Education system. Egypt. The Egyptian education system described and compared with the Dutch system

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1 Education system Egypt The Egyptian education system described and compared with the Dutch system

2 This document provides information about the education system of Egypt. It also includes the Dutch comparison of qualifications obtained in Egypt. Except where expressly stated otherwise and with the exception of images and illustrations, this publication is subject to the Creative Commons Attribution Non- Commercial 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC 3.0) Licence. For more information about the reuse of this publication please visit https://www.nuffic.nl/en/home/copyright. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

3 Doctorate Degree (PhD) L7 postgraduate Master (university education) 3 L6 Diploma of Higher Studies (university education) L Bachelor (university education) L5 Bachelor (higher institutes) L4 undergraduate Higher Diploma of Technology (higher institutes of technology) 4 L Technical Institute Diploma (Intermediate Technical Institutes) L4 2 General Secondary L3 Education Certificate (senior secondary general education) Secondary School Technical Diploma (senior secondary vocational education) L3 Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies (senior secondary vocational education) L3 Secondary L3 School Diploma in Vocational Preparation (senior secondary vocational education) Basic Education Certificate (junior secondary education) L2 3 Certificate of Completion of L3 Basic Education and Vocational Preparation (junior vocational education) 3 L0 Education level 0 Duration of education Click here to view a sample of the diploma Primary Education (primary education) L1 6 EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

4 Evaluation chart In the following chart, the left part lists foreign qualifications. The right part lists the Dutch comparisons, with corresponding levels in the Netherlands and European qualification frameworks. Degree or qualification Dutch equivalent and NLQF level EQF level Basic Education Certificate approximately 2 years of HAVO 2 2 Secondary School Technical Diploma MBO diploma (qualification level 2 or 3) 2/3 2/3 Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies MBO diploma (qualification level 3 or 4) 3/4 3/4 General Secondary Education Certificate HAVO diploma 4 4 Technical Institute Diploma MBO diploma (qualification level 4) 4 4 Higher Diploma of Technology 3 years of HBO (higher technical education) 5 5 Bachelor s degree (Higher Institutes) Bachelor s degree (University) HBO bachelor s degree 6 6 HBO bachelor s degree, or 2 years of wo 6 6 Diploma of Higher Studies 1 year) WO bachelor's degree or HBO master s degree 6/7 6/7 Diploma of Higher Studies (2 years) HBO or WO master s degree 7 7 Master s degree 1-year WO master s degree 7 7 NB The information provided in the table is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. NLQF = Netherlands Qualifications Framework. EQF = European Qualifications Framework. The evaluation of a foreign qualification in terms of the EQF/NLQF does not necessarily mean that all of the learning outcomes associated with these levels have been achieved. Information on the Dutch equivalent qualifications is available in our Netherlands Education System. See: The information regarding international study programmes at VMBO and MBO level is issued by SBB, the foundation for Co-operation on Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

5 Introduction Egypt, a country around 11 times larger than the Netherlands, is made up of 18 provinces and is bordered by Libya, Sudan and Israel. The official name of the country is the Arab Republic of Egypt. In January 2011 a revolution led to the resignation of the former president Hosni Mobarak, who fled Egypt. Since June 2012 Mohammed Morsi is the president of Egypte. Today, Egypt s population is over 80 million people, half of which live in urban areas. According to estimates, approximately one-quarter of Egypt's population live in poverty, mainly due to underemployment. Approximately 35 per cent of the population is made up of young people under the age of 15, putting a lot of pressure on education and the labour market. Around a quarter of the population is illiterate. In Egypt, two ministries are responsible for education: the Ministry of Education is responsible for pre-school, primary and secondary education, and higher education is governed by the Ministry of Higher Education. There are also a number of specialist institutes that fall under the supervision of other ministries. The Ministry of Al-Azhar Affairs supervises denominational education (from primary to university education) at the Al-Azhar schools and the university (Al-Azhar University). Diplomas awarded in this system are considered to be equivalent to diplomas obtained at public institutions. Monitoring of the Egyptian education system is highly centralised, for both public and private institutions. The Ministry of Higher Education (established in 1961) is responsible for the supervision and coordination of higher education. These activities have been subdivided among a number of Supreme Councils, including a Supreme Council of Universities. This council, chaired by the Minister of Higher Education, formulates university education policy, coordinates university programmes, determines how many students may be admitted to the various faculties each year, and advises the government on university financial affairs. The council also deals with international comparisons and credential evaluation. Education has been free at public institutions since 1962, and is compulsory until the end of the first phase of secondary school, i.e. up to the ninth year. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

6 The language of instruction in higher education is Arabic, except at the following university faculties, where English is used: Dentistry, Engineering, Medicine, Pharmacy, Architecture, Natural Sciences, Veterinary Medicine and English Language and Literature. Final theses and doctoral theses are written in Arabic, with an abstract in English. One exception to this rule is the American University of Cairo, where English is used as the language of instruction for all programmes. The academic year runs from September until June, with a break in January. The school/study week runs from Saturday until Thursday morning. University examinations are conducted in June, with supplementary exams in September and January. Primary and secondary education Primary school (basic education) lasts for 6 years (between 1988 and 1999 it was reduced to 5 years. The Al-Azhar schools did not take on this interim change; there, the length of basic education remained 6 years). No diploma is issued at the end of basic education (prior to 1988, the Primary Education Certificate was awarded). This is followed by preparatory education for children aged from 12 to 14, with a nominal duration of 3 years. At the end, pupils take a centralised national examination and are awarded the Basic Education Certificate (shahâdat itmâm al-dirâsa bi-marhalat al-ta`lîm al-asâsî). In terms of level, the Basic Education Certificate is comparable to approximately 2 years of HAVO in the Netherlands. After basic education, students can move on to vocational education at a vocational school, which also has a duration of 3 years. This type of schooling is aimed particularly at pupils who are unable to successfully complete basic education, or who do not pass the first year of preparatory education. At the end of this phase, pupils receive the Certificate of Completion of Basic Education and Vocational Preparation (shahâdat itmâm marhalat al-ta`lîm al-asâsî, i`dâd mihanî). After this programme, pupils can continue on to a vocational secondary school. This type of education was introduced in , with specializations in agriculture and industry. The Secondary School Diploma in Vocational Preparation (diblôm al-madâris al-thânawiyya l-fanniyya, i`dâd mihanî) does grant access to post-secondary education, and is therefore a final programme of study. After preparatory education, pupils can continue on to related general secondary education or to vocational education at a technical secondary school (madrasa thânawiyya fanniyya) in a number of sectors. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

7 Pupils whose preparatory education exam results are not high enough to progress to secondary education can attend a technical secondary school. Schools of this type provide both 3-year and 5-year secondary vocational programmes in industry (sinâ`a), commerce (tidjâra) and agriculture (zirâ`a). At the end of the 3-year programmes, students are awarded the Secondary School Technical Diploma in Commerce / Industry / Agriculture (diblôm al-madâris al-thânawiyya l-fanniyya al-tidjâriyya / al-sinâ`iyya / alzirâ`iyya). With a final mark of 70 per cent or higher, students may apply for admission to a post-secondary programme in a similar specialization at an Intermediate (Technical) Institute (ma`had fannî or ma`had mutawassit), or (in rare cases) to a programme at a higher education institution or university in a similar specialization. Private institutions will usually accept a lower final mark. However, admission is limited to a certain number of students (around 5-10 per cent), and the students with the highest marks are given priority. In terms of level, the Secondary School Technical Diploma is comparable in the Netherlands to an MBO diploma at qualification level 2 or 3, depending on the specialization. At the end of the 5-year programmes, students are awarded the Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies in Commerce / Industry / Agriculture (diblôm al-madâris al-fanniyya almutaqaddima al-tidjâriyya / al-sinâ`iyya / al-zirâ`iyya). Diplomas are awarded following the completion of a central examination, set by the Ministry of Education. This type of diploma allows students to enter the labour market directly. They can also apply to a Higher Institute or to some university programmes in a similar specialization, yet only with a final mark of 75 per cent or higher. In terms of level, the Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies is comparable in the Netherlands to an MBO diploma at qualification level 3 or 4, depending on the specialization. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

8 The secondary education phase lasts 3 years. The first year consists of a common curriculum, and in the second year students choose either the general (academic) or technical track. Around 70 per cent of all pupils choose the technical track, due to the lack of places in the general track and also because selection takes place based on students results from the previous phase. Within the general track, students opt to study either (natural) sciences or language and literature. Upon completion of this phase, students are awarded the General Secondary Education Certificate (shahâdat itmâm al-dirâsa althânawiyya al-`âmma). Subjects are divided into compulsory subjects and subjects for which students take exams but which do not count towards the final diploma. Secondary school curricula are very uniform in all schools, and the final examination is a national exam. Teaching methods put a strong emphasis on memorizing a large quantity of information. There is little focus on group work, discussions or project work. In terms of level, the General Secondary Education Certificate is comparable to a HAVO diploma in the Netherlands. The Al-Azhar secondary school system has a different curriculum, which can be divided into three groups of subjects: religious education, education in the Arabic language and general education. Upon completion, pupils are awarded the Al-Azhar Secondary School Certificate (al-shahâda l-thânawiyya l-azhariyya). In terms of level, the Al-Azhar Secondary School Certificate is comparable to a HAVO diploma in the Netherlands. Post-secondary education These programmes are offered by Intermediate (Technical) Institutes (ma`had mutawassit or ma`had fannî), and have a nominal duration of 2 years. The sector is quite limited and counts as higher professional education in Egypt, yet in Dutch terms it more closely resembles senior secondary vocational education (MBO). The programmes are very practical in nature and cover the areas of commerce, industry, health and social services. The entrance requirement is either a General Secondary School Certificate, or a Secondary School Technical Diploma with a mark of 70 per cent or higher. Upon completion, the Technical Institute Diploma (diblôm al-ma`âhid al-fanniyya) is awarded. A minimum final score of 75 per cent allows students to apply to a Higher Institute or to a university programme in a similar specialization. In some cases students can start the second year straight away. In general, only a limited number of students actually continue on to a university programme. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

9 In terms of level, the Technical Institute Diploma is comparable to at least an MBO diploma at qualification level 4 in the Netherlands. Admission to higher education Admission to higher education requires a General Secondary School Certificate, a Secondary School Technical Diploma with a minimum score of 65 per cent, or a Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies. Although in principle there are no entrance examinations, minimum final marks are set by each faculty. For example, the highest final examination marks are required for admission to the faculties of Medicine, Dentistry, Engineering and Natural Sciences, and lower scores grant entry to agriculture, arts, commerce and law. Students also need to have taken the correct subject cluster, that is either the (natural) science track or the language and literature track. Some faculties do set additional requirements, such as passing for a second foreign language, personal or subjectspecific test. The number of available places in each faculty and the exact cut-off scores are set each year by the Supreme Council of Universities. The entrance requirements for higher professional education are the same as those above; either a General Secondary School Certificate, a Diploma of Advanced Technical Studies, or a Secondary School Technical Diploma with a minimum score of 65 per cent. Admission to a Higher Technical Institute also requires a test in mathematics and English. Higher education Egypt has two kinds of higher education institutions. Higher professional education is provided by the Higher Institutes (ma`had âlî) which offer 4-year programmes, concluding with the bachelor s degree. In most cases, the Supreme Council of Universities considers this degree as being equivalent to a bachelor s degree awarded by a university. There is a large number of Higher Institutes, both state-run and private. The latter are recognized by the Ministry of Higher Education, under whose supervision they also fall. Higher education is also provided by universities (jâmi`a), which offer both academic programmes as well as higher professional education. Egypt has 19 state-run universities, and there are currently 16 private universities. Most private universities are recognized by the Ministry of Higher Education. Universities have a considerable amount of freedom in setting their curricula. The Supreme Council of Universities is the umbrella organisation that coordinates education at universities. Depending on the specialization, an internship may be part of the programme. All programmes usually also conclude with a project or short thesis. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

10 University education Universities provide both academic and higher professional education. For language and literature studies, graduates are awarded a Bachelor of Arts (bakâlôriyûs âdâb); for exact sciences, agricultural and engineering specializations, graduates receive a Bachelor of Science (bakâlôriyûs ulûm). The degree of Licence (lîsâns) is also awarded in the arts, law and some teacher-training faculties. Most programmes have a nominal duration of 4 years. A nominal duration of 5 years applies to Dentistry, Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, Engineering and the fine arts. A bachelor's/licence degree represents a final qualification level that allows graduates to enter the labour market or continue on to further study. Study programmes contain little room for elective subjects. Students take from 6-10 subjects per year, involving around 20 to 30 hours of lectures, tutorials and practical classes per week. The 5 and 6-year programmes usually start with a preparatory year containing basic subjects; the subsequent year is then called the first year. Four-year programmes also devote a relatively large portion of the first year to general subjects. In terms of level, the bachelor s degree is comparable to an HBO bachelor s degree or to 2 years of university education (WO) in the Netherlands. After completing a bachelor s degree, graduates have two options for further study. A Diploma of Higher Studies (diblôm al-dirâsât al-`ulyâ) is a 1 to 2-year programme involving specialized course work. The entrance requirement is a bachelor s (or Licence) degree in any specialization. Admission to these types of programmes is not particularly selective. In terms of level, the Diploma of Higher Studies following a nominally 1-year programme is comparable to a WO bachelor s degree or HBO master's degree in the Netherlands. In terms of level, the Diploma of Higher Studies following a nominally 2-year programme is comparable to a WO or HBO master s degree in the Netherlands. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

11 The second type of programme culminates in a master s degree (mâjistêr), and has a minimum duration of 2 years. The content of the programme differs according to faculty, and may consist of a mixture of course work and a thesis, or just a thesis. A bachelor s (or Licence) degree in the same specialization with a minimum score of good is required for admission. The names of master s degrees are parallel to the bachelor's degrees (âdâb and ulûm) (Arts and Science). In terms of level, the master s degree is comparable to a 1-year WO master s degree in the Netherlands. After a master s programme, students may be eligible for the Doctorate Degree (dukturâh) programme, which requires 3 years of research and must be completed within 5 years. The entrance requirement is a master s degree in the same area of specialization with a minimum score of good. Higher professional education This type of education is offered by the Higher Institutes (ma`had `âlî), which were founded in the late 1950s. There are over 100 Higher Institutes, the majority of which are private. They offer nominal 4-year programmes, culminating in a bachelor s degree. Graduates from these programmes can continue studying for another 2 years to obtain a master s degree. In most cases, the Supreme Council of Universities considers a bachelor s degree from a Higher Institute as being equivalent to a bachelor s degree awarded by a university. There are also Higher Institutes that fall under the supervision of another ministry, such as the Arab Maritime Transport Academy, the Arts Academy and a number of military academies. In terms of level, the bachelor s degree from a Higher Institute is comparable to an HBO bachelor's degree in the Netherlands. In addition to the 4-year programmes, three Higher Institutes of Technology offer 3-year programmes that award graduates a Higher Diploma of Technology. In terms of level, the Higher Diploma of Technology is comparable to 3 years of higher technical education (HTO) in the Netherlands. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

12 Assessment systems The following grading scales are used in the Egyptian education system: Secondary education (a minimum satisfactory mark is 40 or 50, depending on the subject) Higher education Marks are given in words, with a pass being required for transition to the next year: excellent, very good, good, pass, weak, very weak The system varies from faculty to faculty: Programme In percentages Description Arts Mumtâz / excellent djayyid djiddan / very good djayyid / good maqbûl / pass Dentistry djayyid djiddan / very good Veterinary Medicine Djayyid / good Pharmacy Maqbûl / pass Other faculties Mumtâz / excellent djayyid djiddan / very good djayyid / good maqbûl / pass Qualification frameworks Egypt is actively developing a national qualification framework. The Strategic Planning Unit of The Ministry of Higher Education has issued a report on the progress in establishing NQF in Egypt in May The report can be found at: NQF%20and%20NSSP%20Progress%20up%20to% pdf Egypt is also a participant in the META-ETE project which objective is to support MEDA partners in the design and implementation of relevant technical and vocational education and training (TVET) policies that can contribute to promoting employment through a regional approach. Thematic studies of national qualification and recognition frameworks (NQF & RQ Community) are among the project s subcomponents. A full description of the META-ETE project can be found on the META-ETE website: However, a fully developed and implemented NQF does not yet exist in Egypt. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

13 Quality assurance and accreditation The quality of higher education is monitored by the aforementioned Supreme Council of Universities. The Egyptian Ministry of Education monitors quality in primary and secondary education. International treaties Egypt has no international education agreements with other countries. Addresses Website of the Egyptian Universities Network. Website of the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education (only in Arabic). Website of SBB, the foundation for Co-operation on Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market. Composition of file After completion of their studies, students usually receive a certificate of graduation, which may be in Arabic or English. A transcript / grade list is also issued, in Arabic and/or English. These documents must always be submitted along with the certificate. If a graduate no longer has his/her certificates, he or she may request them once again in Egypt. Authenticity If the authenticity of the English documents is in doubt, it is possible to request the documents in Arabic. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

14 List of Higher Education Institutions Website of the Egyptian Universities Network, including an overview of Egyptian universities. Website of the Egyptian ministry of Higher Education (only in Arabic). List of recognized private universities (only in Arabic). EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

15 Secondary School Technical Diploma EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

16 Secondary School Technical Diploma (Dutch translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

17 Secondary School Technical Diploma EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

18 Secondary School Technical Diploma (transcript) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

19 General Secondary Education Certificate EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

20 General Secondary Education Certificate (Dutch translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

21 General Secondary Education Certificate (transcript) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

22 Technical Institute Diploma EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

23 Technical Institute Diploma (English translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

24 Technical Institute Diploma (transcript) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

25 Transcript Technical Institute Diploma (English translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

26 University Bachelor EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

27 University Bachelor (Dutch translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

28 University Bachelor (Certificate accompanying the bachelor s degree) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

29 University Bachelor (English version of the Certificate) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

30 University Bachelor (transcript) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

31 Transcript University Bachelor (English version) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

32 Diploma of Higher Studies EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

33 Diploma of Higher Studies (transcript) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

34 Master's programme EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

35 Bachelor of Higher Institute EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

36 Bachelor of Higher Institute (Dutch translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

37 Bachelor of Higher Institute (transcript) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

38 Transcript Bachelor of Higher Institute (English version) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

39 Transcript Bachelor of Higher Institute (Dutch translation) EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

40 Qualification Egypt General Secondary Education Certificate secondary general education diploma grants access in Egypt to all higher education programmes This qualification is comparable to a HAVO diploma in the Netherlands. NB: This information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

41 Qualification Egypt Bachelor s degree (University) first cycle higher education diploma grants access in Egypt to a master s programme usually has a nominal duration of 4 years This qualification is comparable to an HBO bachelor s degree or to 2 years of university education (WO) in the Netherlands. NB: This information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

42 Qualification Egypt Diploma of Higher Studies first cycle higher education diploma has a nominal duration of 1 year This qualification is comparable to a WO bachelor s degree of to an HBO master s degree in the Netherlands. NB: This information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

43 Qualification Egypt Diploma of Higher Studies first cycle higher education diploma has a nominal duration of 2 years This qualification is comparable to a WO or HBO master s degree in the Netherlands. NB: This information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

44 Qualification Egypt Master s degree second cycle higher education diploma grants access in Egypt to a PhD programme has a nominal duration of 2 years This qualification is comparable to a 1-year WO master s degree in the Netherlands. NB: This information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

45 Qualification Egypt Bachelor s degree (Higher Institutes) first cycle higher education diploma grants access in Egypt to a master s programme has a nominal duration of 4 years This qualification is comparable to an HBO bachelor s degree in the Netherlands. NB: This information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived. EP-Nuffic 2nd edition December 2010 version 2, January

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