World Wide Web Acceleration: Caching Techniques and Peer-to-Peer networks

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1 World Wide Web Acceleration: Caching Techniques and Peer-to-Peer networks Christoph Olbrich Seminar paper draft Seminar aus Informationswirtschaft o. Univ. Prof. Dkfm. Dr. Wolfgang H. Janko Univ.-Ass. Mag. Dr. Stefan Koch Abteilung für Informationswirtschaft Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, UZA II 3.Ebene Augasse 2-6, A-1090 Wien, Austria 1

2 Abstract The demand for internet content rose dramatically in recent years. Servers became more and more powerful and the bandwidth of end user connections and backbones grew constantly during the last decade. Nevertheless users often experience poor performance when they access web sites or download files. Reasons for such problems are often performance problems which occur directly on the servers (e.g. poor performance of server-side applications or during flash crowds) and problems concerning the network infrastructure (e.g. long geographical distances, network overloads, etc.). In this paper I will discuss some of the most important techniques to avoid such problems i.e. to improve internet performance. I will discuss Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, content delivery networks and proxy servers and give a short overview over server side acceleration techniques. Abstract Die Nachfrage nach Daten im Internet erhöhte sich gewaltig innerhalb der letzten Jahre, Server wurden immer leistungsfähiger und die Bandbreite sowohl der Internetanschlüsse für End-User als auch die der Backbones stieg enorm innerhalb der letzten zehn Jahre. Trotzdem erleben End-User immer wieder lange Wartezeiten beim Aufruf einer Webseite oder beim Download einer Datei. Gründe für diese schlechte Performance können sowohl direkt beim Server liegen (z.b. schlechte Performance von Server-seitigen Anwendungen oder während flash crowds) als auch bei der Netzinfrastruktur (z.b. lange geographische Distanzen, Netzwerküberlastung, etc.). In dieser Seminararbeit möchte ich einige Verfahren vorstellen um derartige Probleme zu vermeiden und die Performance von Datentransfers über das Internet anzuheben. Ich werde Peer-to-Peer-Netzwerke (P2P), content delivery networks (CDNs) sowie Proxy-Server vorstellen und einen kurzen Überblick über Server-seitige Beschleunigungsmethoden geben. Keywords: Kernpunkte für das Management: 2

3 Contents 1 Preface 4 2 Internet Infrastructure 4 3 Caching techniques Proxy Servers Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) Peer-to-Peer networks (P2P) Definition P2P network architecture The napster model The gnutella model HAN (hierarchical network architecture) model The BitTorrent model P2P network traffic analysis P2P networks to handle flash crowds Other techniques to improve internet performance Load balancing Compression Conclusion 7 3

4 1 Preface 2 Internet Infrastructure In this chapter I will give a short overview over todays internet infrastructure and the processes involved, when establishing a connection between two hosts over the internet. Important points I will mention: backbones, Internet Service Provider, End User Connection establishing a connection: TCP/IP, DNS, HTTP. static versus dynamic content internet bandwidth today identifying the bottlenecks 3 Caching techniques In this chapter I will discuss different caching techniques used for static and dynamic content caching. On the static content caching side I will concentrate on proxy caching and on a special case of proxy caching : content distribution networks. Dynamic content is not as easy to cache as static content as it is essential to always check whether the cached content is not already outdated. Dynamic content caching can be implemented at the process of content generation (e.g. database caching, caching on the application side), at the process of content delivery or even at the client side (e.g. browser caching). 3.1 Proxy Servers Proxy servers act as intermediary servers between users who request content and servers that serve content. When a user sends a request for content he does not send the request directly to the server that serves the content but to the proxy server that fetches the requested content and delivers it to the user. In most cases proxy servers cache the content they fetch. When a user sends a request for content that the proxy server already keeps in its cache, the proxy server delivers the content directly from its cache. This technique can save bandwidth and reduce response times. But proxy servers can go 4

5 further and prefetch popular content in order to reduce the response time also for the first user who sends a request. In this chapter I will describe the functioning of a proxy server (e.g. Squid), how prefetching can be realised and I will present an approach to cache dynamic content. 3.2 Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) Content delivery networks are a network of servers that cache mainly static content. The servers are geographically distributed and the nearest or most idle server delivers the content to the user. As there is not a single server that has to handle all requests and most of the time the answering server is located near the user, response times are kept low and bandwidth is saved. CDNs can be compared with distributer/retailer warehouses [HoKiSm04], only that they store and distribute content instead of physical goods. In this chapter I will describe the different architectural approaches to content delivery networks (overlay approach versus network approach) and some optimization models for CDNs. 4 Peer-to-Peer networks (P2P) Peer-to-Peer networks changed the storage mode of the internet from a content located in center mode to content located in edge mode [Shir02]. In almost all P2P network models (the napster model is an exception) the whole network does not depend on centerly located servers that could be single points of failure or potential bottlenecks, but on its peers. This leads to high scalability and high redundancy. In this chapter I will discuss different architectural approaches to P2P networks. 4.1 Definition In this section I will give a definition of P2P networks as they are not only used to share files, but also to share computing capacity (e.g. 4.2 P2P network architecture In this section I will describe the most common P2P network architectures. I will outline the main differences and show the improvements in newer architectures. 5

6 4.2.1 The napster model The napster model is one of the first P2P network models. It needs centrally located infrastructure to organize its nodes and is therefore not as reliable as other P2P network architectures that do not need any central server The gnutella model The gnutella model does not need any centrally based infrastructure, it is completely based on its nodes. Its biggest shortcoming is its poor search performance HAN (hierarchical network architecture) model The HAN introduces super nodes into the gnutella model to achieve significant search performance gains The BitTorrent model 4.3 P2P network traffic analysis This section will contain an anlysis of traffic patterns on P2P networks. 4.4 P2P networks to handle flash crowds In this section I would like to introduce a model according to [RuSaSt04]. 5 Other techniques to improve internet performance In this chapter I want to give a short overview of server side techniques to improve WWW performance. Load balancers use different policies to distribute user requests to several back end servers. If possible I would like to describe the load balancer of the LPIS (Lehrveranstaltungs- und Prüfungsinformationssystem der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien). Compression can also lead to significant performance improvements. Most of the pictures used on web sites aready use a compressed format such as JPEG, PNG or GIF but most of the plain text information travels to the user in an uncompressed form. Software such as the Apache module mod gzip compresses the output of the web server before it delivers it to the user. This technique could significantly reduce the traffic needs of web pages. 6

7 5.1 Load balancing 5.2 Compression 6 Conclusion 7

8 Bibliography [AlLi99 ] [Ba01 ] Albitz, Paul; Liu, Cricket: DNS und Bind. 2. Auflage, O Reilly, Köln Barkai, David: Technologies for sharing and collaborating on the Net. Peer-to-Peer Computing, Proceedings. First International Conference on, Aug. 2001, pp [BlKuVo03 ] Bleich, Holger; Kuri, Jürgen; Vogt, Peter: Zwischen Boom und Baustopp: Schweinezyklus beim Ausbau der Internet-Backbones. In: c t, Magazin für Computertechnik Heft 21, 2003, pp [CaCoYu99 ] Cardellini, Valeria; Colajanni, Michele; Yu, Philip S.: Dynamic load balancing on Web-server systems. In: Internet Computing, IEEE, Volume: 3, Issue: 3, May-June pp [ChJuLe ] Chon, Kilnam; Jung, Jaeyeon; Lee, Dongman: Proactive Web Caching with Cumulative Prefetching for Large Multimedia Data. accessed on 12 April [CiKuSo01 ] Cidon, Israel; Kutten, Shay; Soffer, Ran: Optimal allocation of electronic content. In: INFOCOM Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE,Volume: 3, April 2001, pp [DaDuTh03 ] Datta, Anindya; Dutta, Kaushik; Thomas, Helen; VanderMeer, Debra: World Wide Wait: A Study of Internet Scalability and Cached-Based Approaches to Alleviate It. In: Management Science Vol. 49, No 10, October 2003, pp [DaDuTh02 ] Datta, Anindya; Dutta, Kaushik; Thomas, Helen; VanderMeer, Debra, Suresha, Ramamritham: Proxy-Based Acceleration of 8

9 Dynamically Generated Content on the World Wide Web: An Approach and Implementation. In: Proc 2002 ACM SIGMOD Internat. Conf. Management Data. ACM, MAdison, WI, pp [DeSoTi01 ] [Fox01 ] DeSouza, Mohan; Tilley, Scott: Spreading knowledge about Gnutella: a case study in understanding net-centric applications. In: Program Comprehension, IWPC Proceedings. 9th International Workshop on May 2001, pp Fox, Geoffrey: Peer-to-peer networks. In: Computing in Science & Engineering (see also IEEE Computational Science and Engineering), Volume: 3, Issue: 3, May-June 2001, pp [HoKiSm04 ] Hosanagar, Kartik; Krishnan, Ramayya; Smith, Michael; Chuang, John: Optimal pricing of content delivery network (CDN) services. In: System Sciences, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on, 5-8 Jan. 2004, pp [HuHuLi03 ] Li, Zupeng; Huang, Daoying; Liu, Zinrang; Huang, Jianhua: Research of peer-to-peer network architecture. Communication Technology Proceedings, ICCT International Conference on,volume: 1, 9-11 April 2003, pp: [LaTe01 ] Lazar, Irwin; Terrill, William: Exploring Content Delivering Networking. In: IT Pro July, August 2001, pp [LinWan03 ] Lin, Tsungnan; Wang, Hsinping: Search performance analysis in peer-to-peer networks. In: Peer-to-Peer Computing, (P2P 2003). Proceedings. Third International Conference on, 1-3 Sept. 2003, pp [Mark02 ] Markatos, Evangelos P.:Tracing a large-scale peer to peer system: an hour in the life of Gnutella. Cluster Computing and the Grid 2nd 9

10 IEEE/ACM International Symposium CCGRID2002, May 2002, pp [PaSuWh01 ] Parameswaran, Manoj; Susarla, Anjana; Whinston, Adrew B.: P2P networking: an information sharing alternative. In: Computer, Volume: 34, Issue: 7, July 2001, pp [PaVa03 ] [Pri03 ] [Ripe01 ] Pallis, George; Athena, Vakali: Content delivery networks: status and trends. In: Internet Computing, IEEE, Volume: 7, Issue: 6, Nov.-Dec. 2003, pp Primetrica free resources: Interregional Internet Bandwidth, resources/gig php, accessed on April 12, (access only after registration). Ripeanu, Matei: Peer-to-peer architecture case study: Gnutella network. In: Peer-to-Peer Computing, Proceedings. First International Conference on, Aug. 2001, pp [RuSaSt04 ] Rubenstein, Dan; Sahu, Sambit; Stavrou, Angelos: A lightweight, robust P2P system to handle flash crowds. In: Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, Volume: 22, Issue: 1, Jan. 2004, pp.6-17 [SchoScho02 ] Schollmeier, Rüdiger; Schollmeier, Gero: Why peer-to-peer (P2P) does scale: an analysis of P2P traffic patterns. In: Peer-to-Peer Computing, (P2P 2002). Proceedings. Second International Conference on, 5-7 Sept. 2002, pp [SenWan04 ] Sen, Subhabrata; Wang, Jia; Analyzing Peer-To-Peer Traffic Across Large Networks. In: Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on, Volume: 12, Issue: 2, April 2004, pp

11 [Shir02 ] Shirky, Clay: What is p2p and what isn t, O Reilly s Emerging Technology Conference, May [WebRef ] HTTP Compression Speeds up the Web. Accessed on April 10,

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