wha. t Ha.ke:S Them Good?", House & Home, XVIII (OctoiiJe r, 1960), 112.

21 1'? Adequa:te and enjoyable outdoor. living spaces a:r.e one oi' the ways to help p-eopl:e realize the advantage~s af apartment living. As to floor plans:, the FHA and other agencie's have minfmurn space re-quirements that are, at best, a mihimurn. However,: fbr a hi.gher standard of living, more, than a minimum is neede-d.. two expe: rienced apartment architects--dick Collins and Arnold Kronstadt of \ijashington--re COirJnend the:se size s: Room~ Sn:ace. Living Room Dining Room Dining Are a Master. Bedroom Se cond BE:rdr.oam Th:tr.d Bedroom Ki:tchen Kitchen and Rr.eakfast Room Balcony or Patio Nedium Rents 12'xt8t' 9'x x 'x13' 10 'x11 ' 10'xtO' 'l'~'x9' 9 1 x x12 1 High Rents 14 1 x x12 r: 10 1 x '"x 'x x12' 8 1 x 'x 'x15' These ro:om size s are' average for. better apartments and they are' a beginning of' the design or the floor plan. To be designed along \vi th the floor plan is the interior de co:r.ation. The rooms and space s must be designe d three-dime nsionally, as that is tbe v1ay in vlhich they \ rill be lived. To be considered are the proportions of length, 'Width, and height; colors and materials; design of the furniture and its possible 1 3..::;.;Ib;;;,;;;i._,d., p

22 18 arl!angeme nts; and ope,nings (doors and windows). n..... conside.r. the positive- factor of piece s in place and at the. same time- the negative factor o::f empty space-s about them.n14 The inte.rior o:f the apartment must be designed so that it will give people' all they want in a place to live. Studies of exi.sting conditi:ons in Lubbock and of' the proposed site seem to. indicate that low-rise townhouses would be the best type building for the pro.ject. The total number o.f units (about 200) will be divided about equally into: one-, two-, and thre-e-bedroom apartment and effi'cie-ncy apar.tments. This division 1-dll give enough vari-ety to fit almo st any type or size of family. Structurally, the building will be co ncrete floor.s and concrete. walls. The concrete vralls between the apartments i.'lill be load bearing. 'fhey will also be cavity walls for noise control and mechanical equipment. End i.'lalls and int.e-rior walls i.vi'll be -vrood frame, with stucco, brick, plaste-r, gypsum board and panelling. Glass walls v-rill separate the interior from the patios and balconies. Flat slab concrete floors ' rill allo w varying ceiling hei-ghts and give room for pipes and ducts. The problems of fireproofing are greatly 1~leanor _ Pepper, op. cit. 1 p. 196.

23 19 re-duced in concre~te cohstr_uction. He-atihg, cooling and wa te r heating will be from a central unit. Each a-partment will have its own fanc.oi'l uni t wi:th a fbur.-p:ipe system from the boiler and chiller. II' our experience indicate-s advantages in using fan-coil vjater systems fbr heating and cooling. Normally sp.ch. systems co--ordihate, well with structur.e: and archj.tectur.e,: and offer considerable thermostatic control. n1 5 Space must be provided in a mechanical equipment. room fbr. a boiler (gas fired), chiller ("package" unit), \ Tater heater (gas), hot water stor.age tanl{ and pumps. A forced ai:r coo-ling tov1e:r vlill be used for. the cooling system. When the three parts oi' apartment de sign (architecture~, structure and mechanical equipment) are inte:grated vlell, the result is a more enjoyable place to live at a comparable price.

24 .AUXILIARY BtriLDING BE'QUIRENENTS In an apartment project as large as the one proposed, several auxiliary buildings are needed. These can be offi-ces, recreational rooms, services' areas (laundry, dry cleaning, drug store, post office, etc.), st.orag!3 rooms fo~.. groundl-cee:ping and maintenance, nursety and mechanical equipment rooms. For the pr_opo.se d projec :~, - the following auxiliary space s will. be required: Iteam, BUilding_,2 ; Suace Hinimum Area (sq. ft.) Offi-~ Ser.vi'ce:s Dil'ec.tor Business 1-1anager Rece-ptionist Se creta.r ie s Maintenance Nanager Building NanageT Gr~ ound Ke ~eper Housekeepe r Re cxe'a ti' onal Nanager Store: (Drug:s and groce ries) So~da Fountain Nursery Laundry and Dry Cleaning Post Office

25 21 Re:crea tional General Game Ro-om Card Room Lounge Bill.i'ards and Pool Table Te-nnis Dance Floor Storage. Toilets : Hechani'cal ~ Eouipment Storage Air CondJ:tioning and vjater Rea ting 8'00 Swimming Pool Equipment and Storage 200 Maintenance Groundkeeping House1meping Employees_, Toilets and Locker gooms Parkl.'ng; ,000 The foll.mring is: an explanation or the genera l requirements of the. auxiliary bui'i.ding areas: Offi-ces For the best management, the off'i.ces ne:ed to be located close together, The: recepti'onist and se cretar.ie s i:lill be used by all administr.a tive pe r sonne l and if they are near each othe r., the business will run smoother... Also, the o-ffices need to be easily accessable to the stree t for the convenience of visitors and emp:toyee,s. Re cr.ea tion The re:c.reational spaces will be more enjoyable: if they open onto an outdoor. are a, so that in good '"eather

26 22 the outdoor and indoor. areas can vmrk together. The se space s ne:ed to be divided but flexible so that any activity can be enjoyed by anyone wanting to use the spac.es... Nur.sery ~he baby si tters will. be in charge of'' the chil. dren of'.' all ages, vlhi.ch make;s i.t nece ssary fb r a variety of space,s for their activities. These, spaces should include ac:tive and passive indoor are-as and outdoor play areas. Laundry and_ Dry_ Cleaning 'l'he laundry, drug and grocery story and so:da f ountain will be much more_ enjoyable if' they too ave rlcrok outdo ox areas. The: laundry wit.l include washing machfnes, clothes dryers, dry-cleaning machine-s, hair drye rs, reading and conservation areas, and anything else that wili.. make the' time spent the re more enjoyable. The dry-cleaning pick-up station 'l.vill be for dry-cleaning 'I. Jhich is se nt out to commercial businesses. It vrill need ~cce ss to the street for delivery trucks. Drug and_ Gr.oce-r.y Sto r.e> The drug and grocery store,,rill. sto-clc magazines 1 tobacco, candy, non-prescription drugs and medicines, school suppli'es, cosmetics, toiletries,: and basic food ftems. It. vtili. be far the conve nience of the re sidents, not far general drug and grocery sale's. This store. \'Jill also be more enjoyable ±T ft opens to an outdoor area.

27 23 The soda, fountain can be a par.t of the store,, or adjac.ent to i~t and open to: the exteri or. The store ~ will nee.d acce:ss to the s treet. Ptis:t Offfce. The Pcrst Office will have a box for each apartment and each administrative office. It vrill be a very small sub-station with mail pick-up and delivery. Acce'SS to the street is nece ssary. Employee:: Locke-r Rooms For employee s '"ho do not live in the complex, toile:ts and locker rooms "tdll be neede d. They need to be clo-se: to the office areas fbr better contror and management. Ali these auxiliary buildimgs, s.pace s and areas are very important: t.a. the success of the project. The±r size., location and design must be carefully studied in relation to- all other parts crr the complex. They cou~d very well "make.-or break 11 the- apartment complex.

28 SITE PLA1TNI1'TG In its mos:t. limited sense, environment planning has to -..do \vith the. r.elationshfp: be::twe en the apartme-nt and i:ts site, and with ways and means or exte-nding the living area beyond the walls o:f the apartment and out orito patios, balconies,> gardens and play areas. The o:ften missing i'ngredi:ent o:f. liveability in urban renewal projects and large scale housing develo-pments can be adde-d by the skillful coxnposi:tion between and a~ound the:: building. In dealing 1- Ti th such spaces,, the objecti:ve i -s to organize them into a pattern or seqp_ence r and to give eaeh space, in turn,- a.p±.rong feeling oi' de-ffnition and ll.mi tation. 18 Each space should have a de-finite use or combinati-on of uses. If i -t is only a very small space that is used just for circulation, it should be a vecy e njoyable space to walk through. Diffe rent spaces and areas can be used fo.r diff.erent activities, such as swinuning, pi cni.cking, children'-s play, etc. rr- a space 16 Ax.thur_ H. Keyes,: Jr.,."An Ar.chite:ct Talks About the- Space:s Between ffuitdings,u Architectural Record, C:X:XlUV ( Sep:tembe:r ), 1 94.

29 25 has no- dif'inition or. limitation, it is just an open space, and thus wasted. While the mode~rn sufldivision offerrs private: land and the, rr:to every man a castle conce,pt, it usually does not give a considered r.e Iationship of house, yard and street. The answer is to correct the faults of the subdivision and provide' an envir.onment that uses le ss land. We after three archite:c.tural sugge stions. Fii'st r.ev.er.t to horizontally connec.ted units or tb. v:erti<l!aliy connecte d units--in bath case s supplement.ed by small garde ns, courts 1 secluded yar_ds, and pri:... vate: b:alc.on±:e:s. Ground space sav.~d may be p-ooled a:s: common ar.e a, Seeond, dif ~ fer.entiate spac.e s by function: the' car. in motion vs. the car at res t, etc.. Third, pnavide for use in sequence of spacers,. so that one is conscious of moving from public street ta semi-public parking to semiprivate entrance court o.r entry to private space for living.17. Nost apartments novr being built, especially in Lubbock, have very little outdoor area to be used and enjoyed by the- residents. The se apartments consist of the: building ( s), parking spaces in viet;l from the street and the apartraents, and a large concrete slab arpund the. s\:.riinmi.ng pool. every square_ foot of' the site.. These: th.ree parts usuall.y take up The only site planning is how to get enough parking spaces i'or the mast apartments that can be built. 17 G:yo Obata, op:. cit., p. 193.

30 26. The well de$i'gne d apartment complex site will include e-verything a single-family r.e:sidence includes: the. buildings themselve-s (a-partme nts and auxiliary buildings), parking spaces and.drives, pedestrian walkwaxs, children's play ar.eas, picni:c areas,:- swimming ar.e:a, active and pas siv.e au tdoor activity areas and other spac.e::s ne cessary for the parti cular si"te (such as nai:se buffe r.s and screens from unde,s:trable stre:ets or vie-v;:s}. Here are five objec.tive:s for better land planning and better e:nvironment design: 1 Total green space lar.ge enough to carry the total built-up space. 2. Planned access and parking space~ for automobiles to allovl convenient use- without jeopardy to childre n or pedestri an, and without interruption of the flow of open space bet'\veen structure-s.. 3. Pla.P..ned community facilities needed to create a gao d neighborhood. A sufficient sweep of unbroken open commons with some trees and at least minimum laruisca-p-ing to gi:ve every re-sident a sense of' space and the experience of. living near the land.. 5. Planned outdoor. living space for eve~ry fa.mily. These areas need not be Iarge, but must be suffici'ently private to all.ow fbr. relaxed fam±iy -use,: and the.v must be pr-or>:?xly located.,adjacent to interior space so that they can work together. to create. a re'al 18 outdoor--indoor living envir.omne nt. 18"R.ound Table Report: Environmental Planning, n House & J.l.Q.!!1!b XX (July,. 1961), -125.

31 27 One::: o:f theo mo:st. diff~cul.t. si'te p l~ihg pro:blems is.. the circu.l.ati on and storage of automabi'les. Since~ Lubbock has no; mass transit sy,stem,. the automobile fs the primary made of transp.arta:tion in the city. Locati:on of the compi.e x ne:ar. the" downtoiim busi'ne~ss district will.. lowe-r. somevrhat. the use of' automo:biie- transportation, but untit Luooock has a strong CBD, pe-dpl..e' 1.rlll have and use aut.omobile~s.. While one parking s-pace pe-r. unit is a minimum, 1. 5 spaces is a mare re:a:listi c. figure -. About 300 squa.ne: feet per aut.omo:bile is nee de d for parking and dr.ives. This means that. fo:r.. e-ach apartment 450 square, fee:t must: be provided for. automo:bil:e:s. Thi s: is as lar.ge as the. smallest apar.tment,: and the total area neede-d for. park:iing and dr.ives will be: a large percentage:. of the. total area. To ge:t thi:s minimum area fcm parking and drive-s,, parking must be centralized, or. partially so-. Howeve~r., a. :ta:r.ge: parl~:i'ng lot is not the answe r from the standpoint of be auty or. convenience. Se-veral small areas either screened or covered i s the best way to parlt theautomobi'le out. or sight, conve ni ent to:. the: apartment and vli th a minimui!l of stre ets and drive's. Also to be- considered is the acce:s s to some of the auxiliary bui.idi:ugs. Ser.vice drive s are needed to laundries and other. store s:., to the lar.ge storage are:as and to the. mechanical e-quipment space-s.

32 28 Parking spaces conve ni'ent to the street and the offices are ne:ce:ssar.y for vis.i to r.s. Since: most visitors will come at night, some: on street parki.ng can be used because traffrc on the adjacent streets is le ss than d'u.ring the daytime. The 1. 5 parking spaces pe:r unit also allovts some vi sit or parking. The ~ site for the prcrjec:t i.'s a nine~ acre area near. dovmtovm Lubbock. It is bounded by Eighth and Tenth Stree ts and by Avenues H and N. There is no significant slo.pe to the site, and drainage can be dlr.ec.ted t.cr the str:eet at any side. l'1any existing trees can be pr.ese r.ved on the site. Acce:ssab±Iity to: the site -vdll be goad becaus e Ei.ghth, Te nth. and M are: medium trafl'ic th.r ough streets, Tenth being one West. A1renue 0 is. a minor North-South. Str.e:e:.t. Ninth Str.e:e:t and Avenue~ N will be close:d acr.o ss the site. They are both minor. str:e et.s and no pr:oblems will her cre ated if they are closed. The.re is only one comme-rcial building, one doctor s ofrice : and one small church on the si.te in addition toboth single-family housing and small apartment houses. The density i:s about four. families per acre, aoout average for. Lubbock. The si'te ±:s lcrcated on the. no:e thwest edge of dovmtovm Lubbock.. The: growth of the CBD is gene rally.toward the southwes:t,. as is the. suburban gr.m Ith.. This makes the ar.e a to: the naxth and northwest of' the' CBD ideal

33 29 f.o-r multi:...family residenti:al projects. BErcause o:f' e xisting conditions, this site is the mo-st desirable one' t~:djace-nt to: the CBD, but other areas in this section could be used almost as we ll fbr housing.

34 MANAGE l--ent Nanag~ment o:f' an apartment complex or this size will take a numbe-r of" emploxees. in control of the entire c.omplex. One per.son will be He will act as a r.e pre sentati ve of the corporation to:-the r.e si dents and employee s, and vi ce vensa. tfj:t is ne cessacy r or one per son to be re sponsible f.br eve rything for the complex to run smoothly. "1 9 The Director vrfll be the head of the management, with all. other employees broken into group~ s with separate, equal. manage r.s.all employe.e.s will. be groupe-d in the following way: Title_.2.. Duty_ Number of'. Employees Director. 1. :Ivlaintenance l ianager BUilding Ha.nager Employee.s Groundkeeper Employees Housekeeper l' Iaids Interview, Nrs. Peggy }foney.

35 31 Busine.ss Manager Re ceptionist Se ere tar.ies Bookkeepe r Store Nanage:r Sto:r.e Employee s Soda Fountain Emp-loyee-s Service Nanager_ Employees Recreational.. J:.:lanager Assistant Babysitter: Lif.e Guards (Summer onlynot in total) Postman Total Employees or 4 ':ehe duties of each of the employees -v.rill be as follows: Dire c;tor--co-ordination of all employee's and agent crf the corporation Naintenance. Nanager.-:--Upke:ep and repai'r_ of the entir.e comp Iex. ~ Building_ Hanager.--Upkeep and repair of' each building (mechamcal equipment, carpentry, painting, etc.). Groundkeener-.--Upkeep of all grounds, walks and dri've,s. Haintenance Employees-.--Helpe:rs of building manager and gr.oundlceeper (these emplclye:e s can be used by either, according to need). House keeper-.--in charge of maid service. Hai'ds--Housework as de:sired by and paid for by the reside-nts. B'usine ss l ianager--in charge of'.le-asing, rent co~lectiont accounting, advertiseme nt,; and other re.sid.ent-management relations. Hece ptionist--one, to be used by all managers.

36 32 Se-cr.etaries~-Pool, to be use:d by all managers. Bookkeepe r:--in charge of aljl. books and records of the busi ness manage r and other_ managerw. StQ Hanager--In char.ge of' the drug and gr.oce ry store and. soda fountain. Store: and_ Soda Fountain Empl.oyees :--Employees in the store: and soda fountafn. Ser_vi :ce_2~ Hana-ger:--Nanage-r of the laundry and drycle ani'ng service., Services Emp-l.ayee s:--empl.ayee-s in the- laundry and dry-cleaning sexvi ce. Recre.ational Manager:--Co -or.dinato:r of all indoo-r and outdbor re.creation,- including play areas, game rooms, swimming pool and recreational equipment. He is also in charge or babysitting and supervised children 1 s play. Assi-stant_ tcr_ Recreational Nanager:--Gene.ral dutie s in this area. Babysi tters.. and_ Children 'E.. ~lay Supexvi'sors:- SupeTvision of all children's play in the publi c areas and day and night (not ove-rnight) babysitting. Lifeguards--Contr.ol and maintenance of swimming pool and wading pool. P'ostman:--Iiandling all ihcmni:ng and outgoing mail. Each apartment Hill have its mailbox in the post office. Employees will. be on a full- or a part-time basis, depending upon need. There '\'!ill be: a seasonal variances in the number of employees needed in certain areas, but the nwnber.s given are about average. Also, not the total number of employees listed vlill be working at the same time. It will not be necessary for empl.oyees to live in the complex, but a reduc.tion :i;n rent, simflar.t.o a re:tatl

37 33 employees' di:scount, vdll. be given to those who do. As in any business, gove:rnm.ent body or other associ"ation, good management is one of the mos t important thingr that make an apar~tment complex successful,: in enjoyable living and in economics.

38 CONCLUSION In the- propo.se d apar.tment complex, the owne r 's did not se-:t. a maximum o.r minimum density or type o r apartme-nt. They stipulated thatc. the design o:r the proje-ct be the bes:t possible, for the particular site, "'.'Thether it be high-rise, low!""'r.ise, townhouses or combinations o:f ' these-. They believed that. this was the way to improve multi-family housing in Lubbock and to help the- redevelopment of do1tmtovm Lubbock. The- pr.opo:sed apar-tment complex will contain 192 apartments on the 9. 8 acre site. Thi.s is a dens±:ty of 20 fam:dlie s per a-cre, about five times the density of suburban a:r.eas~ of Lubbock. There w±ll be 3:00 parking spa-ce-s for. re side-nts (unde-r the outer de-ck on three side's of the site) and 40 spaces for visitors, which will be ample mast of: the time. On-street parki'ng -.;rill be allowed from 5 PM to 7AM, and the resident parking is l.arge enough to handle some visitor parking.

39 35 The apax.tment w.i:ll be in three-level buildings-, with two- and thr:ee-bedr:o.om apartme-nts bei'ng two- level on the fir st: and se:c ~ond floo:rrs- and one-be droom and ef.ficiency ap:ar.tme-nts being on the- thi'rd floor.. The- larger apa:n.tments are- on the lower floors because i :t will be be tter. for_ chi'ldren.. The- auxil±axy bui'ldfngs are generally grouped around the- lower co:ur.t. unde r the: inne r deck. This lower. court will be for. ou.tdoor re creation and childr.e~n 1 s play. Semide:fined and limited outdoor. activity are-as are loc.ate d in the U-shaped ar.ea separating the inne:r:r and outet rows of apartments.. The u fr.ont ~" o-r the comple x is on Avenue: ~ M, t he busiest. street adjacent to the site:. There: i ;s more': space: between the apartments and this: st.r.eeo-t than between the apa:ittments and the other stree.ts. Privacy ±:s one oi' the- mo:s.t~ important: asp-e cts of' multi-family housing.. For thi s r..e:ason, each ap ar.tment has a -vralled-ib. paticr or s-cre ened balcony. Care was taken ta arrange the apartments so that the-re a.j!e a minimum numoet of batconies overlooking private patios-. With the resu.l.ting design of the comple x, the owners and the ar.chitect feel that it vlill be an asse:t to the city. They believe it will. be an aesthetic addition to Lubbock, a pleasant. place to live and a sound financial inve stment.

40 3'7 PeppeT 7 :. Eleano.r. ":Ap~tments fbr Pleasant Living,tt Ar.chitee:tur.al Re:c.ord:, CXXV, (.June, 1959), 1' "Round Tab'le Report::. Envir.onmentai Planning, 11 Housg. ~ Home,. :XX (July,. 1:9.61), "Taday, s: Best ih Apa!!tment. De: sign, ~ " House: & Hbm~, : XXIV (Aug., 1963), "Today 1 s Good Ne.w Apartments:: What: }1a:ke s Them Good?'"', House ~ : Hblne', Xvlll, (Oct T '1, e. U. s. BU:r"eau o.r the Census.,.![..2. Census.Q : Hou:sing : l9qq. Vol. III, C±ty Blocks. Serie:s HO (3), No. ~ u. S. G.over.nment Pr.i nting Offl'ce, Washington, D. c.., Weave:r, Rober.t c. "Federal Housing Agencies Eneour:aging Go:od Design, t Ar.chi te ctural Re cord_, CXXXVI (Aug., 1964}, Erns-t, and Gertrud DfVid. Home s and Housing_, Zurich:: Verlag Fur Ai'chi tek.tur Erle:nbach, Z~e tzschmann-,

41 BIBLIOGRAPHY Able, Joseph H. -..1~ and Fre_ d N. Seve rud. Apartment Houses, New York:- Keinhol.d Publishing Co., "J.par.tments : The Problem is No.t Just Nare, Space,, 11 Arch i tectural Rec:o:rd, CXXXIX (Jan.,: 1966), ,.-- Houses::: The ir New Si' gnificance, 11 : Progre ssive Architecture, XXXVIII (April, 1957), !'~pantment BakeT J. Ge:offr.ey, and Brund Fu.nard. Parking, New York:.rteinhold Publishing Co., 1.96}. Conklin, ~vi:ll±am J. 11 Clouds Over Radi6trtt City, 11 Architectural Record, CXXXI (Jan., 1962), Connor., Neil H.!'ttrchitectural Renaissance in FF.A. Apartment Housing,n: Archi tectur.al_ Re cord_, CXXVII (Oct., 1960)' Honnbec,.T~rnes s. ":A Reminder,".Architectural_ Re:cord, C"'.t:XV ~June, 1959), "A Report on Ar:chi tecture for Living,"' Ar.chi te ctur.al Re cord, CXX~.IJ"III (April, 1965), Keyes, Arthur H. 11 :An Architect Talks About the Space~ s Between Buildings," Architectural Record, CXXXIV (Sept.' 1963) ' ~ Klaber,. _Euge ne. He~y.. Housi~ _ Design, New York:: Reinhold Publ~sh~ng Co., 19.. Obata, Gyo. n some Suggestions for Urna:n Housing," Architectur.ai._ Record, CXXIX, (March, 1961),

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