2 Dramatic demographic changes in the cultural and linguistic diversity of people are occurring in many nations. These changes have challenged higher education institutions to modify their curricula and instructional strategies to meet the needs of diverse learners (Morey, 2000). Technology exposes learners to multiple life-worlds and media/sources making diversity more immediate (Cope and Kalantzis, 2009).
3 Kitano s (1997: 18) framework of exclusive, inclusive and transformed levels of multicultural curriculum change (in content, dynamics, assessment) See Morey (2000)
4 a contested concept: a theory in progress based on established concepts and theories paradigm (Kuhn, 1962) conscientization (conscientização) or critical consciousness (Freire, 1970) central role of discourse in validating beliefs (Habermas, 1984) Teachers as intellectuals (Giroux, 1988)
5 One of the leading proponents of transformative learning, Mezirow (2003:58) describes the concept as: learning that transforms problematic frames of reference sets of fixed assumptions and expectations (habits of mind, meaning perspectives, mindsets)- to make them more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective...
6 Students/learners (adults*) are challenged to assess their value system and worldview identifying problematic ideas, beliefs and values through critical reflection (Taylor, 2000). Mezirow (1991) focuses on the development of the autonomous thinker other writers stress the process, the social experience, and the dialogic discussions that arise from critical thinking as essential to challenging perspectives (Brookfield, 2005).
7 contemporary universities are a place where cultures (and so perspectives) meet increasing salience of cultural and linguistic diversity is a facet of university learning contexts (New London Group, 1996, p. 60) transformative learning may be a way to challenge established or accepted ways of thinking
8 political and idealistic? divorced from disciplines and knowledge? positionality: arising from Western frames of reference?
9 In 2008 we designed an online course about internationalisation of the curriculum for university educators - based on principles of transformative learning (for them and their students) Used Kitano s (1997: 18) framework of exclusive, inclusive and transformed levels of multicultural curriculum change (in content, dynamics, assessment) aimed at moving beyond curriculum redesign to encouraging development of a philosophy by challenging participants to critically reflect on transformative learning and how it could be used in their academic context
10 Longitudinal study gathered data over 5 years through 6 iterations of the course since teacher/educators working in universities in 9 different countries from across the world Data generated from online discussions between participants and tutors Data thematically analysed using data-driven coding Codes and themes developed (and reliability supported by inter-rater analysis i.e. by more than one person independently)
11 *This presentation is mainly based on one iteration of the course and provides an initial snapshot of the findings forthcoming article in Higher Education Quarterly 2014 uses data from two iterations of the course 19 participants from UK, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands and Columbia 11 academics from politics, architecture, science, medicine, law, business, physiotherapy, French, English Language, Communication and the Media 8 from management, teaching and learning developers or other non-academic roles
12 wanted to find out about the ways in which university educators negotiated cultural, linguistic and disciplinary contexts in order to provide internationalised, transformative learning experiences for their students What did we find?
13 teachers had idealistic and ambitious views of what they wanted to achieve with their students Higher education should empower students to become agents of change in their own lives and in society Internationalised education could offer students an awareness of self, of their own strengths and prejudices and new ways of thinking students [should] decide what should be learnt, how it is to be learnt and how assessed
14 At the political level, some saw the ultimate goal as students becoming active global citizens concerned with, and taking action on, such ideals as social justice, equality and social responsibility: Indeed where else would the 21st century graduates learn about this if not at the university to enforce their sense of ethical values
15 Transformative learning was not seen by the participants as endemic in higher education and saw it as requiring change at all levels of the organisations Institutional level Programme/course level Pedagogy
16 teachers felt instructed by policy/strategy and that they had no control I think I'm still struggling with suppressing the cynicism I feel when I read my university's internationalisation strategy, and yet know that we need this commitment in words, and hopefully in actions, at the institutional level, in order to underpin and support change on the individual level. You can't bring about cultural change if it's only coming from one direction, and I think it's about cultural change - or else, it becomes just a bit of tweaking here and there.
17 The participants saw transformative learning as requiring a reconceptualisation of the whole curriculum, aligning aims, teaching and learning strategies and assessment processes. The aim would be that students live the course rather than endure it
18 higher education is wedded to the discipline knowledge that currently is the curriculum I can t imagine as to how a curriculum team would give up the mantra that discipline is the most important facet in a curriculum The problem with accounting and finance is the need to learn a good deal of basic technical building blocks before discussion can be widened into a more critical investigation however, some opportunities exist.
19 As a departmental group we have always insisted that we expect more from our students and that a university education should be more about students enquiring and developing their own models of the world. We also teach that accounting is socially constructed, but we don t ask what the impact of culture is on the outcome of that construction. The transformative approach seems to involve another step.
20 Teachers saw the teacher-student relationship being crucial to the process of transformative change. But questioned student readiness to allow roles to change - saw students as being extrinsically motivated to participate in tertiary education and wanting to gain a correct answer to [a] problem. My College is a private provider and expensive too! So to start with, the students think that they haven t come from the other end of the world and paid all that money for them to contribute texts, ideas and reflections. They haven t come here either to listen to their peers. They have come to hear from the specialist!
21 The level of transformation will be determined firstly by how open [students] are to other' ways of doing things, cultural ideas, concept and processes, and secondly by how the [students] relate to the power relations implicit between the dominant culture that their lives and the teaching lie within and are encompassed by, and the subjugation (or hopefully acceptance) of the 'other' culture within the students worldviews. And then of course there is the power relationship of teacher/student to consider.
22 As well as their own cultural biases and the embeddedness of their western perspectives (how do you teach outside your own perspectives?) the participants were concerned about their levels of skills and knowledge even assuming an appropriate level of broadmindedness, how do we treat very sensitive subjects in the classroom? What do we do if we disagree with the values being exhibited by others? This requires the acquisition of particular skills.
23 Teachers noticed their own need for transformation, to become reflective and critical teachers and to look at how we view the world as individuals, how we respond to it and act within it Until now I have not consciously reflected on my own degree of internationalisation to any great extent in how the concept relates to me personally and professionally and therefore developing an understanding of how this may affect my practice.
24 The thing that is constantly striking me about the notion of IoC is how internalised much of it is. The changes that really need to occur are initially internal i.e. shifts in how we view the world as individuals, how we respond to, and consequently act within it.
25 the excitement of philosophising soon dissipated when the teachers were asked to consider the possibility of enacting the theory in their practice Issues: dominant political context and current political exigencies, entrenched institutional norms, the culture of disciplines, the positionality of teachers and students and our own lack of imagination to envisage new ways of being and of teaching
26 From the perspective of influencing change, the challenge will be to overcome resistance that is deeply rooted in some of our institutions that were set up for an age long gone. However, if the purpose of university education is to interrogate and challenge old paradigms of knowledge to build new knowledge and ways of knowing then IoC [internationalisation of the curriculum] need not sit in contrast but rather be considered a natural development of a dynamic institution.
27 Online course run through Oxford Brookes University Small cost 5 weeks completely online tutored by CM/VC Attended by academics from across the world See webpage: d/online/international_curriculum/
28 Clifford, V. and Montgomery, C. (forthcoming). Challenging conceptions of Western Higher Education and developing graduates as global citizens. Higher Education Quarterly.
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