1 Energy Efficiency Made in Germany Energy Efficiency in Industry, Building Service Technology and Transport
2 Imprint Publisher Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) Public Relations D Berlin The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has been awarded the berufundfamilie audit certificate for its family-friendly HR policy. The certificate is granted by berufundfamilie ggmbh, an initiative of the Hertie Foundation. February 2014 Printed by Bonifatius GmbH, Paderborn Design and Production PRpetuum GmbH, Munich Cover photograph Fotolia fotohansi Text Sunbeam GmbH, Berlin BONUM news + marketing, Hamburg German Energy Agency (dena), Berlin German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Frankfurt/Main German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association (ZVEI), Frankfurt/Main Federal Industrial Association of Germany for House, Energy and Environmental Technology (BDH), Frankfurt/Main Translation BMWi Editing Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) This brochure is published as part of the public relations work of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. It is distributed free of charge and is not intended for sale. The distribution of this brochure at campaign events or at information stands run by political parties is prohibited, and political party-related information or advertising shall not be inserted in, printed on, or affixed to this publication.
3 Contents Introduction... 2 I. Industry... 4 Introduction... 5 Refrigeration... 6 Compressed Air... 8 Electrical Drives Pumps Process Heat Heat Recovery Process Automation Decentralised Supply II. Buildings Introduction Condensing Boiler Technology Insulation Combined Heat and Power Generation Low-Energy Houses and Passive Houses Heat Distribution and Emission Lighting Air-Conditioning Technology Combining Building Technologies to Best Effect III. Transport Introduction Modes of Transport Road Modes of Transport Rail Modes of Transport Inland Waterways Modes of Transport Maritime Shipping Modes of Transport Aviation Telematics and Traffic Management Logistics Infrastructure IV. E-Energy... 64
4 2 Introduction Fossil energy resources are becoming scarce and energy prices are on the rise. New technologies conserve fossil resources. With energy prices on the rise and energy resources becoming scarce, both prosperity and competitiveness increasingly depend on our ability to use energy as efficiently as possible. This is true of industry as well as private households and the transport sector. Germany has to import most of its energy resources. This is why, for several decades now, Germany has had a tradition of treating resources with respect and conserving energy, while still ensuring a high standard of living. Germany s total primary energy consumption is less than 7 gigajoules per 1,000 gross domestic product (GDP). In terms of energy consumption, Germany is one of the most productive industrial nations in the world. In 2007, the total primary energy consumption achieved its lowest value in more than 25 years, even though the gross domestic product had more than doubled during this same period.
5 Introduction 3 Germany has extensive expert knowledge of energy-efficient technologies. World leader in energy efficiency For a long time now, Made in Germany has been synonymous with high-quality products. Increasingly, however, German technology is also proving to be exceptionally energy-efficient. When it comes to energyefficient technology, Germany is the international market leader and chief innovator. This is also reflected in the exceptionally high number of patent applications submitted in the areas of efficient building services technology, energy-efficient industrial procedures and processes as well as energy-efficient industrial crossapplication technologies. In the years 2002 to 2004, German researchers and companies submitted between 30 and 40 % of global patent applications in these areas. For example, the world s market for condensing boiler technology, which is deployed in gas and oil centralheating boilers and achieves efficiencies of almost 100 %, is served almost exclusively by the German heating industry. This is also true of the system technology market for using renewable energies. Stable domestic market with international benefits International customers of German companies benefit from a stable domestic market for energy-efficient products. Market continuity provides planning reliability for companies. In this way, the industry can continuously optimise systems and components as well as test innovations in live operation. With approximately 8 billion invested in environmental protection (most of which has been invested in energy efficiency) and export volumes in the region of 3 billion for capital goods which help to protect the environment, Germany is once again one of the world s leading suppliers in this area.
6 4 I. Industry
7 5 I. Industry Fotolia BMWi Energy-efficient technologies are not only significant for companies. Energy-efficient technologies can reduce electricity consumption by up to 50 %. Introduction Energy is and remains an essential basis for the economies of the industrialised world. Trade and industry can considerably reduce its energy consumption in the coming years without endangering productivity. Or, to put it another way: In other words, energy efficiency equates to cost efficiency a clear competitive advantage. Globally, in all fields of industry, the potential for improved energy efficiency through improved procedures is significant. The following industrial technologies are widely used: compressed air and pump systems as well as air, refrigeration and conveyor technology. Today, most companies could potentially reduce their consumption of electricity and associated costs for these cross-application technologies by 5 % to 50 %. In most cases, the payback period is less than two years and the return on investment is more than 25 %. Therefore, measures that improve energy efficiency are extremely appealing to companies for economic reasons. Breakdown of final energy consumption in 2006 by sector Source: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) Forschungszentrum Jülich 14.4 % Industry, Trade, Services 28.2 % Industry 28.9 % Households 28.5 % Transport Example: Research laboratory in Jülich Measures: Daylight planning, optimised lighting, ventilation and heat recovery, active cooling, renewable and passive cooling Energy Savings: Following the refurbishment of the research laboratory, 85 % of the exhaust air is now used in heat recovery, which at full load can recycle half of the contained heat. When the refurbishment was complete, the primary energy requirement fell by more than half to 600 kwh/m 2 a.
8 6 I. Industry BMWi In refrigeration, there is great potential for reducing energy costs. Refrigeration Refrigeration technology is an inherent part of many production and logistics processes and is widely used in trade and industry. Therefore, various technologies are deployed and the size of refrigeration systems differs greatly. However, all of these systems have one thing in common, i.e. they generate cooling energy that must be incorporated into the product or process. Even though refrigeration technology is used extensively, it was rarely considered as a possibility for improving energy efficiency until now. However, in refrigeration technology, there is often great potential for reducing energy costs. In particular, this concerns the continuous operating costs of such systems, which may account for up to 80 % of the total costs associated with a refrigeration system. General approaches for improving efficiency: Potential savings: Use of efficient appliances and systems Drives with speed control for compressor, ventilators and pumps up to 6 % improved heat insulation reduced heat radiation adjusted busy times and operating times High efficiency motors for ventilator on vaporiser up to 5 % basic process design High efficiency cooling compressor High efficiency motors for ventilator on condenser up to 5 % up to 5 % Source: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) optimised power, pressure and temperature levels efficient control technology detailed design and selection of individual components use of thermal cooling machines, for example, with solar heat, district heating, industrial waste heat as well as waste heat from combined heat and power systems (CHPs)
9 I. Industry 7 Thorough planning and system optimisation can significantly lower the costs associated with the production of cooling energy. Therefore, it is important that the purchase price is not the primary determining factor when purchasing a refrigeration system. Rather, the total cost, including the very high lifetime operating costs associated with refrigeration systems, should be considered. German manufacturers provide highly efficient thermal cooling machines with cooling capacities for almost all areas of application. In Germany, approximately 2,200 companies employ 15,000 people in the area of refrigeration and air-conditioning. Their annual combined turnover is in the region of 3 billion and exports account for 40 % of their total sales. German refrigeration technicians have expert knowledge of high-quality, energy-efficient systems. This is reflected, for example, in thermal cooling machines, which are an energy-saving alternative to electrical refrigeration systems absorption, not compression. Thermal cooling machines use heat energy directly for cooling purposes. Accumulated industrial waste heat, which would otherwise go unused, provides a good source of heat in this case. If heat is generated from free solar energy through the use of solar-thermal technology, an almost CO 2 -neutral operation is achievable. Potential savings: Reduction in cooling requirement System optimisation Operating and maintenance measures Better heat insulation Heat recovery Efficient equipment/ lighting in cold rooms up to 10 % up to 8 % up to 10 % up to 2 % up to 80 % Potential savings: Correct usage and avoidance of unnecessary temperatures Cleaning of heat exchanger surfaces Control of final discharge pressure of cooling compressor Defrost control up to 3 % up to 15 % up to 5 % It is also possible to combine refrigeration systems with combined heat and power systems (CHPs). The economic efficiency of CHPs is heavily dependent on a continuous heat requirement. By combining it with the refrigeration system, the CHP is utilised more during warmer times of the year and is therefore more economically efficient Example: Modernisation of a refrigeration circuit deployed by a soya milk producer Measures: Energy-efficient drives, pumps, control technology, refrigeration Energy Savings: By replacing the damper control for compressors with speed control, the quantity of energy consum ed when providing cooling water has been reduced considerably. The annual savings are in the region of 70,000 to 90,000. Approximately 120,000 was invested and recouped within approximately 16 months.
10 8 I. Industry Efficient compressed air technology can yield energy savings of up to 50 %. Compressed Air Trade and industry frequently require exceptionally large volumes of compressed air, which is one of the most widely used cross-application technologies and is mainly used in industrial processes. Compressed air is used in the following areas: pneumatics active air (compressed air as a means of transport) Air, as a commodity, is an infinite resource and does not cost anything. However, compressed air/vacuums are usually supplied by electrical compressors. This generates costs of approximately 1.5 to 3 cents per cubic metre. The electricity required to generate compressed air can account for 20 % to 80 % of the overall energy costs in a company. Significant energy savings could be made here. If a company were to invest in efficient compressed air technology, it could yield energy savings of between 5 % and 50 % with a payback period of less than two years. process air (for example, drying processes) vacuum technology
11 I. Industry 9 German suppliers are the market leaders in vacuum technology. Energy savings can be made when generating compressed air. In order to determine the potential savings, it is always appropriate to consider the system as a whole. In order to improve the efficiency of the system as a whole, it is necessary to optimise the individual components: replacement of the electrical drives with more efficient motors use of motors with variable speed control use of improved compressors use of modern control technology improvement in tubing, filters and dryers prevention of friction pressure losses German companies manufacture the entire range of compressed air technologies; from small compressors for skilled craft enterprises through to complex compressed air systems with several megawatts of power. In the case of vacuum technology, which has become a key compressed air technology in industry and research, German suppliers are the market leaders with approximately 80 % of the world s annual turnover. The prominent role occupied by German suppliers of compressed air is also reflected in the ever-increasing number of patent applications. This is particularly the case in the important application area of pneumatics. German companies not only supply components and complete systems, they also provide compressed air contracting. In particular, customers who have easily calculable requirements really get their money s worth with this all-inclusive package. improvement of airtightness regular filter replacement Example: Company based in Minden Unfortunately, the overall efficiencies achieved with compressed air supply are extremely low. The elec trical energy consumed by an air compressor does not compare favourably with the compressed air that is output at the end of the system chain. Even if air compressor efficiency is 50 %, an efficiency of just 5 % is achieved if we consider the overall system from its creation through to its use. However, the remaining 95 % does not have to remain unused. Frequently, the waste heat accumulated when operating a compressor can be deployed. Another option is to improve the efficiency of the entire process by optimising the system components. Measures: Installation of three new 10 kw piston compressors Energy Savings: By installing three new 10 kw piston compressors and reducing the mains pressure, the company s compressed air costs have fallen by over 60 %. This corresponds to approximately 60,000 kwh of electrical energy per year and a total annual savings of 20,000. Since 40,000 was invested in the compressors, the payback period is just two years.
12 10 I. Industry In drive engineering, there are numerous ways to save energy and increase energy efficiency. Electrical Drives Lifecycle costs of an electric motor Trade and industry requires electrical drives worldwide. They consume 64 % of all electricity used in industry. Here, there is also great potential for improved efficiencies in trade and industry. Electrical drive systems consist of the following units: 2.5 % Investment, installation 1.5 % Maintenance 96 % Energy consumption the electric motor, which converts electric power into mechanical power, a frequency converter, which converts the electrical power of the mains in a controlled form (electronic speed control), and the gearbox, which adjusts the mechanical power of the motor to the working point of the driven machine (reducing speed and increasing torque). The individual components have been highly optimised already. However, there remains an enormous savings potential in the use of optimum system concepts if such concepts are evaluated by their costs across the entire life cycle. When you consider the lifetime of an electric motor, the costs associated with the consumption of electricity account for up to 96 % of the total cost. Therefore, when purchasing a motor, it is important to bear in mind its expected electricity consumption as this is a considerably greater factor than the initial purchase cost. Great savings potential in electrical drive systems lies in the use of energy-saving motors. These energyoptimised motors convert electrical into mechanical energy with the fewest possible losses whilst maintaining the required technical properties.
13 I. Industry 11 In industry, three-phase asynchronous motors are widely used as standard drives. The vast majority of three-phase motors used today are asynchronous machines because they are good value for money and require very little maintenance. In terms of energy efficiency, however, they cannot compete with other types of motor. However, strong efforts have been made in the past years to reduce the energy losses of such asynchronous machines substantially. In the highest class of the European motor efficiency scale, EFF 1, losses are on average reduced by 40 %. Higher efficiency levels may be obtained when using special motor types such as synchronous motors or EC motors: Potential savings in systems driven by electric motors 60 % Mechanical system optimization 10 % Increased use of energy-saving motors 30 % Electronic speed control Synchronous motors have a very high electrical efficiency, even during partial load operation. Precise regulation of frequency converters is possible. Electronically commutated (EC) motors, also known as brushless DC motors (BLDCs), supplement the positive attributes of synchronous machines by being able to adjust to their load. They are highly efficient, even when working with partial loads, have a high power spectrum and are easily regulated. In 1998, the European motor manufacturers made a voluntary commitment to the European Commission to promote the selling of energy-saving motors. The proportion of energy-saving motors of efficiency class EFF 1 has been rising constantly ever since. At first glance, simply replacing an old motor with an EFF 1 motor is the simplest way to improve energy efficiency. However, when assessing the economic efficiency of an electrical drive, it is not primarily the motor that determines the optimal efficiency but rather the way in which the motor or machine speed is controlled. The savings potential of electronic speed control is four to five times greater than that of efficiency class EFF1 motors. Electronic speed control can save between 20 % and 70 % of the energy costs of conventional mechanical methods such as throttle valves. Example: Modernisation of the bottle transportation system in the Lammsbräu brewery Measures: Energy-efficient drives, control techno logy, material transport Energy Savings: Following its modernisation, the quantity of electricity consumed by the bottle transportation system has fallen by approximately 40 % to just 79.5 kwh/ day, thanks to energy-saving drives. When compared with traditional solutions, this results in savings of between 2,500 and 5,000.
14 12 I. Industry Electrical drive engineering is one of the German economy s main export items. Taking life cycle costs into consideration, investments in energy saving can often be amortised within just a few months. Only about 12 % of the motor capacity installed in Germany today is operated with energy - saving electronic speed controls. It is estimated, however, that it would be beneficial in energy terms for over half of this motor capacity to be equipped with electronic speed control. There are basically two different types of industrial drive systems: drive systems which need electronic speed control if they are to function, and electrical drives that could be operated without speed control. It is in this group that the use of electronic speed controls opens up great energy savings potential. If the great potential for energy savings that lies in mechanical system optimisation is to be used, it is important for mechanical engineers and designers of machinery and plant to work together. This holistic approach can achieve almost 60 % of the total energy savings potential in electric motor-driven systems. In drive engineering, there are numerous ways to save energy and increase efficiency: use motors that have the best possible efficiency class, for example, the CEMEP seal of approval (CEMEP: European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics); use motors with variable speed control; use frequency converters (recuperation of brake energy into the system). In Germany, several projects are currently underway in a bid to unlock more potential energy savings in trade and industry. One such project, in particular, is the Motor Challenge Programme. Its goal is to motivate companies to optimise the efficiency of their electric motor systems. For decades, electrical drive engineering has been one of the German economy s main export items. Thanks to the combination of a keenness to innovate and comparatively high energy costs in Germany, Germany s high-tech products are receiving increasing levels of global attention because of their impressive energy efficiency.
15 I. Industry 13 Savings are made through the use of highly-developed pumps. Pumps Pump systems presently account for a good 25 % of the industrial electricity consumed worldwide. It is believed that approximately 40 % of this energy could be saved. Centrifugal and displacement pumps occupy a large market share, with centrifugal pumps accounting for 73 %. Centrifugal pumps, in particular, represent great potential for energy savings because approximately 75 % of these pumps are oversized, frequently by more than 20 %. The German Energy Agency (dena) has an ongoing campaign entitled Energy-Efficient Systems in Trade and Industry, which advises companies active in the following industries on measures that they can introduce to increase their energy efficiency: chemicals, paper, electrical, food manufacturing, plastics, metal processing, water supply and waste water disposal. In particular, this campaign demonstrates that all companies, irrespective of their industry classification, will benefit financially from any energy-saving efforts that they undertake. Depending on its size, a company could potentially save between 2,000 and 50,000 per year. The payback period for the corresponding investment is generally two to three years. This campaign also shows that, on average, companies can reduce the electricity consumed by their pumps by approximately 30 %.
16 14 I. Industry Percentage of electricity consumed among motor-driven systems within the EU 10 % Compressed air 14 % Refrigeration 32 % Other 14 % Ventilators 30 % Pumps Source: Motor Challenge Programm Modern pumps can reduce electricity consumption by up to 40 %. Pumps and systems Breakdown of German exports equip pumps with proportional control, optimise downstream heat exchangers. 4.7 % Other 26.9 % Centrifugal pumps 32.8 % Parts Germany is the second-largest global supplier of pumps and compressors. German companies are frequently the market leaders in highly efficient highend pumps and compressors for specific purposes. 21 % Oscillating displacement pumps 14.6 % Rotating displacement pumps Source: German Federal Statistical Office & the German Engineering Federation (VDMA) Example: Renovation of the Sportiom leisure pool in Den Bosch, the Netherlands Measures: Energy-efficient drives, pumps, control technology In addition to comprehensive system optimisation, the use of efficient high-tech products and highly developed controls are the two main ways to increase energy efficiency: replace oversized pumps with smaller pumps that have highly efficient motors; Energy Savings: By modernising flow regulation through the use of pool valves with speed control, energy costs have fallen by 85 % per year, which corresponds to annual savings of up to 96,000. Therefore, the modernisation costs were recouped after five months. use highly efficient pumps; use frequency converters for variable-speed operations,
17 I. Industry 15 Potential energy savings can be attained, for example, by using energy-saving motors. This improves energy efficiency and reduces losses. The use of combined heat and power (CHP) or combined cooling and power (CCP) should also be considered. Poor insulation is frequently associated with energy loss. Heat recovery is an important consideration for potential energy savings. When smelting metals, it makes sense to constantly monitor the smelting temperature and adjust the smelting cycle to the throughput of the casting machine. First and foremost, a policy of efficient load management should be adopted. The total energy savings potential is at least 15 %. Process heat is generated by combustion processes or electricity. Process Heat Process heat is the heat required for numerous technical processes and procedures in trade and industry. Unlike room heat, process heat is available at a considerably higher temperature level, which is optimised for each application. Process heat is necessary for cooking, baking, sterilising, drying, smelting, forging, welding and producing steam. Due to the high temperature level of process heat, it is generally not possible to use waste heat from other processes, which means that process heat is generated by combustion processes or electricity. 40 % of the energy used in Germany is consumed in trade and industry and in the services sector. Approximately 66 % of industrial energy consumption is re - quired to generate process heat. Therefore, this is a large area of activity in which measures can be taken to save energy. Approximately half of all process heat required is below 300 C; the remaining half is below 180 C. Process heat can also be generated using solar energy. This is of particular interest, given the rising energy prices and the reduction of greenhouse emissions. Germany is working intensively on the further development of solar process heat. Possible areas of application include agricultural drying plants and industrial operations such as washing, cooking, drying and pasteurisation. Solar energy can also be used for processes at high temperatures. Measures: Heat recovery, heat exchangers Example: Organic bakery deploying waste heat Energy Savings: The bakery has installed a heat recovery system that captures waste heat for the purpose of providing hot water and heating. The total system cost 33,000 and 47,500 kwh is saved annually as a result of overhauling the system. Generally, the greatest energy savings potential for reducing costs is to change the energy resource from electricity to gas. This generally cuts down on CO 2. However, it does not necessarily reduce the quantity of energy required, i.e. simply changing from one energy resource to another does not automatically increase the efficiency of a process. Increased energy efficiency is mostly achieved by optimising the system technology.
18 16 I. Industry Heat Recovery Heat recovery is a collective term for the practice of reusing the thermal energy generated during a manufacturing process and frequently emitted into the environment as unused waste heat. This waste heat can be deployed effectively in heat recovery. Therefore, the potential energy savings are huge. Return air streams or flue gas streams that deploy heat recovery technologies can be used to pre-heat room air or combustion air. By linking procedures in an intelligent manner, it is possible to considerably reduce the amount of primary energy that needs to be consumed. Processes in an industrial plant with heat recovery Heat loss 20 0 C 80 0 C Process 1 Process C Source: Energy Agency NRW Heat supply Discharged air Heat recovery measures result both in lower energy costs by reducing the use of primary energy and in lower investment costs for heat production plants. Furthermore, the volume of greenhouse gases emitted is reduced considerably. Heat recovery is responsible for achieving sustained conservation or renewal of energy streams ultimately released by manufacturing processes into the environment. Therefore, heat recovery can be regarded as a renewable energy. The advantages associated with heat recovery can be summarised as follows: Heat recovery can reduce the connection power for heat energy and cooling energy, the level of energy consumption for heating and cooling, investment costs and operating costs as well as pollutant emissions. System technology can be scaled down; heating boilers, refrigerators, re-cooling plants, piping, stacks etc. are no longer required. Numerous technical possibilities are associated with heat recovery. Process heat can be transferred directly to solids. Furthermore, it can also be transferred to gases and liquids, for example, when pre-heating water or combustion air for furnaces or dryers. Possible heat sources include: Use of condenser heat from steam systems and boiler systems Heat recovery from ventilation and air-conditioning systems Extraction of residual heat from waste heat in order to pre-heat heating water or domestic water Germany s expertise in this area ranges from heat re cov ery in large plants to possible applications of heat re cov - ery technologies in small and medium-sized companies. German companies are especially committed to energy efficiency because Germany has state sponsorship programmes (for example, the ERP energy-saving programme) as well as financing concepts backed by financial institutions and leasing companies for energy-saving measures. The government also finances energy consultations for companies. All of the above has given rise to a domestic business market for innovations in industrial heat recovery. The resulting expert knowledge can also be applied globally. Measures: Heat recovery, process heat Example: Heat recovery deployed in injection moulding production Energy Savings: While taking measures to use energy more efficiently, the company installed a heat pump that deploys the waste heat from mould cooling to supply hot water and to heat the workshops. 40,000 was invested, resulting in savings of 2.50 per operating hour. This investment can be recouped in just 4 years as there are 4,000 operating hours in each year.
19 I. Industry 17 Process Automation Process automation can contribute in many ways to higher energy efficiency in industrial production facilities. Its equipment and systems which ensure intelligent measurement and control of production processes can make a big contribution towards greater energy efficiency. This can result in average energy savings of % up to 70 % in some cases in industries using the technology. German process automation firms play a leading role here. Modern process automation solutions from Germany can help companies to substantially reduce energy consumption. This can easily save an energy-intensive company in the metal-working, chemical or cement industry several million euros a year on electricity, gas, steam and compressed air. In the medium to long term, this cuts the production costs for com panies using the technology and makes them more competitive. Sectors like metal production, the cement industry, basic chemicals and paper and cellulose are extremely energy-intensive. An intelligent use of energy becomes the key criterion for corporate success. For example, the chemical industry heats, cools, gasifies or comminutes great quantities of material. Energy costs account for approx. 20 % of the production costs of complex chemical facilities. In the metal-producing sectors (steel, copper, aluminium), energy costs can be up to 50 % of the production costs. Process automation world market Client sectors Source: ZVEI 3 % Paper and cellulose 9 % Mechanical engineering 11 % Oil processing 5 % Iron and steel 9 % Food, beverages and tobacco 15 % Energy industry 6 % Pharmaceuticals 15 % Oil and gas production 19 % Chemicals 2 % Other 6 % Construction materials Energy intensity of various sectors of industry, taking power intensity as an example Power intensity in kwh/ m (quotient of power consumption and gross value added by sector) Automotive manufacturing Mechanical engineering Metal-working 1.6 % 3.9 % 3.7 % Non-ferrous metals, non-ferrous foundries 25.5 % Metal production 31.0 % Processing of construction materials Glass and ceramics 10.8 % 10.7 % Rubber and plastic goods 6.9 % Other chemical industry 3.5 % Basic chemicals Paper-making 23.4 % 21.3 % Food and tobacco 3.9 % Source: Hamburgisches Weltwirtschaftsinstitut, Gesellschaft für Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbh, 2007
20 18 I. Industry Contribution by process automation to better energy efficiency Optimisation of energy use in production facilities Optimisation of technical infrastructure Optimisation of production process 1 Assessment of current situation 2 Maintenance of current situation 3 Optimisation of infrastructure 4 Process information (proper measuring and monitoring) 5 Interpretation of the process (use of optimum aggregates and procedures) 6 Process management (optimisation of running) Source: ZVEI, department for metrology and process automation, 2009 There is enormous potential for energy saving in the use of new products, systems and solutions offered by process automation technology. In order to develop it, it is necessary to optimise all the production-related processes and operations in energy terms. Here, a distinction is basically made between two key measures: measures to optimise the technical infrastructure of a production process measures to optimise the actual production process itself When optimising the technical infrastructure, there are three main areas which help to prevent additional energy being consumed by equipment failure and resulting start-up and closing-down processes or faulty output. The assessment of the present situation serves to recognise causes of faults and weak points in good time before equipment failure and damage occurs. The relevant maintenance and repair work is optimally planned and is carried out with minimal impact on the production process. The experience gained from the main areas mentioned above can be used to pinpoint the weak points of plant and to remove them by optimising the infrastructure, thereby substantially reducing the failure rate. Three main areas can also be identified when it comes to optimising the production process. The first area is process information. Here, it is necessary to ensure that the parameters best suited to the assessment of the process are being measured and monitored with the necessary degree of precision. Here, the selection of the correct yardstick for the evaluation of the process can have a key influence on the amount of energy used. If the process is to be designed well, the best suited aggregates and processes need to be used for the relevant task. An optimally designed facility can be further improved by suitable process management. Here, all available process information is subjected to a holistic evaluation in context, and the optimal strategy to attain the economic objective is drawn up. This process is frequently supported by the use of computer simulations.