1 Micelle Formation Lecture: Colloidal Phenomena Arne Thomas, MPI of Colloids and Interfaces, Golm
2 What is a Colloid? Colloid science is the study of systems involving small particles of one substance suspended in another Colloid chemistry is closing the gap between molecular chemistry and solid state properties!
3 Micelles ( Aggregation colloids ) Outline 3-50 nm Hydrophilic headgroup Hydrophobic tail H 2 O 1. Surfactants/Introduction 2. Basics of micellization: characterization and properties 3. Micelle formation mechanism 4. Semiquantitative predictive models of micellization (Tanford, Israelachvili, Ruckenstein, Nagarajan) 5. What is the deeper reason for self-assembly?
4 1. Surfactants Ionic surfactants N + Br Hydrophilic headgroup ( loves water ) cationic Non-ionic surfactants ( Niotenside ) ϕ n O n O OH m m Brij Hydrophobic tail ( hates water ) Pluronics: PEO - PPO - PEO
5 1. Surfactants Zwitterionic surfactants: Phospholipids Phospholipids are the building block of biological membranes Phosphatidylcholin (Lecithin)
6 Introduction: Self-assembly of surfactants in water Formation of liquid crystals ( lyotropic mesophases ) upon increase in the surfactant concentration L 1 H 1 L α Surfactant volume fraction φ
7 Why are micelles/self-assembled structures of interest at all? 1) Living organisms: Cells = vesicles 2) Applications of surfactants: Cleaning/Detergents (40%), Textiles, Cosmetics, Paper Production, Paint, Food, Mining (Flotation)... Surfactant production per year: ~40 billion tons
8 3) Chemical reactions in micelles: Micelles as nanoreactors Emulsion polymerisation 4) New materials through templating/casting EtOH/H 2 O The role of soft colloidal templates in controlling the size and shape of inorganic nanocrystals Nature Materials 2, (2003) Si(OH) 4 SiO 2 Porous material
9 Washing / Solubilization of other substances What happens during washing? Solubilization by micelles Chiuz, 2003
10 2. Basics of micellization: : characterization and properties Contents of this chapter: Characterization of micelles Basic properties of micelles The critical micelle concentration The Krafft temperature
11 Different shapes of micelles What determines the shape/size of micelles...? Head group size? ionic strength? Hydrophobic tail?
12 A didactic excursion: wrong illustrations of micelles Standard figure seen in textbooks: A more realistic illustration of micelles: Wrong: 1. There is no denser core! 2. The heads are not so perfectly arranged 3. For normal surfactants, micelles are not shape-persistent H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O... Pluronics: up to 30% of the core is water
13 Can micelles be seen by microscopic techniques? Special preparation techniques necessary: Cryo Transmission Electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) Micelle Vesicle Evans, Langmuir, 1988, 34,1066.? Preparation: 1) Controlled environmental chamber to minimize compositional changes 2) rapid thermal quenching of a thin layer of the sample in a liquid ethane slush (formation of vitrified ice).
14 Visualization of self-assembled structures Cylindrical micelles forming a stable 2D hexagonal lattice in a SiO 2 matrix 50 nm SiO 2 Pore structures can be seen as cast of the micellar structure (Nanocasting)
15 Shape persistent micelles The first account of a structurally persistent micelle Böttcher et al. Angew. Chemie, 2004, 43, 2959 Specific interactions / covalent linkages can leed to micelles, which do not change their size/shape!
16 Characterization of micelles H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O TEM, light scattering, surface tension, spectroscopy,... but, just informations about the size, shape of the overall micelle What evidence does exist that the general core-shell picture of micelles is correct? A non-invasive technique with nanometer resolution is needed
17 Small-angle scattering of micellar objects Detector X-ray or neutron source Sample 2θ I( 2θ ) ρ(r) r Density profile Coherent scattering of x-rays or neutrons: I(2θ) = function(ρ(r))
18 Contrast matching technique for small-angle angle neutron scattering Poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-pyrrolidone) forms inverse micelles in toluene PS 120,d8 -P4VP 118 N PS P4VP r toluene deuterated PS hairy micelles
19 Contrast matching technique for small-angle angle neutron scattering Poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-pyrrolidone) forms inverse micelles in toluene a) core Scattering of the corona Toluene PS 120,d8 -P4VP 118 N PS P4VP I(2θ) deuterated PS toluene hairy micelles b) core Scattering of the micelle core 2θ Toluene d8 Results: R Core = 12 nm, R micelle = 36 nm Parameters such as the radius, core/shell size, density profile, shape
20 The critical micelle concentration (cmc, c k ) Air Water 1. Small c: Adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface 2. c > cmc : formation of micelles cmc (c k ) = critical micelle concentration: concentration, above which micelles are observed ΔG mic = μ mic - μ solv = RT ln (cmc)
21 The critical micelle concentration (cmc, c k ) Surface tension at cmc cmc of nonionic surfactants is generally lower compared to ionic surfactants Abrupt changes at the cmc due to micelle formation!
22 The critical micelle concentration (cmc, c k ) Typical behavior of selected physicochemical parameters such as the equivalence conductivity Λ c or the surface tension σ on the surfactant concentration Ionic surfactants Conductivity: Λ c μ(mobility) Abrupt changes at the cmc due to micelle formation!
23 Influence of the surfactant structure on the cmc: tail length Ionic surfactants Conductivity: Λ c μ(mobility) The cmc decreases with increasing tail length because the hydrophobic character increases
24 Summary: Some values about micelles Micelle size: Aggregation number: 3-50 nm 1 2 Ionic surfactants z A = Nonionic surfactants z A = H 2 O Critical micelle concentrations (CMC): cmc of ionic surfactants is generally higher compared to nonionic surfactants Ionic surfactants cmc = M Nonionic surfactants cmc = M
25 Solubility of surfactants-the Krafft temperature Binary phase diagram surfactant/water Solubility of surfactants highly T dependent Solubility is usually low at low T, rising rapidly in narrow range No micelles possible above a certain temperature The point where solubility curve meets CMC curve is the Krafft point, which defines the T krafft.. The Krafft temperature can be regarded as a melting point
26 3. Micelle formation mechanism Stepwise growth model (Isodesmic model) S: surfactant molecule S + (n-1)s S 2 + (n-2)s S n-1 + S S n Aggregation is a continuous process (broad aggregation, no cmc) Distribution of species Not in aggrement with sudden changes at cmc
27 3. Micelle formation mechanism Closed aggregation model aggregation number n dominates (when n, phase separation model) ns Sn, eq. cooperative phenomenon! K n =10 30 ; n=20 K n = [micelles]/[monomers] n = [S n ]/[S] n [monomer] CMC = (nk n ) -1/n c-[monomer]
28 4. Semiquantitative predictive models of micellization Contents of this chapter: Concept of the packing parameter (Israelachvili, 1976) for the prediction of micelle shapes and sizes Which energetic contributions determine the micellization? (Tanford-modell + extention by Nagarajan and Ruckenstein) Application to basic features of micellization
29 The concept of the packing parameter P P (Israelachvili Israelachvili,, 1976) a e P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) V 0 a e l 0 surfactant tail volume equilibrium area per molecule at the aggregate interface tail length V 0 l 0 Common surfactants: v 0 /l 0 = const. = 0.21 nm 2 (single tail) Example: Spherical micelle with aggregation number g R V core = g V 0 = 4πR 3 /3 A = g a e = 4πR 2 R = 3 V 0 /a e With R l 0 0 V 0 /(a e l 0 ) 1/3
30 The concept of the packing parameter P (Israelachvili) Prediction of the shape of self-assembled structures in solution Common surfactants: v 0 /l 0 = const. = 0.21 nm 2 (single tail) Only the headgroup controls the equilibrium aggregate structure via the headgroup area a e The tail does not have any influence on the shape and size of the aggregate
31 The concept of the packing parameter P (Israelachvili)
32 Predictions of the packing parameter concept Big headgroup = large a e : Spherical micelles Small headgroup = small a e : lamellae
33 Predictions of the packing parameter concept A model surfactant system starting from commercial anodic alumina electro-deposition of gold polymerization of polypyrrole dissolution of the alumina membrane and the silver cathode and backing
34 Predictions of the packing parameter concept A model surfactant system block length ratio (Au/PPy) 3:2 4:1 1:4 explanation of the self-assembly by use of the concept of the packing parameter
35 The free energy model by Tanford Phase separation model : micelles are microphase Δμ < 0 a e H 2 O Chemical potential change Infinitely diluted state Self-assembled state Avoiding the contact between hydrocarbon bails and water Residual contact water hydrocarbon: σ a Head group repulsion: α / a
36 The free energy model by Tanford and the equilibrium headgroup area a e Micelles in thermodynamic equilibrium: σ: interfacial tension α: headgroup repulsion parameter g 1/a e General aspects: 1) Tail transfer is responsible for aggregation, no influence on size and shape! 2) Residual contact a e promotion of the growth of aggregates 3) Headgroup repulsion 1 / a e, limitation of the aggregate size! Tanford s model explains basic features of micellization!
37 Some successful predictions of the packing model P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) 1) Nonionic surfactants with ethylene oxide headgroups n O m A) m small α small a e small V 0 /(a e l 0 )large bilayers/lamellae favored B) m larger V 0 /(a e l 0 ) lower cylindrical micells favored 2) Ionic surfactants: salt addition decreases the repulsion α increase in V 0 /(a e l 0 ) decrease in a e transition from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles.
38 Some successful predictions of the packing model 3) Single tail / double tail surfactants P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) vs. Same equilibrium area a e V 0 /(a e l 0 ) twice as large for double tail bilayers instead of spherical or globular micelles 4) Influence of solvents H 2 O EtOH H 2 O H2 O H 2 O H 2 O EtOH H 2 O Interfacial tension σ decreases a e increases V 0 /(a e l 0 ) decreases bilayer to micelles, rodlike to spherical micelles
39 Some successful predictions of the packing model P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) 5) Influence of temperature n O m ΔT Increasing the temperature decreases the steric repulsion of PEO headgroup α decreases a e decreases P increases transition from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles. The Tanford model predicts various experimental findings and supports the packing parameter concept!
40 Attention! Possible misinterpretation of the packing parameter P Straightforward interpretation of the molecular packing concept Geometric head group area a small tail = a large tail Small tail Large tail Same aggregation behavior? obviously not! P small tail = P large tail? Are the assumptions of the packing parameter model incorrect? How does the tail influence self-assembly?
41 ATTENTION: Neglected role of the surfactant tail!! What is the role of the tail? Is there a misinterpretation of the Tanford model? Let s have a closer look on the model again P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) a e : is an equilibrium parameter, not just a Geometrical surface area! N + Br = a e The tail might influence the packing parameter α and thereby the aggregation
42 Influence of tail packing constraints Bulk hydrocarbon Micell Different packing for the hydrocarbons compared to the bulk: Non-uniform deformation in the micelle! (Nagarajan, Ruckenstein)
43 Influence of tail packing constraints Nagarajan/Ruckenstein The hydrocarbon chains have to deform nonuniformly to fill the core with uniform density. (for spheres) L= characteristic segment length N = number of segments R = radius of micelle Q L,v 0 The equilibrium head group area (a e ) is dependent on the length of the hydrophobic tail!! Shape transitions possible with varying tail length!
44 Influence of tail packing constraints - simulations classical packing model Consideration of tail packing constraints Cylindrical micelles Spherical micelles possible!! The tail length influences the head group area and thereby the shape!
45 5. What is the deeper reason for self-assembly? Why don t t oil and water mix? The hydrophobic effect 1) Micellization H 2 O 2) Hydrocarbons in water Why unfavorable? H 2 O CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
46 Entropie/enthalpy of micellization ΔG = ΔH T ΔS Low-molecular weight surfactants: Δ H ca kj/mol Micellization is unfavorable with respect to the enthalpy!! Δ S ca J /K: The entropy of micellization is POSITIVE Specific features of the solvent (water) enable micellization! * High surface tension, * very high cohesion energy, * high dielectric constant, high boiling point, etc etc
47 Water is not a normal liquid! The iceberg model Frank, Evans, J. Chem. Phys. 1945, 13(11), 507. A) Nonpolar solutes create a clathrate-like cage of first-shell waters around the solute. B) Large entropic cost to order the hydrogen bonds into a more open iceberg -like structure (low temperature). C) High-Temperatures break hydrogen bonds to gain entropy, at the cost of the enthalpy. D) Analogy: Clathrate formation of rare gases in water.
48 Small-Size Model: Is the disaffinity of oil for water due to water s small size? The high cost in free energy comes from the difficulty of finding an appropriate cavity in water, due to the small size of water molecules. Free-volume distribution of a simple liquid (n-hexane) and water n-hexane water
49 Literature: Thermodynamics: Nagarajan, R. and Ganesh, K. Block copolymer self-assembly in selected solvents, J. Chem. Phys. 1989, p Nagarajan, R. Langmuir 2002, 18, 31. Visualization of micelles: Evans et al., Langmuir, 1988, 34,1066. Böttcher et al., Angew. Chemie, 2004, early view. Washing/surfactants: Chiuz, 2003, 37, 336. Hydrophobic effect: Southall et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2002, 106, 521.
PHASE TRANSITIONS IN POLYMERIC AND MICELLAR SYSTEMS Summer School on Neutron Scattering and Reflectometry NG3 SANS Team NIST Center for Neutron Research June 3-7, 008 ABSTRACT Small-Angle Neutron Scattering
Mean Field Flory Huggins Lattice Theory Mean field: the interactions between molecules are assumed to be due to the interaction of a given molecule and an average field due to all the other molecules in
Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance
Micelle/water partition: A combination of molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic D. Yordanova, I. Smirnova, S. Jakobtorweihen Institute of Thermal Separation Processes, Hamburg University of Technology
Dispersing Powders in Liquid Mark Bumiller email@example.com Definitions Typical powder: individual particles and clumps stuck together by weak or strong forces Agglomerates: assemblage of particles
Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Learning goals and key skills: Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility,
CHEMISTRY The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change Third Edition Chapter 13 The Properties of Mixtures: Solutions and Colloids Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction
Ch. 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Learning goals and key skills: Identify the intermolecular attractive interactions (dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole) that exist between
The hydrophobic effect Oil and water do not mix. This fact is so well engrained in our ever-day experience that we never ask why. Well, today we are going to ask just this question: why do oil and water
2054-2 Structure and Dynamics of Hydrogen-Bonded Systems 26-27 October 2009 Hydrogen Bonds and Liquid Water Ruth LYNDEN-BELL University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry Lensfield Road Cambridge CB2
Membranes and Lipids Biophysical Chemistry 1, Fall 2009 Fundamentals of lipid/membrane structure Membrane/protein interactions Reading assignment: Chaps. 4 & 10 all successfully adapted to their different
Chemical Engineering 160/260 Polymer Science and Engineering Lecture 13: Polymerization Techniques - Dispersed Systems Objectives! To outline polymerization techniques and describe approaches to reducing
Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module No. #03 Lecture - 08 So, last time we were talking about
CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas
Protein Folding Proteins are not extended polypeptide chains. Instead, most proteins form compact folded three-dimensional arrangements, with well-defined, specific structures. Several types of non-covalent
Langmuir 2000, 16, 8291-8295 8291 Hexagonal to Mesocellular Foam Phase Transition in Polymer-Templated Mesoporous Silicas John S. Lettow, Yong Jin Han, Patrick Schmidt-Winkel, Peidong Yang, Dongyuan Zhao,
Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition
AP CHEMISTRY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 N 2 (g) + 3 F 2 (g) 2 NF 3 (g) ΔH 298 = 264 kj mol 1 ; ΔS 298 = 278 J K 1 mol 1 The following questions relate to the synthesis reaction represented by the
Vvvv Triacylglycerols (TAGs), Soaps and Detergents at the molecular level Jeff Corkill, Department of Chemistry, Eastern Washington University RECALL: chemical structure->reactivity->function NON COVALENT
Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms
Student Learning Objectives Chem 321 Lecture 7 - Gravimetric Analysis 9/17/13 Your first unknown in lab will be a sample that contains chloride ion. You will analyze this sample by dissolving it in water
4. Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends Polymeric materials find growing applications in various fields of everyday life because they offer a wide range of application relevant properties. Blending of polymers
Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 13 Properties of are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution,
Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction
Chapter 12 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces will affect: Boiling point Melting point States of Matter - phases Intermolecular
BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES: FUNCTIONS, STRUCTURES & TRANSPORT UNIVERSITY OF PNG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES DISCIPLINE OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BMLS II / B Pharm II / BDS II VJ Temple
The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type
12.3 Colligative Properties Changes in solvent properties due to impurities Colloidal suspensions or dispersions scatter light, a phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. (a) Dust in the air scatters the
Bonding: General Concepts Ionic Bonds Sections 13.2-13.6 Covalent Bonds Section 13.7 Covalent Bond Energy & Chemical Reactions Section 13.8-13.9 Lewis Structures Sections 13.10-13.12 VSEPR Theory Section
SELF-ASSEMBLED POLYSTYRENE-BLOCK-POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE) (PS-b- PEO) MICELLE MORPHOLOGIES IN SOLUTION A Dissertation Presented to The Graduate Faculty of The University of Akron In Partial Fulfillment of
Lecture Presentation Chapter 13 Properties of Yonsei University homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances: may be gases, liquids, or solids In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout
Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue
Thermodynamics: First Law, Calorimetry, Enthalpy Monday, January 23 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Calorimetry Reactions are usually done at either constant V (in a closed container) or constant P (open to the
Phase diagram of water Note: for H 2 O melting point decreases with increasing pressure, for CO 2 melting point increases with increasing pressure. WATER Covers ~ 70% of the earth s surface Life on earth
Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure
1 Why? Chapter 1 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids Why is water usually a liquid and not a gas? Why does liquid water boil at such a high temperature for such a small molecule? Why does ice float on water?
Biology 150 - Fall Semester Introductory Workshop Exercise (Life & Its Chemistry) PART 1: Chemistry - A Fundamental Theme in the Study of Life. Life is organized on many different structural levels - from
Surface Forces & Colloid Stability Fundamentals of Surface Forces by Rossen Sedev Copyright 2014 R. Sedev. All rights reserved. Length Scales Surface Forces A V 1 R0 R Masliyah & Bhattacharjee (2006) Classification
Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).
Nanoparticle Technologies 1 2 NANOPARTICLE SYNTHESIS FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS The importance and unique advantages of nano- and microparticles made from different types of inorganic and organic/polymeric
Surface Structure Study on Phosphonium-based Ionic Liquids & Water Seoncheol Cha Soft Matter Optical Spectroscopy 2016.02.15 Structure of Phosphonium-based Ionic Liquids + Water Langmuir 31 8371 (2015)
Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,
Biology Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules 1 Atoms Smallest functional units of matter that form all chemical substances Cannot
Expt. MT 404 Ion Exchange Columns Aim To plot the breakthrough curve of strong acid cation exchange Amberlyst resins, and determine their capacity by batch and continuous flow processes. Theory Ion Exchangers
Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Biology is the study of living things, and it is important to understand their chemical nature. The processes that allow life to exist follow
Lecture 1 Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 1 problems in textbook: chapter 1, pp. 23-24, #1,2,3,6,7,8,9, 10,11; practice problems at end
Chemistry CP Name: Review Sheet Bonding (Chapter 6) After studying chapter 6, you should be able to: Infer the number of valence electrons in an atom of a main-group element, and then construct its Lewis
Chapter 14 Liquids: Condensation, Evaporation, and Dynamic Equilibrium An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Condensation (Gas to Liquid) Evaporation Particle Escape For a particle to
CHEMISTRY Content Domain Range of Competencies l. Nature of Science 0001 0003 18% ll. Matter and Atomic Structure 0004 0006 18% lll. Energy and Chemical Bonding 0007 0010 23% lv. Chemical Reactions 0011
Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.
Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The
Physical properties and food dispersions Binding forces Van der Waals Ionic Covalent Hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonding + + Involves the attraction of one nucleus for the outer shell electrons around
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy
Molecular Dynamics Simulations Yaoquan Tu Division of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) 2011-06 1 Outline I. Introduction II. Molecular Mechanics Force Field III. Molecular
Solutions David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College A solution is a HOMOGENEOUS mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. One constituent t is usually regarded as the SOLVENT
Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce
The Physics and Chemistry of Water 1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water Stoichiometric composition H 2 O the average lifetime of a molecule is 1 ms due to proton exchange (catalysed by acids
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
Chemical Synthesis Spontaneous organization of molecules into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates at the nanometer length scale. Overview The 1-100 nm nanoscale length is in between traditional
Solutions Thermodynamics DCI Name Section 1. The three attractive interactions which are important in solution formation are; solute-solute interactions, solvent-solvent interactions, and solute-solvent
Competencies for CHEM 1010 (Introduction to Chemistry I) Competency Number Performances or Task The student will be able to: 1 Use the steps in the scientific method in experimentation. 2 Convert between
BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in
CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,
Physical pharmacy Lec 7 dr basam al zayady Ideal Solutions and Raoult's Law In an ideal solution of two volatile liquids, the partial vapor pressure of each volatile constituent is equal to the vapor pressure
John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component
CHEMISTRY The Central Science Properties of Solutions The Solution Process Solutions: Air; brass; body fluids; sea water When a solution forms some questions we can ask are: What happens on a molecular
Classification of Chemical Substances INTRODUCTION: Depending on the kind of bonding present in a chemical substance, the substance may be called ionic, molecular or metallic. In a solid ionic compound
Lab 5: Periodic Trends Part I: (Prelab) A Computer Study and Introduction to ChemDraw Part II: Acid-Base Properties of Period 3 and Group 5A Elemental Oxides Part III: Oxidizing Ability of the Elemental
Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:
Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions The topics in this chapter should be review from a previous course. It is expected that you are able to review and master this material quickly and somewhat independently.
CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 1 February 8, 2012 (50 minutes) Name (please print) 1. SHOW ALL WORK. A saturated, aqueous NaCl solution is 5.40 M NaCl (58.44 g/mol) and is 26.0% NaCl by weight. a.) (10 points)
Thermodynamics of Mixing Dependence of Gibbs energy on mixture composition is G = n A µ A + n B µ B and at constant T and p, systems tend towards a lower Gibbs energy The simplest example of mixing: What
Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons
Molecular View of Cholesterol Flip-Flop and Chemical Potential in Different Membrane Environments Bennett, W. F. Drew; MacCallum, Justin L.; Hinner, Marlon J.; Marrink, Siewert; Tieleman, Dirk Published
Emulsions Part 2 a little (theory): emulsion stability Klaus Tauer MPI Colloids and Interfaces Am Mühlenberg, D-14476 Golm, Germany topics: (some) thermodynamics surfactant properties degradation of emulsions
Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition Cooling the Melt solidification Crystallization versus Formation of Glass Parameters related to the formaton of glass Effect of cooling rate Glass transition
5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature
Module 5 : Electrochemistry Lecture 22 : Free energy and EMF Objectives After studying this Lecture you will be able to Distinguish between electrolytic cells and galvanic cells. Write the cell representation
Chapter 13 Solution Dynamics An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Why Changes Happen Consider a system that can switch freely between two states, A and B. Probability helps us to predict