The use of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals

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1 The use of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals Guillem Marca, Angel J. Pérez, Martín German Blanco-García, Elena Miravalles, Pere Soley and Berta Ortiga Abstract The aims of this study were to describe the level of adoption of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals and to identify potential barriers and facilitators to this process. We used an observational cross-sectional design. The survey was conducted between September and December 2011, using an electronic questionnaire distributed through . We obtained a 30% response rate from the 214 hospitals contacted, all belonging to the Spanish National Health Service. The level of adoption of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals was found to be high: 39.1% of hospitals surveyed had a comprehensive system while a basic system was functioning in 32.8% of the cases. However, in 2011 one third of the hospitals did not have a basic electronic health record system, although some have since implemented electronic functionalities, particularly those related to clinical documentation and patient administration. Respondents cited the acquisition and implementation costs as the main barriers to implementation. Facilitators for implementation were: the possibility to hire technical support, both during and post implementation; security certification warranty; and objective third-party evaluations of products. In conclusion, the number of hospitals that have electronic health records is in general high, being relatively higher in medium-sized hospitals. Keywords (MeSH): Hospitals; Health Information Management; Electronic Health Records; Informatics; Quality; Spain Introduction Electronic health records (s) are being introduced variably in the different levels of the healthcare systems around the world (Institute of Medicine 2007). Investment in healthcare information technologies is a significant factor in the economy of many countries; for eample in the United Kingdom and the United States such ependiture amounted to 12,800 million and $US38,000 million in 2009, respectively (Black et al. 2011). This investment is considered justified because it is epected that information technologies will help to achieve higher standards in terms of efficiency, quality and safety in healthcare, as well as a closer engagement of patients and their families, while maintaining adequate privacy and security (Kauschal, Shojania & Bates 2003; Pagliari, Detmer & Singleton 2007). While the association between resource investment and efficiency improvement has not yet been demonstrated with sufficient evidence (De Lone & McLean 1992; Smith 2004; Restuccia et al. 2012), there is a broad consensus on the potential benefits of health information sharing (Jha et al. 2009). The inclusion of key functions of electronic records, such as computerised requests and electronic referrals between different healthcare service providers and healthcare levels, enables a more efficient and safer management of resources. It also avoids duplication of patient records due to a lack of integration (Poissant et al. 2005). In this sense, there is a broad consensus about the potential benefits of the and the incorporation of information coming from medical devices. Despite this, the health service providers are slow too adopt this technology (Jha et al. 2006). A recent study concluded that in the United States only 1.5% of hospitals had a comprehensive level of electronic medical records covering all clinical units, while a further 7.6% had a basic system present in at least one clinical unit. This percentage could rise to over 70% if we look at one of the key functions related to test and imaging results that should have the (Jha et al. 2009). In 2009, the Spanish Ministry of Health stated that the healthcare ICT ependiture and investment in the National Health System accounted for 0.9% ( 544 million) of the Regional Health Services overall healthcare budget in It also stated that 97% of hospitals had information systems to manage admissions, beds, schedule and outpatient appointments, while 85% had radiology management, anatomic pathology and Unidose pharmacy systems. In addition, storage systems in digital imaging were available in more than 60% of Spanish hospitals and more than 90% had a Laboratory Information System. At the same time, the first pilot studies for a national HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE) 37

2 were initiated (Ministry of Health and Social Policy & Red.es 2010). Despite over 30% of Spanish healthcare professionals working with s systems (de la Torre-Díez, González & López-Coronado 2013), the computerisation level of health records in hospitals is unknown. No national scientific study has investigated this issue in depth. The aims of this study were to describe the level of adoption of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals, as well as to identify potential barriers and facilitators for its implementation. Method Survey development For the elaboration of the questionnaire we reviewed and synthesised previous studies on the adoption of systems or related functionalities (e.g. electronic order entry, laboratory and radiology results) in the previous four years (Jha et al. 2009; Robertson et al. 2010). More specifically, our questionnaire included most of the functionalities described in the computerised system sections of electronic clinical documentation, results viewing, computerised provider order entry and decision support of Jha et al. s (2009) study. We also took into account its selected barriers to implementation as well as the possible policy solutions to overcome them. Our questionnaire was based upon that used by Robertson et al. in their evaluation of adoption of s in English hospitals. Their study eamined the previous training of hospital staff, their ongoing support during the change from paper files to an ERH and issues arising from the eistence of previous information system software that was replaced by new Customer Relationship System software (Robertson et al. 2010). With this review we developed an initial draft of the questionnaire to be reviewed by a panel of professional eperts in the electronic health record field. The professional eperts were members of the Public Health School from the Region of Andalusia. In addition, a second group of hospital management eperts were consulted. The hospital managers were all members of the Board of the Fundación Signo, which is a non-profit foundation whose goals are the promotion and financing of proposals based on management improvement and cost evaluations. In both cases, the survey was eamined through a qualitative methodology. As a result of the input from these two professional groups, the questionnaire required some minor changes due to translation inadequacy, while major concerns focused mainly on the implementation process. Questions were added concerning the action plan for record digitisation, the involvement of eternal support, the influence of the financial contet, the steps following introduction and its effects on record availability. Survey sample and questionnaire administration We collaborated with Fundación Signo in administering the questionnaire to all professionals associated with both public and private acute care hospitals. In the Fundación Signo members database, we specifically selected the chief eecutive officers, managing directors and their assistants, as well as the medical and nursing directors. Overall, managers and Centre directors transmitted the and the request to respond to the questionnaire to the Chief Information System Officer. In case we received more than one possible response from one hospital, we first selected the most complete response and second, the response whose position was closer to the Chief Information System Officer. Reminder s were sent up to three times if necessary, in order to increase the response rate. The survey was sent for the first time in September 2011 and the fieldwork was completed in November of the same year. Survey content The survey was carried out using a digital questionnaire available through a link, which was sent through a personalised to the recipient. The respondents were asked about the presence or absence of 26 clinical features of an system and the etent of its implementation, and whether in the future they had planned to implement any of them or not. The dimension of these features included clinical documentation, radiology and laboratory results, electronic requests and a support and alerts system. In addition we asked about the potential difficulties in adoption (16 issues) and the solutions to overcome them. 1 Given the potential heterogeneity in possible responses due to different combinations of features implemented, we chose two possible categories: basic and ehaustive (Table 1). To define these categories we considered the proposal made in a similar previous study by Jha et al. (2009), ecluding the decision and alert system features due to a consensus with the hospital managers, whose results were analysed separately. In addition, we also considered that the functionalities selected for each of the categories shown in Table 1, which defined a basic or ehaustive electronic-records system in any hospital, which had to be fully implemented in all units, ecept for physicians notes and nurse assessments. For these 1 A copy of the questionnaire is available upon request to the authors 38 HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE)

3 Table 1: Electronic requirements for classification of hospitals according to a basic or ehaustive electronic-records system REQUIREMENTS Clinical documentation Patient s demographic characteristics Physicians notes Nursing assessment EXHAUSTIVE BASIC Discharge report Radiology and laboratory results Laboratory results Radiology results Additional test results Radiology images Laboratory results report Computerized providerorder entry Laboratory Radiology Medications Medical consultants Medical orders Support and alerts system Clinical practice guidelines Clinical order reminders Drug alerts Results NO Number of hospitals Adoption percentage two functionalities, the panel of eperts considered that they should be present in at least one clinical unit in order for the hospital to be classified as having an ehaustive electronic-records system. The reason for this is that the eperts believed that investment in these functionalities was so high for the first unit that etending them to the rest of the clinical units within the hospital could be achieved with much less ependiture. Results There were a total of 64 responses from 214 hospitals contacted (30% response rate). 97% of the respondent hospitals were medium and large-sized hospitals that belong to the National Health Service (Table 2). The presence of certain electronic individual functionalities is considered to be necessary for defining basic or ehaustive levels of electronic-record systems (Table 1). We identified 25 hospitals (39.1%) with an ehaustive level, 23 (35.9%) with a basic level and 16 (25.0%) with no comprehensive electronic health record. Medium-sized (56%), urban (40%) and university (43%) are the types of hospitals that have the highest percentage of ehaustive electronic-record systems. Nevertheless, 32% of the larger, 27.6% of the university and 26% of the urban hospitals do not have electronic-record systems. Regarding adoption of different types of key functionalities, we found that most clinical documentation functionalities are implemented in all units in over 40% of the hospitals, ecept for physicians notes, which are only electronic in all units in 34.3% of the cases (Table 3). It is also remarkable that the high percentage of affirmative responses related to the laboratory and radiology digital reports (84.3%). On the Table 2: Hospital characteristics and level of adoption Size EXHAUSTIVE HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE) 39 BASIC All Signo hospitals (n=214) n (%) Hospital percentages (n=64) Small (0-99 beds) 60 (28%) 2 ( 3.1%) 100 Medium ( beds) 98 (45.8%) 16 (25.0%) Large ( 400 beds) 56 (26.2%) 46 (71.9%) University Yes _ 35 (54.7%) No _ 29 (45.3%) Location Rural _ 8 (12.5%) Urban _ 25 (39.1%) Urban - Regional capital _ 31 (48.4%) NO

4 contrary, only 4.6% of the digital electrocardiograms are digitalised and only 25% of the hospitals have the option to incorporate eternal digitalised documents in the. The computerised provider-order entry section is the least computerised, with percentages ranging from 37.5% to 50.1% in all its functionalities. It is precisely in these functionalities the respondents epected to initiate computerisation, similarly with incorporation of digital eternal information to the (20.3%) and digital electrocardiograms (29.7%). Finally, the lowest computerisation level is found for decision support and alert functionalities. The drug alert functionality is the most highly implemented in this section, 23% of the hospitals having it fully implemented in all units. Whenever there were more resources available, more than 20% of respondents would decide to invest in this area. Regarding the opinion of the respondents about their main perceived barriers to adoption of the (Table 4), the capital needed for investment and maintenance costs are the most cited barriers, both in hospitals with (81.25% and 62.5%, respectively) and without them (62.5% and 56.3%, respectively). The third most cited barrier was physicians resistance, with 64.6% in centres and 50% in centres without. In fourth place, we found that 64.6% of the hospitals with cited concern for the suppliers competencies. Hospitals without cited the inability to hire eternal personnel to implement electronic records systems (50%). In this sense, hospitals with and without identified technical support during implementation and maintenance, security certification warranty and objective third-party evaluations of products as the most important Table 3: Selected electronic functionalities and its implementation level in Spanish hospitals REQUIREMENTS Clinical documentation FULLY IMPLEMENTED IN ALL UNITS FULLY IMPLEMENTED IN AT LEAST ONE UNIT INITIATED AT LEAST IN ONE UNIT TO INITIATE SOON Hospitals percentages (n=64) THERE ARE NO RESOURCES BUT THERE IS INTENTION NOT PLANNED NO RESPONSE Patient s demographic characteristics Physicians notes Nursing assessment Discharge report Surgical report Radiology and laboratory results Laboratory results Radiology results Additional tests results Radiology images Laboratory results report Electrocardiographic tracing Incorporation of eternal digital information Computerised provider-order entry Laboratory Radiology Medications Medical consultants Medical orders Supply chain Support and alerts system Clinical practice guidelines Clinical order reminders Drug alerts HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE)

5 Table 4: Perceived barriers to adopt electronic health records (s) among hospitals with and without electronic-record systems HOSPITALS WITH HOSPITALS WITHOUT Inadequate capital for investment Maintenance cost Physicians resistance Concern for the supplier s competencies Lack of capability to hire and implement Inadequate IT staff Interrupts care while implementing Lack of confidence in data protection Uncertainty about effectiveness or efficiency Concern for legality Table 5: Perceived facilitators to adopt electronic health records (s) among hospitals with and without electronic-record systems HOSPITALS WITH HOSPITALS WITHOUT Technical support for the implementation and maintenance Security certification and warranty Objective third-party evaluations of products Incentives for implementation Eempt physicians from all responsibility in confidentiality Table 6: Upcoming investments in improving electronic-record system BASIC n n EXHAUSTIVE Adding new data sources 11 48% 6 24% Digitisation 7 30% 7 28% Data analysis; performance indicators 4 17% 6 24% Outsource custody 0 0% 1 4% Reduce paper files delivery 1 4% 5 20% facilitators for adoption (Table 5). Incentives for implementation, or to eempt doctors from confidentiality responsibility, were less likely cited as facilitators. The improvements for the electronic record system (Table 6) for those hospitals with basic are focused on adding new data sources (48%) and digitisation of paper files (30%). For hospitals with an ehaustive, the steps are focused on adding new data sources (24%), digitisation of paper files (28%), incorporate data analysis and performance indicators (24%) and to reduce the paper files delivery (20%). In addition, we asked respondents their opinion on the impact of the current economic crisis on implementation of s. The responses differed among hospitals with an ehaustive and those with a basic. In the former case, the economic crisis affected them less as most relevant decisions had been taken and most of the investment was already made before the onset of the crisis (44%). On the other hand, in the latter case, 56.5% of respondents mentioned that the economic crisis reduced investment in projects drastically or they had even been paralysed. When we asked about the strategy concerning the digitisation of the paper files, hospitals with ehaustive and basic s answered similarly, in that they would begin with the active files and reduce their delivery as soon as possible (18 hospitals, 37.5%) or to digitalise eclusively the files concerning scheduled or emergency admissions to the hospital for a certain period of time (22 hospitals, 45.8%). Discussion According to our results, 39.1% of the surveyed hospitals had an ehaustive electronic-record system and in 32.8% of the cases it was basic. In addition, we found that 28.1% of the hospitals did not have an electronic record system according to our parameters, but almost all of these hospitals had some electronic functionalities, especially for clinical documents, including hospital discharge reports and electronic order entries. We found that the digitisation level of the hospitals was higher in medium-sized hospitals compared to the small-sized (<100 beds) and large (>400 beds). Managing change in hospitals sometimes requires disruptive strategies and its implementation can be more difficult in larger hospitals (Edmonson, Bohmer & Pisano 2001). If we analyse the prevalence of the different types of clinical documentation functionalities, it is significant that 34% of respondents have physicians notes in all the clinical units and 25% in at least one unit. In terms of nursing assessments, the total percentage is slightly higher (57.9%), and an additional 7.8% of the hospitals have the intention to initiate this func- HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE) 41

6 tionality soon. Jha et al. (2009) stated that nursing assessments and physicians notes are the fundamental functionalities that determine an electronic record system. In 2009, these authors found that US hospitals had 27% of electronic physicians notes in at least one or all units and 57% had nursing assessments. Despite there being only three years difference between the two studies, the change in the implementation level for US hospitals could be significant, according to the amount of investment in this country. Conversely, given the low investment in information technologies by the Spanish Government (only 1% of the healthcare budget) (Ministry of Health and Social Policy & Red.es 2010), the numbers found in this study are surprisingly high. Other clinical documentation functionalities, usually easier to implement and previous to an, such as electronic discharge reports and surgical reports are high, with rates of 84.4% and 59.4%, respectively. In the group of radiology and laboratory results, it is significant that most of these electronic functionalities are highly implemented in all clinical units of the hospitals, similar to what Jha et al. found in USA hospitals in 2008 (Jha et al. 2009). They also found that diagnostic test images such as electrocardiographic tracing had a low implementation. Similarly, only 4.7% of the Spanish centres confirmed the availability of this tool in all units and 14.1% in at least one clinical unit. The hospitals that reported having a digital radiology storage system had increased by 16% compared to the results published by the Spanish Ministry of Health in the year 2009 (La Moncloa 2009). The high level of implementation of clinical documentation and test and imaging results among Spanish hospitals is significant, as these are the key functionalities for future shared medical records throughout all the health services providers and regions from the National Health Service. In 2006, the Spanish Ministry of Health began the National Health System Electronic Health Records Project (HCDSNS) in order to provide a realistic cohesion instrument tackling information compatibility and health information echange between the different stakeholders of the National Health System (Health Information Institute 2010). In the electronic order entry, functionalities such as medical orders and medications are the most prevalent, in 46.9% and 50% of cases respectively, in all units of hospitalisation. In contrast, there are few centres that have digitised the orders of the supply chain and few have the intention to invest in this functionality. It is a concern for some managers to be too focused on the health field, while neglecting optimisation opportunities from logistic processes and their costs, supporting the health services. The improvement potential in the supply chain management can be an important point of cost savings without consequences in the health services field (McKone-Sweet, Hamilton & Willis 2005). This saving capability is hampered if the demand order entry is not computerised, because it makes planning more difficult, which is a basic step in the supply chain management. As Jha et al. (2009) found, decision support functionalities related to drug alerts are the most highly implemented functionalities in Spanish hospitals, 23.4% in all units and 14.1% in at least one inpatient unit. Similarly, clinical decision making related to the integration of clinical practice guidelines is underrepresented in both countries. In this sense, there is an opportunity to improve the quality and security of healthcare services (Shojania et al. 2010; Roshanov et al. 2011), raising the implementation of electronic decision support capabilities in the future. Respondents identified inadequate capital for investment and maintenance costs as the predominant barriers to adoption, dwarfing issues such as resistance on the part of physicians. That the costs due to information technology (IT) implementation and maintenance are an important barrier to an electronicrecord system adoption is well understood. This result is consistent with the primary barrier to adoption found by a recent review analysing trends in health IT (Goldzweig et al. 2009). Other potential barriers to adoption are concern for the suppliers competencies and difficulties in hiring their services. These barriers could be overcome with the three most cited facilitators: the possibility of hiring technical support during the implementation and afterwards, security certification warranty and objective third-party evaluations of products. In our opinion, the lack of confidence in eternal technical support is an important issue to take into account by companies who sell these products and services in Spain. Jha et al. (2009) also found that rewarding hospitals for using health information technology could play a central role in a comprehensive approach to stimulating the spread of hospital electronic-record systems. In our case, it was less important to reward hospitals for using health information technology, or maybe our results were a consequence for not using this facilitator by the healthcare authorities in the past which is consistent with the remarkable low budget invested in Healthcare ICT National Health System: 544 million in 2009 (Ministry of Health and Social Policy & Red.es 2010) compared to other countries, such as the UK, with a similar healthcare system. In addition, previous studies emphasised that the lack of echange functionalities among the different health- 42 HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE)

7 care levels and providers are critical for a becoming a more patient-centred healthcare (Darmon et al. 2014). In this sense, the development of a national strategy in the Spanish healthcare sector is needed and it is known that diffusion processes require good planning and are both time- and resource- consuming. Limitations of the study A major limitation of our study was the low response rate; the results are not therefore necessarily representative of all Spanish hospitals. It is possible that the results of our study overestimate the prevalence of in hospitals because those which have implemented s could be more motivated to respond to the questionnaire. For future investigations, in order to etend the scope of this study, we would like to take into account such aspects as the usage level by the health professionals, the cost-effectiveness of the compared to paper records and the satisfaction of functionalities among professional users and managers. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first scientific study undertaken in Spain that analyses the level of digitisation in hospitals, and the main barriers and facilitators to its implementation. The number of hospitals that have s is high, with the highest level of implementation in medium-sized hospitals. In contrast, a third of the hospitals surveyed still do not have s in 2011, although they have launched some functionalities, particularly those related to clinical documentation. The main barriers for implementation are economical, both at the time of implementation and for continuing maintenance. The three most cited facilitators were the possibility to hire technical support during the implementation and afterwards, security certification warranty and objective third-party evaluations of products. Support tools in clinical decision-making and alerts are less prevalent, with the related drug alerts being the most implemented. Disclaimer None of the authors received funding for this study or preparation of the manuscript. References Black A.D., Car J., Pagliari C., Anandan C., Cresswell K., Bokun T., et al. (2011). The Impact of ehealth on the Quality and Safety of HealthCare: A Systematic Overview PLOS Medicine, 8(1). Available at: info%3adoi%2f %2fjournal.pmed (accessed 12 th August 2013). Darmon, D., Sauvant, R., Staccini, P. and Letrilliart, L. (2014). Which functionalities are available in the electronic health record systems used by French general practitioners? An assessment study of 15 systems. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(1): Available at: ijmedinf (accessed 22 December 2013). De la Torre-Díez, I., González, S. and López-Coronado, M. (2013). systems in the Spanish Public Health National System: the lack of interoperability between primary and specialty care. Journal of Medical Systems 37: Available at: article/ /s #page-1 (accessed 12 August 2013). De Lone, W. and McLean, E. (1992). Information systems success: the quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research 3: Edmondson, A., Bohmer, R. and Pisano, G. (2001). Disrupted routines: team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Administrative Science Quarterly 46(4): Goldzweig, C.L., Towfigh, A., Maglione, M. and Shekelle, P.G. (2009). Costs and benefits of health information technology: new trends from the literature. Health Affairs 28(2): Health Information Institute (2010). NHS Electronic Health Record System. NHS Quality Agency. Ministry of Health and Social Policy. Available at: es/organizacion/sns/plancalidadsns/docs/hcdsns_ English.pdf (accessed 12 August 2013). Institute of Medicine (2007). Preventing medication errors. Washington (D.C.): National Academy Press. Available at: Medication-Errors-Quality-Chasm-Series.asp (accessed 12 August 2013). Jha, A., Ferris, T., Donelan, K., DesRoches, C., Shields, A., Rosenbaum, S. et al. (2006). How common are electronic health records in the United States? A summary of the evidence. Health Affairs 25: Jha,A., Des Roches,C., Campbell, E., Donelan, K., Rao, S., Ferris, T., et al. (2009). Use of electronic health records in U.S. hospitals. New England Journal of Medicine 360: HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE) 43

8 Kaushal, R., Shojania, K.G. and Bates D.W. (2003). Effects of computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems on medication safety: a systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine 163(12): La Moncloa (2009). El liderazgo español en la aplicación a la salud de las nuevas tecnologías se reafirma en la Conferencia europea de E-Health. [Press release]. Available at: es/serviciosdeprensa/notasprensa/msc/_2009/ ntpr _praga.htm (accessed 26 January 2014). McKone-Sweet, K.E., Hamilton, P. and Willis S.B. (2005). The ailing healthcare supply chain: a prescription for change. Journal of Supply Chain Management 41: Ministry of Health and Social Policy and Red.es (2010). ICT in the National Health System. Healthcare online programme. Red.es. Available at: gob.es/profesionales/hcdsns/tics/tics_sns_ ACTUALIZACION_EN_2010.pdf (accessed 12 August 2013). Pagliari, C., Detmer, D.and Singleton P. (2005). Potential of electronic personal health records. British Medical Journal 335(7615): Poissant, L., Pereira, J., Tamblyn, R. and Kawasumi Y. (2005). The impact of electronic health records on time efficiency of physicians and nurses: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 12(5): Restuccia, J., Cohen, A., Horwitt, J. and Shwartz, M. (2012). Hospital implementation of health information technology and quality of care: are they related? BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 12: 109. Available at: (accessed 12 August 2013). Robertson, A., Cresswell, K., Takian, A., Petrakaki, D., Crowe, S., Cornford, T. et al. (2010). Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: qualitative analysis of interim results from a prospective national evaluation. British Medical Journal 341: c4564. Roshanov, P., You, J., Dhaliwal, J., Koff, D., Mackay, J., Weise- Kelly L. et al. (2011). Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners diagnostic test ordering behaviour? A decision-maker researcher partnership systematic review. Implementation Science 6: 88. Available at: com/content/6/1/88 (accessed 12 August 2013). Shojania, K.G., Jennings, A., Mayhew, A., Ramsay, C., Eccles, M. and Grimshaw J. (2010). Effect of point-of-care computer reminders on physician behaviour: a systematic review. Canadian Medical Association Journal 182(5): Smith, J. (2004). Building a safer NHS for patients: improving medication safety. London: The Department of Health. Available at: cd65/medicationsafety.pdf (accessed 12 August 2013). Guillem Marca, PhD Departamento de Comunicación y empresa Universitat de Vic Universitat Rovira i Virgili C/ Sagrada Família, Vic SPAIN guillem. Angel Pérez, MD Fundación Signo C/ Infanta Mercedes, 92, Bajo Madrid SPAIN Martín German Blanco-García, MD Director General de Profesionales del Servicio Andaluz de Salud Servicio Andaluz de Salud Av. De la Constitución nº Sevilla SPAIN Elena Miravalles, MD Fundación Signo C/ Infanta Mercedes, 92, Bajo Madrid SPAIN Pere Soley, MD MBA Gerente Territorial Metropolitana Norte Institut Català de la Salut Carretera de Canyet s/n Badalona, Barcelona SPAIN *Corresponding author: Berta Ortiga, MD PhD MBA Subgerente Deputy Managing Director Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge C/ Feia Llarga, sn L Hospitalet de Llobregat Barcelona SPAIN Tel: HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 43 No ISSN (PRINT) ISSN (ONLINE)

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