1 Micelle Formation Lecture: Colloidal Phenomena Arne Thomas, MPI of Colloids and Interfaces, Golm
2 What is a Colloid? Colloid science is the study of systems involving small particles of one substance suspended in another Colloid chemistry is closing the gap between molecular chemistry and solid state properties!
3 Micelles ( Aggregation colloids ) Outline 3-50 nm Hydrophilic headgroup Hydrophobic tail H 2 O 1. Surfactants/Introduction 2. Basics of micellization: characterization and properties 3. Micelle formation mechanism 4. Semiquantitative predictive models of micellization (Tanford, Israelachvili, Ruckenstein, Nagarajan) 5. What is the deeper reason for self-assembly?
4 1. Surfactants Ionic surfactants N + Br Hydrophilic headgroup ( loves water ) cationic Non-ionic surfactants ( Niotenside ) ϕ n O n O OH m m Brij Hydrophobic tail ( hates water ) Pluronics: PEO - PPO - PEO
5 1. Surfactants Zwitterionic surfactants: Phospholipids Phospholipids are the building block of biological membranes Phosphatidylcholin (Lecithin)
6 Introduction: Self-assembly of surfactants in water Formation of liquid crystals ( lyotropic mesophases ) upon increase in the surfactant concentration L 1 H 1 L α Surfactant volume fraction φ
7 Why are micelles/self-assembled structures of interest at all? 1) Living organisms: Cells = vesicles 2) Applications of surfactants: Cleaning/Detergents (40%), Textiles, Cosmetics, Paper Production, Paint, Food, Mining (Flotation)... Surfactant production per year: ~40 billion tons
8 3) Chemical reactions in micelles: Micelles as nanoreactors Emulsion polymerisation 4) New materials through templating/casting EtOH/H 2 O The role of soft colloidal templates in controlling the size and shape of inorganic nanocrystals Nature Materials 2, (2003) Si(OH) 4 SiO 2 Porous material
9 Washing / Solubilization of other substances What happens during washing? Solubilization by micelles Chiuz, 2003
10 2. Basics of micellization: : characterization and properties Contents of this chapter: Characterization of micelles Basic properties of micelles The critical micelle concentration The Krafft temperature
11 Different shapes of micelles What determines the shape/size of micelles...? Head group size? ionic strength? Hydrophobic tail?
12 A didactic excursion: wrong illustrations of micelles Standard figure seen in textbooks: A more realistic illustration of micelles: Wrong: 1. There is no denser core! 2. The heads are not so perfectly arranged 3. For normal surfactants, micelles are not shape-persistent H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O... Pluronics: up to 30% of the core is water
13 Can micelles be seen by microscopic techniques? Special preparation techniques necessary: Cryo Transmission Electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) Micelle Vesicle Evans, Langmuir, 1988, 34,1066.? Preparation: 1) Controlled environmental chamber to minimize compositional changes 2) rapid thermal quenching of a thin layer of the sample in a liquid ethane slush (formation of vitrified ice).
14 Visualization of self-assembled structures Cylindrical micelles forming a stable 2D hexagonal lattice in a SiO 2 matrix 50 nm SiO 2 Pore structures can be seen as cast of the micellar structure (Nanocasting)
15 Shape persistent micelles The first account of a structurally persistent micelle Böttcher et al. Angew. Chemie, 2004, 43, 2959 Specific interactions / covalent linkages can leed to micelles, which do not change their size/shape!
16 Characterization of micelles H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O TEM, light scattering, surface tension, spectroscopy,... but, just informations about the size, shape of the overall micelle What evidence does exist that the general core-shell picture of micelles is correct? A non-invasive technique with nanometer resolution is needed
17 Small-angle scattering of micellar objects Detector X-ray or neutron source Sample 2θ I( 2θ ) ρ(r) r Density profile Coherent scattering of x-rays or neutrons: I(2θ) = function(ρ(r))
18 Contrast matching technique for small-angle angle neutron scattering Poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-pyrrolidone) forms inverse micelles in toluene PS 120,d8 -P4VP 118 N PS P4VP r toluene deuterated PS hairy micelles
19 Contrast matching technique for small-angle angle neutron scattering Poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-pyrrolidone) forms inverse micelles in toluene a) core Scattering of the corona Toluene PS 120,d8 -P4VP 118 N PS P4VP I(2θ) deuterated PS toluene hairy micelles b) core Scattering of the micelle core 2θ Toluene d8 Results: R Core = 12 nm, R micelle = 36 nm Parameters such as the radius, core/shell size, density profile, shape
20 The critical micelle concentration (cmc, c k ) Air Water 1. Small c: Adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface 2. c > cmc : formation of micelles cmc (c k ) = critical micelle concentration: concentration, above which micelles are observed ΔG mic = μ mic - μ solv = RT ln (cmc)
21 The critical micelle concentration (cmc, c k ) Surface tension at cmc cmc of nonionic surfactants is generally lower compared to ionic surfactants Abrupt changes at the cmc due to micelle formation!
22 The critical micelle concentration (cmc, c k ) Typical behavior of selected physicochemical parameters such as the equivalence conductivity Λ c or the surface tension σ on the surfactant concentration Ionic surfactants Conductivity: Λ c μ(mobility) Abrupt changes at the cmc due to micelle formation!
23 Influence of the surfactant structure on the cmc: tail length Ionic surfactants Conductivity: Λ c μ(mobility) The cmc decreases with increasing tail length because the hydrophobic character increases
24 Summary: Some values about micelles Micelle size: Aggregation number: 3-50 nm 1 2 Ionic surfactants z A = Nonionic surfactants z A = H 2 O Critical micelle concentrations (CMC): cmc of ionic surfactants is generally higher compared to nonionic surfactants Ionic surfactants cmc = M Nonionic surfactants cmc = M
25 Solubility of surfactants-the Krafft temperature Binary phase diagram surfactant/water Solubility of surfactants highly T dependent Solubility is usually low at low T, rising rapidly in narrow range No micelles possible above a certain temperature The point where solubility curve meets CMC curve is the Krafft point, which defines the T krafft.. The Krafft temperature can be regarded as a melting point
26 3. Micelle formation mechanism Stepwise growth model (Isodesmic model) S: surfactant molecule S + (n-1)s S 2 + (n-2)s S n-1 + S S n Aggregation is a continuous process (broad aggregation, no cmc) Distribution of species Not in aggrement with sudden changes at cmc
27 3. Micelle formation mechanism Closed aggregation model aggregation number n dominates (when n, phase separation model) ns Sn, eq. cooperative phenomenon! K n =10 30 ; n=20 K n = [micelles]/[monomers] n = [S n ]/[S] n [monomer] CMC = (nk n ) -1/n c-[monomer]
28 4. Semiquantitative predictive models of micellization Contents of this chapter: Concept of the packing parameter (Israelachvili, 1976) for the prediction of micelle shapes and sizes Which energetic contributions determine the micellization? (Tanford-modell + extention by Nagarajan and Ruckenstein) Application to basic features of micellization
29 The concept of the packing parameter P P (Israelachvili Israelachvili,, 1976) a e P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) V 0 a e l 0 surfactant tail volume equilibrium area per molecule at the aggregate interface tail length V 0 l 0 Common surfactants: v 0 /l 0 = const. = 0.21 nm 2 (single tail) Example: Spherical micelle with aggregation number g R V core = g V 0 = 4πR 3 /3 A = g a e = 4πR 2 R = 3 V 0 /a e With R l 0 0 V 0 /(a e l 0 ) 1/3
30 The concept of the packing parameter P (Israelachvili) Prediction of the shape of self-assembled structures in solution Common surfactants: v 0 /l 0 = const. = 0.21 nm 2 (single tail) Only the headgroup controls the equilibrium aggregate structure via the headgroup area a e The tail does not have any influence on the shape and size of the aggregate
31 The concept of the packing parameter P (Israelachvili)
32 Predictions of the packing parameter concept Big headgroup = large a e : Spherical micelles Small headgroup = small a e : lamellae
33 Predictions of the packing parameter concept A model surfactant system starting from commercial anodic alumina electro-deposition of gold polymerization of polypyrrole dissolution of the alumina membrane and the silver cathode and backing
34 Predictions of the packing parameter concept A model surfactant system block length ratio (Au/PPy) 3:2 4:1 1:4 explanation of the self-assembly by use of the concept of the packing parameter
35 The free energy model by Tanford Phase separation model : micelles are microphase Δμ < 0 a e H 2 O Chemical potential change Infinitely diluted state Self-assembled state Avoiding the contact between hydrocarbon bails and water Residual contact water hydrocarbon: σ a Head group repulsion: α / a
36 The free energy model by Tanford and the equilibrium headgroup area a e Micelles in thermodynamic equilibrium: σ: interfacial tension α: headgroup repulsion parameter g 1/a e General aspects: 1) Tail transfer is responsible for aggregation, no influence on size and shape! 2) Residual contact a e promotion of the growth of aggregates 3) Headgroup repulsion 1 / a e, limitation of the aggregate size! Tanford s model explains basic features of micellization!
37 Some successful predictions of the packing model P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) 1) Nonionic surfactants with ethylene oxide headgroups n O m A) m small α small a e small V 0 /(a e l 0 )large bilayers/lamellae favored B) m larger V 0 /(a e l 0 ) lower cylindrical micells favored 2) Ionic surfactants: salt addition decreases the repulsion α increase in V 0 /(a e l 0 ) decrease in a e transition from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles.
38 Some successful predictions of the packing model 3) Single tail / double tail surfactants P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) vs. Same equilibrium area a e V 0 /(a e l 0 ) twice as large for double tail bilayers instead of spherical or globular micelles 4) Influence of solvents H 2 O EtOH H 2 O H2 O H 2 O H 2 O EtOH H 2 O Interfacial tension σ decreases a e increases V 0 /(a e l 0 ) decreases bilayer to micelles, rodlike to spherical micelles
39 Some successful predictions of the packing model P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) 5) Influence of temperature n O m ΔT Increasing the temperature decreases the steric repulsion of PEO headgroup α decreases a e decreases P increases transition from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles. The Tanford model predicts various experimental findings and supports the packing parameter concept!
40 Attention! Possible misinterpretation of the packing parameter P Straightforward interpretation of the molecular packing concept Geometric head group area a small tail = a large tail Small tail Large tail Same aggregation behavior? obviously not! P small tail = P large tail? Are the assumptions of the packing parameter model incorrect? How does the tail influence self-assembly?
41 ATTENTION: Neglected role of the surfactant tail!! What is the role of the tail? Is there a misinterpretation of the Tanford model? Let s have a closer look on the model again P=V 0 /(a e l 0 ) a e : is an equilibrium parameter, not just a Geometrical surface area! N + Br = a e The tail might influence the packing parameter α and thereby the aggregation
42 Influence of tail packing constraints Bulk hydrocarbon Micell Different packing for the hydrocarbons compared to the bulk: Non-uniform deformation in the micelle! (Nagarajan, Ruckenstein)
43 Influence of tail packing constraints Nagarajan/Ruckenstein The hydrocarbon chains have to deform nonuniformly to fill the core with uniform density. (for spheres) L= characteristic segment length N = number of segments R = radius of micelle Q L,v 0 The equilibrium head group area (a e ) is dependent on the length of the hydrophobic tail!! Shape transitions possible with varying tail length!
44 Influence of tail packing constraints - simulations classical packing model Consideration of tail packing constraints Cylindrical micelles Spherical micelles possible!! The tail length influences the head group area and thereby the shape!
45 5. What is the deeper reason for self-assembly? Why don t t oil and water mix? The hydrophobic effect 1) Micellization H 2 O 2) Hydrocarbons in water Why unfavorable? H 2 O CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
46 Entropie/enthalpy of micellization ΔG = ΔH T ΔS Low-molecular weight surfactants: Δ H ca kj/mol Micellization is unfavorable with respect to the enthalpy!! Δ S ca J /K: The entropy of micellization is POSITIVE Specific features of the solvent (water) enable micellization! * High surface tension, * very high cohesion energy, * high dielectric constant, high boiling point, etc etc
47 Water is not a normal liquid! The iceberg model Frank, Evans, J. Chem. Phys. 1945, 13(11), 507. A) Nonpolar solutes create a clathrate-like cage of first-shell waters around the solute. B) Large entropic cost to order the hydrogen bonds into a more open iceberg -like structure (low temperature). C) High-Temperatures break hydrogen bonds to gain entropy, at the cost of the enthalpy. D) Analogy: Clathrate formation of rare gases in water.
48 Small-Size Model: Is the disaffinity of oil for water due to water s small size? The high cost in free energy comes from the difficulty of finding an appropriate cavity in water, due to the small size of water molecules. Free-volume distribution of a simple liquid (n-hexane) and water n-hexane water
49 Literature: Thermodynamics: Nagarajan, R. and Ganesh, K. Block copolymer self-assembly in selected solvents, J. Chem. Phys. 1989, p Nagarajan, R. Langmuir 2002, 18, 31. Visualization of micelles: Evans et al., Langmuir, 1988, 34,1066. Böttcher et al., Angew. Chemie, 2004, early view. Washing/surfactants: Chiuz, 2003, 37, 336. Hydrophobic effect: Southall et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2002, 106, 521.
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