University of Central Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report

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1 2009 University of Central Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Sustainability & Energy Management University of Central Florida in Orlando, Florida

2 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 3 INTRODUCTION... 5 Methodology... 7 Campus Growth... 8 BUILDINGS... 8 TRANSPORTATION...14 University Fleet...14 Commuting...15 Air Travel...16 WASTE MANAGEMENT...17 GROUNDS AND LAND MANAGEMENT GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS SUMMARY...19 University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 2

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The University of Central Florida (UCF) is a public, multi-campus, urban, research university that stands for opportunity. UCF is committed to providing high-quality educational experiences, groundbreaking research, and demonstrating practical solutions to some of the world s most urgent issues. In 2009, UCF grew to become the third largest university in the nation by student enrollment. With more than 53,000 students enrolled at 12 campuses throughout the Central Florida region, UCF has the opportunity to make a significant and positive impact on the community. Just imagine, if every member of UCF s community recycled just one aluminum can, that action would add up to over 63,000 cans, and would collectively save enough energy to power a computer for 18 years! Each person at UCF can help the University achieve its green goals. UCF made great strides in sustainability issues in Some notable achievements include: David Norvell, the director of UCF s department of Sustainability & Energy Management, was awarded the Community LEEDer of the year by the Central Florida chapter of the US Green Building Council. The award honors an individual who demonstrates progressive initiatives and a commitment to green building, including the integration of a sustainability culture into their community's growth, their organization's operation, and the lifestyles of those they serve. The University surpassed a goal set in 2005 to decrease its energy consumption by 20% per square foot by The University was ahead of schedule thanks to the hard work of its commissioning team, as well as its faculty, staff, students and partners. By fiscal year , UCF had already reached its goal with a 25% decrease in energy consumption per-square-foot. The University was close to completing the first thermal energy storage (TES) facility in a public Florida university. The TES will chill three million gallons of water for UCF s cooling needs during off-peak times. This project will take advantage of the utility s University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 3

4 time-of-use billing structure and is estimated to save UCF $685,000 each year in cost avoidance. Once construction is complete, the project will be eligible for a rebate check for shaving peak demand. In addition to spearheading the construction of the thermal energy storage facility, the inhouse commissioning team completed and saw energy savings for four re-commissioning projects during These projects included optimizing the Brighthouse Network Football Stadium, Engineering II, Parking Garage VI (H), and the Wayne Densch Sports Center. These actions saved over $111,000 in 2009, reduced over 834,000 kwh of electricity, and avoided approximately 515 tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Some of these projects reduced energy consumption significantly. For example, the Parking Garage VI lighting retrofit reduced electricity use by 47%. At the end of 2009, UCF opened two Gold level Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings. LEED is a rating system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council and widely accepted as the benchmark for buildings that are environmentally friendly and healthy for occupants. The LEED system awards bronze, silver, gold and platinum certifications to buildings based on a checklist of environmentally sensitive requirements and amenities. In February of 2009, UCF introduced an organic community garden. The half acre garden produced healthy, sustainable fruits, vegetables, and herbs. The organic community garden was highlighted in a case study on National Wildlife Federation s Campus Ecology website. In 2009, UCF reported the release of 218,719 metric tons of CO 2 equivalent (MtCO 2 e), an increase from 2008 s 146,573 MtCO 2 e. This increase was due to an in-depth analysis of the University s transportation segment that was previously underestimated. As a result of that finding, UCF plans to examine its transportation system, especially student commuting which comprised 80% of those emissions, for reduction opportunities. However, while the University continued to grow in student enrollment and square footage, it saw substantial reductions in CO 2 emissions from its buildings segment. This reduction is evidence that the conservation and energy management programs instituted by the University are effective and wise investments. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 4

5 INTRODUCTION The University of Central Florida (UCF), located in Orlando, Florida, is one of the fastest growing universities in the country. With more than 53,000 students enrolled in more than 200 degree programs at 12 campuses, UCF was the nation s third largest university in As such, it has significant impact and influence in the community as a leader and catalyst for positive change. UCF recognizes the importance of conserving the natural resources it depends upon, and the responsibility to create a sustainable community for its students, employees, and community. Many of the world s leaders believe that one of the most critical challenges facing the global community is the stabilization of the Earth s climate. In 2007, the President of UCF, Dr. John Hitt, resolved that UCF would respond to the global climate challenge by reducing its environmental footprint and integrating sustainability into core aspects of the University. As a founding member of the Leadership Circle of the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), Dr. Hitt pledged that UCF would become climate neutral as soon as possible, or by 2050 at the latest. Climate neutrality has been defined by ACUPCC as having no net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, by minimizing GHG emissions as much as possible, and using carbon offsets, or other measures, to mitigate the remaining emissions. In addition to that goal, UCF completed the following steps in pursuit of climate neutrality: Measured its annual GHG emissions; Developed an institutional action plan, with interim milestones, to achieve climate neutrality that integrates sustainability into University operations, educational experiences, and research. This is UCF s Climate Action Plan and can be found online at University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 5

6 Created an institutional structure to guide the development and implementation of this plan; Established mechanisms for tracking progress; and Initiated tangible actions to reduce GHG emissions such as building green buildings, purchasing energy efficient appliances, encouraging public transportation, and participating in a national recycling competition. In accordance with that commitment, this report details UCF s GHG emissions for the 2009 calendar year. The report is divided into sections according to the major sources of emissions. Since UCF began tracking its environmental footprint in fiscal year , UCF s main sources of measured emissions, in order of magnitude were from, buildings; transportation; waste; and natural resources management. Consequently, the University focused its attention on constructing and operating efficient buildings to generate the greatest amount of emissions reductions and cost savings. For example, in 2005 UCF announced a goal to decrease its energy consumption by 20% below fiscal year 2005 levels by no later than By meeting this goal, UCF was projected to save $2 million a year 1. The University was proud to report that, due to the hard work of the entire UCF community, it surpassed that goal ahead of schedule in fiscal year with a 25% decrease in energy consumption per-square-foot. However, after an in-depth analysis of UCF s transportation sector for the 2009 GHG inventory, it revealed that the transportation segment was the largest contributor to the University s environmental footprint. This is due to the University s large student base; high percentage of commuting students; and year-round class offerings. With that finding, UCF plans to examine its transportation system for opportunities to reduce emissions. 1 UCF to Save $2 Million Annually through Energy Management Initiative, UCF News & Information, The University of Central Florida, June 18, 2009, < = c33d790054e8&subject_id= ad83011b2b83251c0ae6> University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 6

7 Methodology In preparing UCF s 2009 GHG report, efforts were made to obtain the most accurate data available. Numerous departments on campus including the Office of Institutional Research; Facilities Operations; Finance and Administration; Landscape and Natural Resources; Parking and Transportation Services; and Purchasing provided information for this report. Throughout this inventory, UCF will report the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), with all emissions given in metric tons of CO 2 equivalent (MtCO 2 e). UCF s 2009 GHG report includes emissions from the main UCF campus electricity use; natural gas use; maintenance fleet fuel use; shuttle bus fuel use; employee business travel; fertilizer use; and solid waste. In addition, UCF sent out surveys to its students, faculty, and staff members to estimate the GHG emissions produced from commuting to campus. The data compilation and analysis for that portion was in collaboration with UCF s Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering department. To calculate the CO₂ emissions from the personal vehicles traveling to campus, the latest Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA) emissions modeling software, MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator), was utilized. The MOVES model required the user to input information needed to estimate emissions data, including local meteorological data, such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure. A distribution of vehicle ages; a distribution of average speeds driven by vehicles; and fuel information were also entered. The estimates from the MOVES software for the transportation segment were included in this report along with the carbon emissions from the Cool Air-Cool Planet (CA-CP) calculator. Additionally, some numbers have been revised from previous GHG reports since UCF s tracking mechanisms have improved. As UCF s sustainability efforts expand and more data becomes available, the University will incorporate additional numbers from other direct and indirect sources. These modifications may affect UCF s year-over-year total comparable CO 2 calculations. Therefore, UCF may report its results on a per unit basis, such as per-square-foot or in percentages, for better comparisons. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 7

8 Campus Growth The University projects that it will continue to grow each year with a total of a six percent increase from fiscal year to In Fall 2009, there were more than 53,000 students attending the University. Of those students, approximately 6,000 lived on-campus in residence halls or Greek housing. In addition, the University employed over 10,000 faculty and staff members. The University had close to 8.9 million gross square feet on its main campus, with 164 buildings. UCF also had 11 regional campuses, including a new medical school. Research was also significant at UCF with $121.7 million in funding in fiscal year As a result of this growth, the campus environmental footprint continues to expand, which creates challenges for UCF as it strives to reach its sustainability goals. The University has to continuously improve its energy conservation and efficiencies to counterbalance these trends. BUILDINGS In the United States, buildings account for approximately 40% of the total energy consumption and 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. UCF continues to put significant focus on constructing and operating efficient buildings to achieve significant cost savings, reductions in energy consumption, and reductions in its emissions. It is often easier and more cost effective to build sustainably rather than retrofit existing buildings. As a result, UCF adopted a policy which mandated that all new construction and major renovations will attain a minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver certification. This policy was estimated to save UCF from 20% to 40% of its energy and water consumption, as compared to an average building. In addition, all new construction or major renovations were required to have 18 mandatory credits within the LEED certification related to specified guidelines on air quality, water usage, and energy efficiency. In 2009, UCF completed two buildings that received LEED Gold certification. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 8

9 UCF s electricity and natural gas usage generated a total of 90,188 MtCO 2 e, which is a decrease compared to 98,965 MtCO 2 e in The University s overall energy utilization index decreased despite an increase in building square footage. This demonstrated that UCF was constructing more efficient buildings and improving the efficiency of its existing buildings. In 2009, the in-house re-commissioning team completed and saw savings for four projects which included optimizing the Brighthouse Network Football Stadium, Engineering II, Parking Garage VI, and the Wayne Densch Sports Center. These actions saved over $111,000 in calendar 2009 alone; reduced over 834,000 kwh of electricity; and avoided approximately 515 tons of CO 2. To accomplish these savings, the team installed variable frequency drives to air handling units and chilled water pumps; changed temperature settings; altered HVAC system schedules; retrofitted lights; and adjusted automated control systems among other activities. Additionally, the team started re-commissioning the Education Complex, the Math & Physics building, and the Venue at the Old Arena. The results of these projects will be reported in In 2009, UCF collected information about its solar array pilot projects to determine their return on investment. The solar thermal system on the Towers II residence hall provided the hot water needs for the 500 residents in building. The solar thermal array provided a clean energy source that displaced natural gas use and offset pollution, which would have otherwise been emitted into the environment. The solar thermal array saved UCF 3,046 therms of natural gas, about $3,232, which was close to 20% of its energy use for that building. The 11.2 kw solar arrays on top of Engineering I produced 13,064 kwh of clean, renewable, solar energy in 2009 starting mid- January 2009 which avoided approximately 8 tons of MtCO 2 e. A few 2009 highlights related to UCF s buildings were: University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 9

10 At the end of 2009, UCF opened two Gold level Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings. LEED is a rating system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council and widely accepted as the benchmark for buildings that are environmentally friendly and healthy for occupants. In addition, David Norvell, the director of the department of Sustainability & Energy Management, received the 2009 Community LEEDer of the year award. The first thermal energy storage (TES) facility for a Florida public university was being constructed in Using the TES facility allows UCF to chill water for its circulatory underground cooling system at night, taking advantage of night-time energy rates, which are approximately 50 percent lower than daytime energy rates. The TES facility is estimated to save the University $685,000 annually and will be eligible for a rebate check from UCF s utility company for shaving peak demand. The 3 rd Annual Student Energy Competition was the most successful to date. The oncampus housing residents reduced their energy consumption by 13% during the monthlong competition, saving $27,000 in energy costs, close to 250,000 kwh, and155 tons of CO 2. Thirty-one students each received $200 in scholarships for participating in the competition. Four hundred lights in Parking Garage VI were replaced with new, more energy efficient T5 fluorescent lights, generating a 47% reduction in energy and more than $42,000 a year in savings. The lighting was manufactured locally in Central Florida by a company owned by a graduate of UCF. The Rosen College of Hospitality Management was re-commissioned with an optimization of its building automation system, lighting retrofits, and installation of occupancy sensors in offices and restrooms. The project reported a 30% reduction in its energy bill, saving close to 300,000 kwh, and avoiding 185 tons of CO 2. The faculty and University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 10

11 staff of Rosen College will build on those results by launching a conservation challenge to save more electricity; natural gas; and water through behavioral changes. UCF has greatly benefited from its focus on constructing and operating efficient buildings with significant cost savings, reductions in energy consumption, and reductions in its emissions. Exhibit 1 through 4 demonstrated the University s commitment to sustainable development and use within its building segment. The University and its partners will continue to aim to maximize its operating efficiencies. Exhibit 1: Energy Use Intensity: UCF s energy use decreases despite increases in square footage University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 11

12 2009 Electric (kwh) 2008 Electric (kwh) January 11,244,022 11,419,945 February 10,534,923 12,026,931 Exhibit 2: Annual Electricity Consumption March 11,231,137 10,885,697 April 11,351,494 11,610,471 May 11,732,608 12,319,852 June 12,004,428 11,988,085 July 13,624,334 12,889,078 August 12,205,082 12,853,398 September 12,773,011 13,180,706 October 13,106,653 13,260,675 November 10,690,365 10,398,884 December 12,034,448 11,228,282 TOTALS 142,532, ,062,004 Exhibit 3: Annual Electricity Consumption Comparison University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 12

13 2009 Natural Gas (mmbtu) 2008 Natural Gas (mmbtu) January 8,694 9,265 February 8,278 8,691 March 7,213 8,381 April 6,465 7,892 May 5,132 6,524 June 4,129 5,880 July 4,571 6,287 August 4,884 5,421 September 5,600 6,314 October 5,711 7,607 November 5,904 8,774 December 6,254 8,072 TOTALS 72,835 89,108 Exhibit 3: Annual Natural Gas Consumption Exhibit 4: Annual Natural Gas Consumption Comparison University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 13

14 TRANSPORTATION For the 2009 greenhouse gas inventory, UCF partnered with mobile emissions expert Dr. David C. Cooper in UCF s department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, to conduct commuting surveys and analyze UCF s transportation system to better estimate its environmental footprint. As the third largest university in the nation in 2009 with over 53,000 students and nearly 90% of the student body living off-campus, the University discovered that its environmental impact from its transportation sector was previously underestimated and currently contributed the largest amount of the University s carbon emissions. The University estimated that its transportation sector emitted 131,018 MtCO 2 e according to EPA s MOVES software while the CA-CP calculator estimated 116,281 MtCO 2 e. With that finding UCF plans to study its transportation sector in greater depth. Eighty percent of the emissions in this sector were attributable to student commuting habits, which will be examined for opportunities to reduce emissions with new technologies and behavioral modification. University Fleet In 2009, University vehicles, which are used to maintain and improve the campus facilities and grounds, consumed 154,460 gallons of 10% Ethanol (E10) gasoline and 11,139 gallons of 20% biodiesel (B20) fuel for a total of 165,599 gallons of fuel 2. The department of Sustainability & Energy Management continued to pilot a Zenn electric, retrofitted in-house with solar panels, making the car completely powered by solar energy. The rooftop panels had successfully maintained the vehicle charge to that point resulting in no plug in needed and no emissions. UCF s fleet also included the University shuttle, a free campus transport service that served the main campus; affiliated student housing complexes; the Rosen School of Hospitality 2 Fuel information gathered from UCF Central Stores and Voyager Fleet cards for the 2009 calendar year. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 14

15 Management; and the College of Medicine. This eco-friendly alternative form of transportation was operated by Coach Lines, a contractor. As UCF and its partners expanded their ability to collect and track data, the shuttle information was included in the 2008 GHG Report. In 2009, over 2 million riders traveled on UCF s shuttles over 1.25 million miles and used 185,794 gallons of diesel. UCF estimated that 20% of off-campus commuting was avoided due to the availability of its shuttle system. In summary, the University fleet produced a total of 3,209 MtCO 2 e according to EPA s MOVES software and 3,340 MtCO 2 e by CA_CP calculator. Exhibit 4: UCF Shuttle Use Riders Bus Mileage Gallons of Diesel January 187, ,720 13,659 February 204, ,070 17,222 March 166, ,058 14,259 April 198, ,258 16,316 May 50,531 70,512 9,323 June 83, ,814 17,684 July 102, ,927 16,543 August 118,206 80,681 11,744 September 319, ,023 21,323 October 301, ,070 25,212 November 205, ,426 15,480 December 94,228 59,466 7,029 TOTALS 2,032,556 1,250, ,794 Commuting With nearly 90% of the student body living off campus, UCF is considered a commuting school. A commuting survey was conducted to gather vehicle miles traveled (VMT); vehicle type; and age distribution of the personal vehicles of students, faculty, administration, and staff, as well as other data. Data from over 2,300 respondents was analyzed in detail. Extrapolating from that data, EPA s MOVES software estimated that 123,221 MtCO 2 e were produced as students, faculty, staff and administrators commuted to the University, while the CA_CP calculator University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 15

16 estimated 101,742 MtCO 2 e. About 80% of these emissions came from student commuting while about 15% came from commuting by faculty, staff, and administrators. UCF emissions are larger than most other universities in the country owing to its large student base; its high percentage of commuting students; and its year-round class offerings. Given that new information, UCF plans to investigate programs that will reduce single occupancy driving and increase alternative modes of transportation to reduce the University s environmental footprint. Business Travel UCF s Department of Finance and Accounting provided the data on faculty and staff Universityrelated business travel. For 2009, the University expanded its ability to collect and track data to not only include air travel but also University business travel by train and car. In 2009, approximately 13.3 million miles were traveled by air; 12,000 miles by train; and 2.2 million miles by car on behalf of University business. This equated to 4,588 MtCO 2 e from EPA s MOVES software and an estimated 11,199 MtCO 2 e from CA-CP s calculator, a reduction from 2008 s 18,499 MtCO 2 e. This reduction was due to the budget constraints placed by the University to manage its costs. A few 2009 highlights related to transportation were: Coach Lines calculated that in 2009, approximately two million student riders utilized University s 34 shuttle buses on 12 different routes, which allowed UCF to avoid about 20% of off-campus commuting. The University purchased a Zenn electric car and retrofitted it in-house with solar panels, making the car completely powered by solar energy. The rooftop panels have successfully maintained the vehicle charge to date resulting in no plug in needed and no emissions. In 2009, the department of Sustainability & Energy Management hosted an online car-naming contest. The student who won with the suggested name "Sunny" got to drive the car during UCF s Homecoming Parade. The colorful, quirky car has been an University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 16

17 effective conservation starter and has given UCF many opportunities to spread the message about the importance of energy conservation and environmental stewardship. WASTE MANAGEMENT In 2009, UCF sent about 3,147 tons of waste to the landfill. UCF recycled about 25% of the University s total waste, an increase from 18% in UCF has seen steady growth of its recycling program and hopes to achieve a 30% recycling rate in 2010 with an eventual goal of 75% in For 2009, the University attributed 3,709 MtCO 2 e from the amount of solid waste produced by the campus. A few 2008 highlights related to waste management were: During the 2009 football season, with the help of students and volunteers, close to 60,000 pounds were recycled. This was a record high 26% recycling rate, an 8% increase from the previous year. Through the Student Move Out Recycling Project, 2,856 pounds of clothing, bedding, appliances, and electronics were donated to a local community center to help local families in need. GROUNDS AND LAND MANAGEMENT UCF has one of the largest campuses in the nation with 1,400 acres of land, half of which are natural lands comprised of upland and wetland habitats. As such, UCF employs best management techniques including prescribed fire; invasive species management; restoration; and species conservation and management; to manage its lands and waters in a sustainable manner. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 17

18 Nitrogen is commonly found in fertilizers used to green the landscape. After the application the prospect of run-off nitrogen becomes a concern, since it reduces oxygen levels in the water supply and may potentially harm plant and animal populations. Run-off nitrogen is also responsible for producing algae bloom during warmer weather. UCF is committed to reducing nitrogen levels and has adopted more sustainable landscaping practices. In 2009, the level of fertilizer increased compared to 2008, due to an increase in new landscape beds on campus. During plant establishment, an increase in fertilizer and water is needed to ensure planting success. UCF anticipates these numbers to decrease in subsequent reporting cycles, since plant establishment should have successfully occurred during that time. In 2009, UCF s department of Landscape and Natural Resources reported the utilization of 3,672 pounds of synthetic fertilizer with approximately 15% nitrogen and 118 pounds of organic fertilizer with 5% nitrogen for a total of 3,790 pounds of fertilizer. With these numbers, it was determined that 2.3 MtCO 2 e was emitted from UCF s land management practices A few 2009 highlights related to grounds and land management were: In February of 2009, the Student Sustainability Alliance, in collaboration with the UCF s Environmental Initiative and Arboretum, created an on-campus, organic, community garden that grew fruit, vegetables, Florida native edibles, and herbs. Students and community members, who regularly volunteered their time in the garden, shared the produce and took vegetables home to enjoy. The garden s goals were to encourage students and community members to spend more time outdoors and educate them about the importance and interconnectedness of gardening, composting, organic agriculture, and sustainability. In 2009, more than 600 students and community members volunteered over 1,500 hours to maintain it. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 18

19 Landscape and Natural Resources began monitoring the Urban Heat Island effect on campus. The data collected will help determine the effect plantings have in reducing this effect and will also determine where additional plantings are needed on campus GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS SUMMARY In 2009, the University of Central Florida emitted 218,719 MtCO 2 e from all sources as compared to 146,573 MtCO 2 e in 2008, according to CA-CP s calculations. If the University substituted the transportation sectors numbers for the calculations according to EPA s MOVES software, the estimate would be 233,456 MtCO 2 e. This increase was due to the distribution of a commuting survey which produced higher vehicle miles traveled than previously assumed. However, for the building sector, UCF was proud to see a reduction of its energy use intensity, its electricity use, and its natural gas consumption despite an increase in student enrollment and building space. This reduction is evidence that the conservation and energy management programs instituted by the University are effective and wise investments. This not only saves the University much needed money during the tough economic climate but also reduced the environmental impact of its buildings. As the University moves forward, it will continue to focus on constructing and operating energy efficient buildings as well as encouraging environmentally friendly modes of transportation to the third largest university in the nation. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 19

20 Category Utilities Electrical 88,629 89,437 86,334 Natural Gas 4,736 4,715 3,854 Exhibit 5: Total carbon emissions Transportation Travel 19,107 18,499 11,199 Fleet Fuel 2,447 2,878 3,340 Student Commuting 11,755 11,815 86,059** Faculty & Staff 9,784 6,534 Commuting 15,683** Other Agriculture Solid Waste 4,970 3,850 3,709 TOTAL 150,205* 146,573* 218,719* *It should be noted that transmission and distribution losses contributed 8,539 MtCO 2 e for 2009 and 8,845 MtCO 2 e for ** Increase was due to an in-depth analysis of the University s commuting practices that was previously underestimated. University of Central Florida 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Page 20

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