1 Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 311 (2013) pp Online available since 2013/Feb/27 at (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi: /www.scientific.net/amm Strategy of Green Design on Intelligent Energy-saving Product under Eco-design Requirements for Energy-using Product (EuP) Jui-Che Tu 1,a, Yu-Chen Huang 1,b,*, Chuan-Ying Hsu 2,c, Tung-Che Wu 3,c 1 Graduate School of Design Doctoral Program, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu City, Yunlin 640, Taiwan 2 Department of Business Administration, Dayeh University, Taichung 51591, Taiwan 3 Graduate Program of Design and Arts College, Dayeh University, Taichung 51591, Taiwan a b c Keywords: Energy-using Product (EuP), intelligent system, green design, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarch Process (FAHP). Abstract. With the threat of global warming nowadays in the 21st century, the European Union has set the standard Eco-Design Requirements for Energy-using Product(EuP) for controlling the development of consumptive electronic machinery and products. Therefore, the trend of green design sees the instruction of EuP as the main direction for energy-saving. Considering the factors, undergoing the comprehensive evaluation and development process, the industry needs to draw up the corresponding design strategy in response to the new situation. Therefore, to optimize the green design strategy, the designers can replace hardware with the intelligent system to develop more optimal energy-saving products. Following the ecological instructions of energy-saving of EuP as direction, this study combined the advantage of the intelligent system and green design in order to optimize strategy of green design on intelligent energy-saving product under eco-design requirements for energy-using product (EuP). The evaluation factors were included in the strategies of intelligent energy-saving product design by analyzing the product users cognition, needs, habit and etc. Furthermore, through the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), the priority and the important factors of green design were analyzed. By examining the green design strategy on energy-using product, industry needs to think the energy-saving conditions and the key factors on deciding process. Eventually, the efficiency of product design for environment can be fulfilled successfully. Introduction The EuP Directive is a proposition related to the environmental design of energy-consuming products, which was introduced by European Union (EU) after the propositions of two other green directives, namely WEEE and RoHS. The purpose of the EuP Directive is to demand product manufacturers to include eco-design requirements in the development of product designs, in order to increase product efficacy and safety of the energy supply as well as meet environmental requirements (Chen, 2006). The current trend of green design is to use the EuP Directive as the orientation of energy saving, and industries must therefore plan responsive strategies by considering All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP, (ID: , National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan-04/03/13,12:02:32)
2 Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol the overall factors of green design and conducting energy saving evaluations on the design development process (Kolk & Tulder, 2010; Málovics, Csigéné & Kraus, 2008; Industrial Development Bureau, Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs, 2006). At the early stage of product design planning, product manufacturers must include energy saving indicators, and the concern about environmental issues should be reflected in the product s design, model manufacturing, and production (Tu & Hsu, 2008; Shih et al., 2009). In addition, during production, environmental issues should be treated as important factors that must be monitored, evaluated and managed. Thus, both the impact on the environment and the consumption of energy will be reduced (Zhigang, Hua, Wei & Min, 2011; Tu, Lin & Hsu, 2008). Using a literature review and expert interviews, this study focused on the energy saving decision-making factors of the EuP Eco-Directive of the EU, including the users cognition, habits and needs as the factors of intelligent energy-saving product design. Based on the construction of the above factors, by using consumer electronic products as an example, this study explored the factors of the overall decision-making of green design, in order to finally establish a decision-making design model for green energy-saving products as the references for product development design in Taiwan. Research method and structure The purpose of the research framework, as shown in Figure 1, was to construct a design for the energy saving decision-making needed for product development in order to introduce a better energy saving model in consumer electronic products. Research questions and directions Literature review Product user analysis l Users cognitive differences l Users habit effects l Users needs Energy-saving decision making factors of EuP Eco-Directive of the EU Evaluation on smart energy-saving product design Expert interview l Regulations of the Eco-Directive l Green design strategy l Advantages of a smart system l Product manufacturing model l Quality control Weight ranking of the overall decision-making factors of green design FAHP Design decision-making model of green energy-saving products Conclusion and suggestion Fig. 1. Research Structure Research Subjects For the expert interviews, this study interviewed R&D designers and design team or product managers at Foxlink Image Technology Co., CyberTAN Technology Inc., and Lite-On Technology Corporation. The interview items referred to the obstacles and responsive policies under the EuP Eco-Directive of the EU and the introduction of intelligent systems for energy saving, in order to generalize the development of innovative energy-saving products in order to meet the EuP goals. In addition, business workers (office workers) were treated as the subjects of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on the factors introduced by intelligent energy-saving product design. This study reorganized the opinions regarding the users needs, cognitive differences and habit effects to develop more thorough factors of intelligent energy-saving products.
3 400 Information, Communication and Engineering Research Tools After the literature review, the product user factor analysis and the expert interviews, this study conducted the experts and users factor weight analysis using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP). Research analysis results Energy saving decision-making factors of the EuP Eco-Directive Based on the literature review, this study extracted the energy saving decision-making factors of the EuP Eco-Directive and generalized the evaluation dimensions and factors, as shown in Figure 2: Energy saving decision-making factors of the EuP Eco-Directive Ultimate goal (the first level) Regulations of the EuP Directive Development strategy of green energy saving Advantages of a smart system Product manufacturing model Quality control Goal dimension (the second level) Enhancement of assembly and taking-apart efficiency Simplification of packaging materials Reduction of energy consumption Low toxic materials Convenient substitution of maintenance Product modules Enhancement of energy control efficiency Control of material cost System simplification Direction of operation Avoidance of the abuse of programs Low consumption of energy Simplification of recycling Extension of life Reduction of materials Recycling Safe waste Procurement decision-making Material test Warehouse Manufacturing control Production tools Evaluation sub-factors (the third level) Fig. 2. Framework of energy saving decision-making factors of EuP Eco-Directive Factors of intelligent energy-saving product design According to the literature review, this study extracted the factors of intelligent energy-saving product design and generalized the evaluation dimensions and factors, as shown in Figure 3: Evaluation factors of intelligent energy-saving product design Ultimate goal (the first level) differences Users cognitive Users habit effects Users needs Goal dimensions (the second level) Simplification of product appearance Integration of hardware Enhancement of power Simplification of accessories Battery power extension Specification of data transmission Integration of interfaces Direction of operation Simple interface Diverse product Product quality Style of modeling Product accessories Additional product Supportive programs Prices Evaluation sub-factors (the third level) Fig. 3. Evaluation framework of intelligent energy-saving products design level and evaluation factors Weight ranking of the overall factors of green design Fuzzy Weight result (1) User According to the calculation of the fuzzy positive reciprocal matrix, the ranking obtained by the analysis of the main dimensions is users habit effects (0.59) followed by users needs (0.24), while users cognitive differences (0.14) is last. (2) Experts and scholars According to the fuzzy analysis of the main dimensions, the ranking is EuP Directive (0.34) followed by green energy-saving development strategy (0.29). Product manufacturing model is last (0.18).
4 Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol Defuzzified weights, normalized weights and ranking of weights (1) Users Based on the above, this study obtained the subjects normalized fuzzy weights. The weights acquired by this study are based on the equation of Chang & Lee (1995), as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Defuzzified weights and normalized weights of main-level dimensions Main-level dimensions Defuzzified Weights Normalized weight percentages Ranking of weights Users cognitive differences % 3 Users habit effects % 1 Users needs % 2 Users cognitive differences Simplification of product appearance % 5 Integration of hardware % 4 Enhancement of power % 1 Simplification of product fittings % 2 Battery power extension % 3 Users habit effects Specification of data transmission % 5 Integration of interfaces % 4 Direction of operation % 1 Simple interfaces % 1 Diverse product % 3 Users needs Product quality % 2 Style of modelling % 1 (2) Experts and scholars Product accessories % 4 Additional product % 3 Supportive programs % 6 Prices % 5 According to the main-level dimensions of the experts and scholars, the EuP Directive is first, with a normalized weight percentage of 34%. Second is green energy saving development strategy, with a normalized weight percentage of 29%. Third is the product manufacturing model, with a normalized weight percentage of 18%. Fourth is quality control, with a normalized weight percentage of 14%. Last is the advantages of a intelligent system, with a normalized weight percentage of 6%. Consistency test of overall decision-making, reliability analysis and level series (1) Consistency test of overall decision-making Main dimensions of the users The C.R. of the users cognitive differences is 0.09, that of the users habit effects is 0.05 and that of the users needs is They are less than 0.1, and thus, the consistency is satisfying. Main dimensions of the experts The C.R. of the EuP Directive is 0.09, that of green energy saving development strategy is 0.08, that of the advantages of a intelligent system is 0.07, that of the product-manufacturing model is 0.08, and that of quality control is They are all less than 0.1, and thus, the consistency is satisfying. Reliability analysis of overall decision-making Users and Experts According to the scholar s reliability test standard adopted by this study, when α is above 0.7, the reliability is high. In other words, the scale is considerably reliable and the internal consistency is satisfying. The questionnaire used in this study has good reliability.
5 402 Information, Communication and Engineering Level series of overall decision-making This study multiplied the weight percentages of the evaluation dimensions and the evaluation factors to obtain the selection values. There are 16 values in the user questionnaires, and there are 22 values in the expert and scholar questionnaires. These values are adopted to arrange the multiplication ranking of the weights of the evaluation dimensions and factors. After the level series, the overall ranking of the relative total weights of the key success factors are then developed. As to the selection values of the users evaluation dimensions and factors, the top two evaluation dimensions are the users habit effect and the users needs, of which the users habit effects is the priority. According to the experts and scholars main dimensions, the priorities are the EuP Directive and green energy saving development strategy. Design decision-making model of green energy-saving products In the design decision-making model process of green energy-saving products, as shown in Figure 4, this study determined the ranking of the level series based on the figures analyzed in the previous section. The first level is the design decision-making model of green energy-saving products, which is the research purpose. The second level includes the first and second stages. The first stage is the energy saving decision-making evaluation factors of the EuP Eco-Directive of the EU. The second stage is the evaluation factors of intelligent energy-saving product design. Design decision-making model of green energy-saving products Evaluation factors of intelligent energy-saving product design Improper Decision-making evaluation of intelligent energy-saving products Marketing planning stage Regulations of the EuP Directive Evaluation of product propriety Proper Development strategy of green energy-saving Product manufacturing model Quality control Advantages of a smart system Product design stage Users habit effects Users needs Users cognitive differences Order of decision-making factors of dimensions 1. Enhancement of assembly and tearing-apart efficiency 2. Low toxic materials 3. Simplification of packaging materials 1. Enhancement of energy control efficiency 2. Product modules 3. Convenient substitution of maintenance 1. Reduction of materials 2. Simplification of recycling 3. Safe waste 4. Extension of life 1. Material test Procurement decision-making 2. Procurement decision-making 3. Production tools 4. Warehouse 1. Simplification of system 2. Avoidance of abuse of programs 3. Direction of operation 1. Direction of operation 2. Simple interfaces 3. Diverse product 4. Integration of interfaces 1. Enhancement of power 2. Simplification of accessories 3. Extension of battery power 4. Integration of hardware 1. Style of modeling 2. Product quality 3. Additional product 4. Product accessories 5. Supportive programs Order of overall decision-making factors 1.Enhancement of assembly and tearing-apart efficiency 2.Enhancement of energy control efficiency 3. Low toxic materials 4.Product modules 5. Reduction of materials 6.Simplification of recycling 7.Convenient substitution of maintenance 8.Material test 9.Simplification of packaging materials 10.Procurement decision-making 11.Safe waste 12.Simplification of system 13.Production tools 14.Extension of life 15.Avoidance of abuse of programs 16.Warehouse 17.Direction of operation Order of overall decision-making factors 1. Direction of operation 2. Simple interfaces 3. Diverse product 4. Style of modeling 5. Integration of interfaces 6. Product quality 7. Enhancement of power 8. Additional product 9. Product accessories 10. Simplification of accessories 11. Extension of battery power 12. Integration of hardware To construct the recycling bases, to develop recycled products by effective product recycling and tearing-apart, and to indicate recycling labels and establish independent recycling bases. The recycling firms will practice recycling according to the brands. Thus, the recycling effectiveness will be more significant. To reduce the stock of accessories with product modules and simplification, effectively reduce development cost in order to enhance the energy-saving effectiveness To match the size and specifications export of product packaging, and there should be anti-crashing materials in the packages, etc. To match EMS/QMS (environmental system/quality control system) and a CE mark To match Energy Star regulations 13. Supportive programs Fig. 4. Process of design decision-making model of green energy-saving products Conclusions From the perspective of marketing, product energy saving design does not simply rely on governmental regulations and strategic models, but should be based on market positioning and demand, in order to explore the consumers cognition and habits, extract the energy saving factors,
6 Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol and introduce them in the design development process. This will allow the expansion of energy saving effectiveness to be more thorough, which will create better intelligent energy-saving products. The design decision-making model of green energy-saving products in this study serve as references for the development of energy-saving products and can allow decision makers to recognize the decision-making models and factors in the development of product design, under the requirements of environmental regulations. References  A. Kolk and van R. Tulder, International business, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development, International Business Review 19, 2 (2010) 119.  G. Málovics, N. Csigéné and S. Kraus, The role of corporate social responsibility in strong sustainability, Journal of Socio-Economics 37, 3 (2008) 907.  L. H. Shih, J. L. Chen, J. C. Tu, T. C. Kuo, A. H. Hu, and S. L. Lin, An integrated approach for product service system development (I): Design phase, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management (JEEAM) 19, 6 (2009) 327.  J. C. Tu, and C. Y. Hsu, Strategy for sustainable design from application of product service system, Journal of Design and Environment 9 (2008) 37.  Z. Jiang, H. Zhang, W. Yan, and M. Zhou, An Evaluation Model of Machining Process for Green Manufacturing, Advanced Science Letters 4, 4-5 (2011)  J. C. Tu, K. Y. LIN and C. Y. HSU,Green Energy-Savings in Lighting Facilities in an Intelligent House, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4, 2 (2008) 39.  Z. Y. Chen, Thinking of corporate sustainable strategy from Eup eco-design directive, Sustainable Industrial Development, 25 (2006) 11.  Z. Y. Chen, Introduction and impact analysis of EuP eco-design directive, Sustainable Industrial Development, 25 (2006) 20.  Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs, EuP directive in EU foresee a green future, Sustainable Industrial Development, 25 (2006) 42.
7 Information, Communication and Engineering /www.scientific.net/AMM.311 Strategy of Green Design on Intelligent Energy-Saving Product under Eco-Design Requirements for Energy-Using Product (EuP) /www.scientific.net/AMM