Debian GNU/Linux. Unix Sicherheit. Christian T. Steigies. Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

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1 : Sicherheit Unix Sicherheit Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel Debian crash course

2 : Sicherheit Anmelden am System login an der Konsole login per xdm/gdm/kdm remote login mit telnet, rsh, ftp secure login mit ssh, scp, slogin Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) pam_cracklib: Mindestanforderungen an Passwort pam_opie: one time passwords

3 : Sicherheit Remote-Logins nur per SSH, niemals mit telnet, ftp vermeiden verschlüsselte Kommunikation mit SSH, dadurch kein Abhören (password im Klartext auch bei fetchmail ohne ssl oder ssh tunneling) kein login als root keine leeren Passworte nur ssh2, nicht ssh1 login per authorized_keys

4 : Sicherheit Verbesserung der Sicherheit /etc/ssh/sshd_config ändern des ports (security by obscurity) PasswordAuthentication no PermitRootLogin no (Problem mit faubackup?) restrict users /etc/hosts.allow deny iptables (ssh_blocking)

5 : Sicherheit ssh-keygen ssh-keygen -trsa passphrase statt password.ssh/id_rsa.pub kopieren nach.ssh/authorized_keys auf remote host ssh-copy-id ssh-add.ssh/config

6 ~/.ssh/config : Sicherheit Host ForwardAgent yes ForwardX11 yes PasswordAuthentication no StrictHostKeyChecking no Port 2201

7 : Sicherheit Ssh-faker Ssh-faker 1.1 There s a worm out there that tries to log in through ssh using a long list of popular usernames and passwords. If you don t want it to succeed, it s a good idea to not let it connect to your actual sshd program. Ssh-faker was initially written to deal with buffer overflow attacks back when sshd was vulnerable (it may still be), but it works well for this too. This program is called by /etc/hosts.deny whenever someone connects to port 22. Unless they type in a plaintext password or type the wrong password, they get an ssh-compatible error message, and a syslog message is generated. If they type in the right password, they are added to /etc/hosts.allow, and their next connection will reach the real sshd. In my opinion, this is better than denying ip addresses as soon as they fail ssh logins three times because: - I don t want to be locked out of my own computer if I can t type my password right for some reason (broken key on keyboard/fingers on wrong keys/too much caffeine+sugar?) - This way, the /etc/hosts.deny file or iptables deny list doesn t grow all the time. - The bad guys can t get more chances just by changing their ip address.

8 : Sicherheit SSH vs Script Kiddies How-to Guide Some idiot created a SSH worm that uses a dictionary attack to try to log into a computer over port 22. The worm tries to set up shop on your computer and tries to find the next vulnerable computer. This clogs up networks with bazillions of SSH login attempts. A number of people created scripts that scan the system log files to identify the IP address of attackers and block them either using TcpWrappers or Netfilter. The problem with these approaches is that it consumes local computer resources. It also creates the risk that you can lock yourself out accidentally - maybe not a problem if the computer is in the next room, but it is a serious concern if the computer is far away on the other side of the globe. Another solution is to set SSHD to use a different port. This will work, till the attacker adds a port scanner to his worm. What is needed is a simple solution that consumes the resources of the attacker instead of your own. This little guide shows how to slow down SSH password authentication to accomplish this in a single line of code. This simple modification has been proven to completely defeat the attack, as Christian discussed T. Steigies below.

9 : Sicherheit Feb 20 09:53:54 batdaf sshd[17915]: Invalid user lpd from Feb 20 09:53:58 batdaf sshd[17917]: Invalid user lpa from Feb 20 09:54:01 batdaf sshd[17919]: Invalid user admin from Feb 20 09:54:08 batdaf sshd[17921]: Invalid user admin from Feb 20 09:54:13 batdaf sshd[17923]: Invalid user admin from Feb 20 09:54:17 batdaf sshd[17925]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:21 batdaf sshd[17927]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:26 batdaf sshd[17929]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:34 batdaf sshd[17931]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:41 batdaf sshd[17933]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:47 batdaf sshd[17935]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:54 batdaf sshd[17937]: Invalid user ftpuser from Feb 20 09:54:59 batdaf sshd[17939]: Invalid user mailtest from Feb 20 09:55:03 batdaf sshd[17941]: Invalid user mailtest from Feb 20 09:55:07 batdaf sshd[17943]: Invalid user mailtest from Feb 20 09:55:11 batdaf sshd[17945]: Invalid user mailtest from Feb 20 09:55:17 batdaf sshd[17947]: Invalid user mailtest from Feb 20 09:55:25 batdaf sshd[17950]: Invalid user mailtest from Feb 20 09:55:29 batdaf sshd[17952]: Invalid user testuser from Feb 20 09:55:36 batdaf sshd[17954]: Invalid user testuser from Feb 20 09:55:40 batdaf sshd[17956]: Invalid user testuser from Feb 20 09:55:43 batdaf sshd[17958]: Invalid user testuser from Feb 20 09:55:47 batdaf sshd[17960]: Invalid user testuser from Feb 20 09:55:51 batdaf sshd[17962]: Invalid user testuser from Feb 20 09:55:56 batdaf sshd[17964]: Invalid user sales from Feb 20 09:56:00 batdaf sshd[17966]: Invalid user sales from Feb 20 09:56:03 batdaf sshd[17968]: Invalid user sales from Feb 20 09:56:13 batdaf sshd[17970]: Invalid user sales from Feb 20 09:56:18 batdaf sshd[17972]: Invalid user sales from Feb 20 09:56:22 batdaf sshd[17974]: Invalid user sales from Feb 20 09:56:27 batdaf sshd[17976]: Invalid user sales from

10 mit ssh_blocking : Sicherheit Feb 20 14:31:33 batdaf sshd[1721]: Invalid user lpd from Feb 20 14:31:35 batdaf sshd[1723]: Invalid user lpa from Feb 20 14:31:38 batdaf sshd[1725]: Invalid user admin from Feb 21 13:48:16 batdaf sshd[2492]: Invalid user delta from Feb 21 13:48:19 batdaf sshd[2494]: Invalid user admin from Feb 21 13:48:22 batdaf sshd[2496]: Invalid user test from Feb 21 13:53:56 batdaf sshd[2517]: Invalid user project from Feb 21 13:59:32 batdaf sshd[2531]: Invalid user jeeto from Feb 21 14:05:10 batdaf sshd[3421]: Invalid user http from Feb 21 14:53:01 batdaf sshd[3484]: Invalid user delta from Feb 21 14:53:03 batdaf sshd[3487]: Invalid user admin from Feb 21 14:58:36 batdaf sshd[3490]: Invalid user violet from Feb 21 16:14:09 batdaf sshd[5355]: Invalid user from

11 : Sicherheit #!/bin/bash # block annoying ssh login attemps # allow 10 attemps per hour, remembers attemps for one hour # needs iptables from unstable, ie case "$1" in start) iptables -v -I INPUT -p tcp --syn -d /0 --dport 22 -j ACCEPT \ -m hashlimit --hashlimit 10/hour --hashlimit-mode srcip,dstip \ --hashlimit-burst 3 --hashlimit-name ssh --hashlimit-htable-expire iptables -v -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -d /0 --dport 22 -j REJECT \ --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited ;; stop) iptables -D INPUT 1 iptables -D INPUT 1 ;; show) iptables -L -vn echo "" echo "/proc/net/ipt_hashlimit/ssh" echo "" cat /proc/net/ipt_hashlimit/ssh ;; *) echo "start stop show" ;; esac

12 : Sicherheit Misc Sound konfigurieren mit alsaconf Volume einstellen mit aumix, alsamixer Drucker einrichten mit lprng (einfach) oder CUPS (AMD64: drucken aus OO, Acroread,... ) faubackup

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