1 Teaching modern general equilibrium macroeconomics to undergraduates: using the same theory required for advanced research Max Gillman Cardi Business School pments in Economics Education (DEE) Conference
2 Motivation Undergrad Macro not based strictly on Micro theory: with many ad hoc elements. No smooth integration of micro with macro, in general. Research Macro articles now built mainly on microeconomic theory with only some added ad hoc elements. Challenge: how to teach undergrad Macro so Revise towards Microfoundations with seemless step to grad Macro. Bigger Challenge: Do this at intermediate Macro level, not just a third year Advanced macro course. Methodological consistency (Obstfeld-Rogo 96): at lower Level, more consistent
3 Existing Literature: Current Textbooks Many excellent macro texts but almost all include Split analysis: Macro Dichotomy: Neoclassical elements of labor-leisure, growth, business cycles Keynesian general equilibrium with no derivation of equilibrium. Trend: Include increasingly more Microfounded elements Main Microfounded approach: Barro; but lacks the full model/math. Almost all others are a mix, or hodgepodge of approaches. Problem: simple Keynesian model almost never used in research. Makes large sections of most texts inconsistent with graduate work.
4 Approach to Bringing Intermediate Macro in line with Graduate Macro Intermediate Macro: a level above the graphs, intuition of intro macro Fair game to use Calculus, Algebra, solving of systems of equations Solution: Use general equilibrium from beginning to end, as is standard in Research Use simplest general equilibrium, of one Representative agent for closed economy Two agents for open economy: "heterogeneous agents" at simplest level. Methodologically consistent Microfoundations from beginning to end.
5 Mathematics Always use log utility Always use Cobb-Douglas production. Use Calibration consistent with Research, but simple as possible Always can have full analytic solution of equilibria. Graph actual mathematic functions of Supply, Demand Use Chain Rule and partial derivatives.
6 Speci c Structure: Part 1, Labor, Capital and Goods A. Labor and Goods Market One Derivative: Equil Condition Labour-Leisure tradeo in simple gen equil with one agent Capital assumed xed. Firm Pro t goes back to Consumer Key condition: Marg Prod Labour = Marg Rt Subst Goods-Leisure Decentralize problem into Consumer and Firm: gives wage rate Extend to 2 agents, one with higher Marg Prod than other Trade between agents at equil wage: utility comparison Comparative statics of Marg Product changes.
7 Graphical Approach Graphs are Two dimensional Show Gen Equil: with Exact Util Levels and Prod Function Show Decentralized Markets: Labour and Goods, Supply and Dem Relative Price is wage rate w or 1/w for each Market Again, Exact Functional Representation of Supply and Dem Uses Scienti c Word Graphics With 2 Agents, 2 Supply and Demand lines in each market
8 Labor Graphs w Figure Labor Market with a Tax Financed Dole n
9 1/w Figure 3.2. The Goods Market under Free Trade c
10 c triangle 4 2 triangle Figure 3.3. General Equilibrium Goods and Labor Markets Under Free Trade x
11 Part 1, B. Capital Dimension One Derivative: Equil Condition Investment-Savings and Intertemporal Consumption Smoothing Simple 2 period Model with full depreciation and zero initial capital Margin: Marg Rt of Intertemp Subst = Marg Prod of Capital This gives the dynamic Euler equation of Consumpt Growth Standard analysis as with Labor, but now Capital and Goods markets Then also decentralized into Consumer and Firm sides and then 2 representative agents with trade: Open Econ. easy extension to 1000 agents of 2 types.
12 Capital Graphs 1+r Figure 4.9. Shift upwards in the Supply and Demand for Capital from a Productivity Increase k
13 r k Figure The Shift Back in Savings When a Tax on Gross Capital Income of 10% is Levied
14 1/(1+r) c1,y1 Figure 4.6. Market for Future Period Consumption
15 Part 2.A. Bringing together Labour and Capital Markets Go from two dimensional to dynamic Equilibrium Transition into Recursive Dynamic Framework Show Exact Same First Order Conditions of Previous Part 1, but now from Recursive model. Creates Modern AS-AD from Neoclassical Model First time? accomplished totally rigourously And totally consistent with standard research framework
16 Recursive Economics and Undergrad Macro Must face up to issue of teaching Recursive Dynamic Equil Do this by showing First Order Conditions (FOC) same as 2 standard Labour and Capital margins. New part: envelope condition, FOC in state variable capital k t : Says that discounted Marg util of Cap k at t + 1 is Marg Util of current c t That yields back the main Margin for Capital, plus have Labour margin. This identical equilibrium makes attractive Recursive Methodology. Need this to avoid more complicated Dynamic equilibrium FOC: Gives a simple 2 period framework instead of in nite horizon.
17 Recursive Model: 3 Derivatives; Capital, Labor, State Var V (k t ) = Max l t,k t+1 : u V (k t ) = Max : u (c t, x t ) + βv (k t+1 ), c t,x t,l t,k t+1 c t = A G l γ t k 1 γ t k t+1 + k t (1 δ k ) x t = 1 l t. A G l γ t k 1 γ t k t+1 + k t (1 δ k ), 1 l t + βv (k t+1 ). MP l = γa G l γ 1 t k 1 γ t = u x (c t, x t ) u c (c t, x t ) = MRS c,x. u c (c t, x t ) = βv 0 (k t+1 ) ; h i V 0 (k t+1 ) = u c (c t+1, x t+1 ) (1 γ) A G l γ t k γ t + (1 δ k ) ; u c (c t, x t ) h i MRS ct,c t+1 = βu c (c t+1, x t+1 ) = 1 + (1 γ) A G l γ t k γ t δ k = MP k ;
18 Get AS-AD within Dynamic Neoclass Growth and RBC Model Trick 1: Frame within Balanced Growth Path (BGP) equilibrium Trick 2: rst assume zero Growth. Makes interest rate r exogenous. Then add Consumption demand to Investment demand to get AD AS comes directly from the rm problem AD and AS are functions of prices w and capital k, and parameters Trick 3: need correct equilibrium k value to get the BGP equil w. Given correct k, and a Calibration, can graph and then do comparative statics Focus on Change in TFP Productivity, as in Growth/Real Bus Cycle.
19 Finding the Equilibrium State Variable Devote whole (next) chapter to this Solve model until a single equation in k t. Then plug in parameters and solve k t. Comparative statics by changing parameters, nd new k Then plug in new k and new parameter to AS AD Find new equilibrium price w, in Agg. goods output or Labor market. w found graphically and analytically Add Fixed wage rigidity
20 AS-AD and Labour Graphs Inverse Wage 1/w Aggregate Output y AS-AD Equilibrium with A G Increase
21 Wage Rate w Labor Supply and Demand Aggregate Labour Market with A G Increase
22 2.B. Focus Next on Growth and Business Cycles Standard Solow Exog Growth along BGP, with AS AD Then introducte Human Capital and Endogenous Growth Transition to RBC: show how a shock process accumulates Say how similar to static TFP change. Add Market, Non-Market Sectors Transition to International RBC Part 3. Topics in Uncertainty, Insurance and Asset Prices Apply to Government Fiscal Tax and Monetary policy. Colours: Historical Development towards Modern Macro Policy Applications
23 Conclusions Can teach Modern Macro with full Microfoundations: Depends on how you do it. Can be made Simple enough: key of 2 dimenions, one derivative And can be made Internally Consistent And can be Complete in certain ways Revives AS AD within Modern Theory 100% Microfounded
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