1 IM 3Gr 1939 NOTES AND NUNS 12:59 Nomenclature (See also Iu1ler s comments on pa.cs 39-L3 of this issue about nomenclature section of DIS-.9) Mohr, Otto L. Nomenclature and symbols. For those who are not familiar vd.th the Drosophila system of -symbols through personal work, the fact that there is in Bridges,system no distinction between symbols for genes and aberrations with phenotypic effects and symbols designating the nature and orjgin of structural changes without visible effects, is apt to cause confusion. - This may easily be done away with in the following way: Symbols, for genes and for the phenotypic effect of genes and of aberrations should be written in italics (e.g. we, D. N). Symbols for structural chances should be printed in Latin letters Tt3;Y), In(l)dl-49). Hence for instance Inversion )L Payne with gleam which bo.bridges is denoted In(3L)P would recoive the frinula In(3L)P gin and the third chromosome deficiency which causes the dominant character coniplex Vein andwhich by Bridges is denoted Df(3)Vn, should receive the formula Df(3)Vn, etc. This enables the reader to differentiate between the two differencategories of symbols. It may perhaps be difficult to introduce this change in the typed DIS numbers but it ought to be stated in a foreword that authors are requested to use this system in their printed publications. - Further, in Bridges system the basic locus symbol for a series of multiple allels originates from the designation of the,first member of the series discovered. Thus in the Henna series the first member was dominant and was accordingly given the symbol Hn. Two later afle,ls are depcted s Hnr and Hnr2, where r stands for recessive. This system is-very cumbersome. Doininnt members of allelic series are rare. when recessive members occur it is much more practical to use the symbol for the reessive allel as the basic locus.symbol and add the superscript D for the dominant member (eventually Da, Db, Dc if additional dominant members should turn up). Thus the henna sotesouia be hrp, hn, hn2 instead of Hn, Hnr., - It may be added that both these suestions were discussed at the conference on terminology held in London before the last congress and received unanimous support. Research Notes Argelander-Rose, A. In N ovember 1937 about a dozen v618 flies Experiments with hemithorax, appeared in several cultures of vg ar sp. Manifestation at 25 0 differed between 0 and 7%; in the average of more than 6000 flies it was 1.62% % in females and 0.60 in males. After crossing this stock with x-ple, b en vg, al dp, and L2/Cy mani-. festation incr3ased in some cultures up to 25% without, however, being constant. In a stock b pr vg it was then kept at an average of 9.37-, 11.2% in females and 7.41a in males., hem flies mostly display absence of the riht or left dorsal half of the thorax, very seldom the whole thorax was found missing. Sometimes the thorax was split in the midline. Also a great number of flies were found with a protuberance at one or both sides of the thor.ax (vg 1em P). among 143 flies 62.2% were vgl m and 37.8% v ghem P. V9 hem and vg11em p. could not be selected. In stocks where vghem appears a large number of flies with extreme vg, wings reduced to knobs or very short, can also be found. - In some cu1tires of our stock which were left in the room at about 18_ to 70% vgh1m, :anci vghetl P arose,. the next generation, however, bred at 250, gave again only about 10 1 o. A preliminary experiment showed an influence of temperatare on the amo.nt of manifestation. The time of development from mating the
2 12:6Q. Notes and News DIS-12 newly hatched par.nts until F bocan to hatch was days at 250 and days at Cu}turos which were kept at for the first three days and.than transferred to 250 took days, those which stayed at for four days and in 259 thereafter needed days. Fertility is 8196 flies per vial at 25 0 and at Manifestation in the offsp ing of the same parents, brought subsequently into different temperature, was ds follows: Temperature Number of n v ghom vg 0m P Total vghem cultures % % Li. 13, days lii , uanifestacaon is hihor among the any hatchin.tli.s, particularly in mass cultures, t % of the flieshatehing on the first and second day were vghem, on the third and founti day11.3% appeared and on the fifth to ninth day.39%. In the?."esectivo numbers wcr& 1457% 140,3% and 3206%6.Zrgclander-Rose, Fertility of C1B females. 1st 2nd 3rd 14th tor onep. single copulation OlD/sc 1. - and GIB/y cv v.. bred at 25 gave an offspringon th.. average of l flies. Fertilized eggs we o laid during 9.8 days.. The offspring. ha bchd as follows on the 5th 6th.. 7th 8th 9th day 0,.o o When mated to the males for throe days the average numbe o the offspring was l$84658,....,.. Jrgolander-Rose.L The flies, mala_nogastr. 4 were put into a Exporj-w,nts oy _activity0 glass tuo Thf.Thgh and. 14 cm wide, and by shaking the tube brought to the bottom. Then tha time the fly needed to run to the top w takqn ith each fly 5 eerimont. wore made, one after the other, and tht, repeated on several days In the average of 140 o-? nd 25 virgin (Bth lin wild, w sn3 B, we -and y pn) the time for the way of 30 cm was 30.5*8.5 seconds for the males and lj506.3 seconds for the females. No difference was detected. with rusect to age (1-114 days) or daytime (11,30h and 19h) and no improvement within 6 days n attempt is being made to sciect fast and slow flies, rgc1ander-rose, I. case In a cr.oss between C1B v/w sn 3/Y x y cv of high nonisjunction. - vo one female appoaed with v eyes vhich proved to be w v/y cv v/y. In F 1 to F the exceptional v females mated,. o wil - stock males gave 2.9% exceptions, and In F4 one culture gave 36.5% exceptions among 72 flies. From the exceptional v females of this stock culturs ware obtained with an average of 22.3% exceptions (typo ) as well as with 1.6% (type B). The cause for the high noridsjunction lies in thaw v-chromosome. Of the regular females half arc" xpcted to be m-.. Frog,i1arwv/ and w v//y 11 cultures of. type L. with 20.l.7.7 exceptions were tamed, 20 cultures of type B with % and.. 30 cultures with no oxceptions where the mother h been and XX-. On the other hand, 18 regular
3 December 1939 Notes and News 12:61 y cv v/,4 and r cv.v111y females gave no type IL, but 10 cultures of type B with % exceptions and 8 cii1tures from C(-mothers. In the course of the experiments 5 equatidnal exceptions of the constitution w v/w v/y and w cv w v/y wore found which gaye the same amount of exceptions In type.4 axd B. The offspring of 36exceptional females carrying the w vchroiosome and originating from mother of type L showed 180 type. a nd 19$ type B, wheres excep.- IC) tina1 fm.es coming from cultures of type B gav no type i at all. In the arage cf 137 type J cultures the exceptions amount to % and 180 type B cultures gave %. Crossing-over in the wv-chromosome is vłr much redud with ty i. Instead of 13.7% v/y cv v/y. females gave on the verao 1.4% crossing-ovcr in ty L and 7.1% in type B., The assumption is made that a duplicated piece QfethC w v-chromosome t ans1ocatcd to one of the.autos.mes.. might be esponsib10 for the ghigh non-disjunction in typeo Thzt would also explain the fact that tpe splits up into i& and B.Cytoiogica1 proof df this assumption is about to-be sought.. Bish, Maydelie.. female with Bar-like eyes (experiment Bar-26347, number ). was found among the off sring of a cross between X-rayed.(3000r) Swedish-b males and y pn females. This was crossed to y pn males and the offspring were recovered in the following: proportion: B-like: fda1es l7,. males 11; y pn: females 11, males 12, which indicats that rearrangement in. the X-chromosomemightbc involved. The mutant males proved to befertile., and salivaries of their.. daughters ware analyzed. This analysis showed a, section from 16 into the chromocentdr region (20) is transposed in the normal order into 3E. Female offspring of the mutant males cross.d with the hotorozygous m utant females shav groat variation in the amount. of reduction of the eye, but no.distinct division into two.classes could be detected. Individual mating of females showing the groatest.rcduction ie1d both mutant and y pn males, indicating that.homozygous mutant females are usia11y or probably always lethal. The eye-reduction is ab2ut elf-way between B and B- and varies little in the male. Description: Bar Bishop, September 26,199. Tpo From X-rayed 5w-bc. Eye-reduction inan hot. between B and B 1 ; size cornstant in.ibut vanable in i. Horn. lethal, c? fertile. Salivaries show a segment with a break in 16 and the midc.la of 20 inserted into 3E in normal order. RK2i. Boyd, M.I.M, and H. Spurway. The F2 progeny from scarlet x interrupted Over 50,% crossing-over between. were 27s; 38int; 00 s i. Theretwo loci in D. subobsoura, fore the loci are on the same chromosome. Nineteen cultures have been counted in, th. test crosses using these loci. In 13.. O. these the number of crossovers bt.ween the two is greater than the numhr of non-crossovers, and out of the total 2,29 flies examined, 1,208 rc crossovers, i.e., the rcombination percentage is In 7 of.th19 culturc& the probability of obtaining as large or larger a deviation by dhance from the expected 1:1 in the single factor ratios of one or both mutants is less than %. s the re combination - percentage calculated from the rcai1ing 12 cultures is the -anomalous proportion of crossovers does not sem to be due to the abnormal segregations of the individual mutant-. More figures are being colleoted of the tin6 point crosses to reduce the standc1 error and multiple. stocks are being built up for examination of crossing-over and interforenbo in the region betwen the 2 loci. - -
4 12:62 Notes and News DIS-12 Braun, W. n exceptional case of factor dissociation in Drosophila melanogastor. In a series of experiments which were dosigned to test the production of mosaics after X-radiation of the father, normal males wore irradiated and then crossed to y wa cc cv et v in g f/01b females. imong 220 crosses of that kin7 maz -w exceptional males were observed in the F1 of 3 crosses which had been started at the same time. Culture No contained? : 66 normals, 6 C1B;cf?: 6..y -f,, 6 normals, 2 (single crossover), 1 g 2 (single crossov r), T y- g (sing1. crossover) ) 1 y cv (single c ossavar), 1 y wa.(singlo crossover), 1 g (double crossover), 1r mg 2 (double crossover), 1 wa in (triple crossover), wa in. g 2 (triple crossover), 1 y. cc g (4-p10 crossover), 1 y wa ct m (L-pio crossover), 1 y o cv ctg (5-pie crossover) and 2 w cc cv ct in f.(5-pie crossover). Culture No : 31 normals, 11 CIB; c : 4 y - f, 1 normal, 1 f (single rospvor), 1 w a in ( S-plo cross-over). Culture No normals, 3 C1, l y - f, 1 Wa m ct, a g 2, 2 wa in ct cv, 1wa r, 1. m g f, 2 wa ct m f,1 f;? : 3 y -2, 5 normals, 2 g f(single rossovor), 1 y w a cc (single crossover), 1 v in g (single-crossover), 1 w.cv ct in (5-pie crossover), 1 y cc (5-pie crossover.). - We will not discuss the production of the exceptional females of Culture No here, because their appearance is duo to changes produced by X-radiation of the father. The appearance of the oxcetiona1 males in,thee. 3 crosses, thowever, presents a puzzling problem. It hæ to be noted that, (1) although C1B females are produced, none of the exceptional males shows B (this exc1dos the possibility of a loss of Cl in the mother), (2) the exceptional males reresen... single, double, trip1, Li-plc and -pie crossover classes. (3) When the exceptional males were mated to y or y-f/c.1b females they behaved like ordinaryerossover males. Three e3eplanatiorrs can be suggested for the production of these exceptional "males. (1) C1B is known to exhibit non-disjunction rather frequently. The mother maythavo been a JQY fmale and exceptional crossovers betwebn X and Y may have taken place. The very rare occurence. of reciprocal crossoy.,r classcs.in the exceptional males may indicate such an exceptionaiprocess. (2) The lethal which normally is lcted at the left break f the inversion may have disappeared and a lethal - close to B may have been present. in such a case an exceptional great number Of crossovers may have taken place into the inversion and the classes which roc4ve B would receive the lethal too,, therefore no B males.among the exceptional males. Thº great number of double and triple crossovers may indicate that the crossovers took place into the inversion. (3) The inversion may have been reinvc-rted in somd gamete s and the B disappeared at the same time. - It was felt desirable to put this caa, on record here until a finbl solution can be fouid at some tirho. The writer would be pleased to learn of similr cases and to recoivo suggestions as to possible solutions. Brohmo, K. S. Tho Mini.tto condition as a possible effect of a hormone deficiency. It has been shown (Beadle and others) that + and cn" hormones can be utilized. _by ldrvae when administered in food, in the form of boiled and crushed bodies of larvae which contain these hormones. In order to determine whether the Minute phenotype results from lack of a hormone present in the wild type, Minute. larvae were fed on wild type larval tissue, Food was prepared as follows wild type larvae were cultured under conditions of ptima1 feeding; at 84., hours from hatching, they wore boiled in distilled water and mashed. Brewer s yeast wes added to the amount of 1 1/2% of the weight of the larvae. The mixture was placed with moist filter paper in.lixl inch shell vials, stoppered with cotton and aut6c1ave.. Eggs from a mass mating of Mw/ca C
5 December Notes and News 12:63 by ca/ca2 Q were colloctcd on autoclaved egg spoons (method of Clancy) ovcr a period of S hours; they wore then immrsod in 85% alcohol for 10 minutes and placed in the vials under sterile conditions. Of 30 to 40 planed in each vial, aboit15 hatched. The. larvae were dbsorved.. to ingest the boiled larval tissue. t 8-hour intorvals, puparia were removed. frqm the experimental vials and placed on moist filter paper- in clean vials. The experiment was conducted at 25 0 C. -Minute bristles and lengthened larval ocriod wore taken as criteria of the Minute condition. Of the. 82 imagoes obtained, 41 had wild type bristles and clarot eyes, 41 had Minute bit1es and v Id type. eyes, the phenotypeq expected if the Miratu condition were not eliminated by administration of a hormone present in the wild type and, deficient in the Minute. The mean length of the larval- period of -the. :wild type was 174 hours; of the. Minute, 203 hours. Puparium formation was retadcd. in both groups, probably due to inadoquency of the food, Normally the average difference in pupation time of wild typo and Minutes is 42 hours; this difference was greatly lessened under the 4xperimontal conditions. However, the Minute larval period- is still significantly longer than ivild typo. - It may be codludcl that the Minute phenotype does not result from deficiency of a hormone which is presext, in the wild typd and can be administered by feeding. This result is to be Qxpactod from thu, evidence of somatic mosaics, Brhmo, K.S. Development of eye color in Minutes. Beadle (1938) reported a change-which, ac.cur in the larval period 70 hours.aftor OV:-ipO sition; larvae rmoved from food before 70 hours die without pupating, those reeiood after this time pupate successfully. There is a period just before 70 hours-when larvae arc sensitive to low food levels;. v larvae underfed at this time pupate a day or more latr than their normal sibs and produce a sr all quantity of v + substance. Beadle s hypothesis is that metabolism is altered, in starved larvae in such a way as to produce metabolites which are used in marufacture of v 4 substance. To examine the possibility that in normally fed v lcrvae a sub-threshold concentration of v+ substance is - formed ari in starved larvae prolongation of-the larval period allows time for production of an effective quantity of hormone, Brohme has used Minutes as an agent for prolongin the larval period. Fully fed Minute and non-minute ofspring from the following crosses were compared: Mw/,L; bw/bw; ve by bw/bw la/; bw/bw; v by bw/bw; v/v, bw/bw; vp bt 1,;11 2/bw; v/v, bw/bw; v 6_4 by Ml/bw; /v (Mirute brown crossovers wore oxamind in the last two crosses). 1Tl flfts had-colorless oyes. This supports Beadle s hypothesis that a factor other than mere prolongation of development resuis in production of v substance in starved larvae. It has also been found, by complete starvaton, that the 7-hour change occurs 14 hours later in M(larval period prolonged 42 hours than in wild type larvae (Florida stock); the change is 6 hours later in Ml (larval dclay, of 12 hours) than in wild type (Oregon-R-C). - Bryson, V. Unspiralod testes In the course of experiments to dot-ermine in Drosophila molanogastor. the modifying action of extreme Minutes 94 - males of the following genotype were oht.inod: 1(3)39a MW/Lyra. Of. these, 18 showod litic or no trace of the genital arch or anal plate, and the anus was imperforate-resulting in coiipletc closure of - the intestine. Dissection revealed that in such males the testes were eitherfree in the abdominal cavity or attached loosely -to the intestine, in either case boirtg oval in shape. The genital ducts wore undifferentiated. This stock was maintained for five months, during which time the penetrance of the trait gradually fell off, presumably through thu constant selection of fertile males.
6 12:64 -. Notes and News D.IS-12 Eloff, G. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on crossing-. over between yand w in Drosophila melanogastore Data so far obtained and involving 75 control and 52 exporimental.euitures cornpricing approximately 20,000 flies, mdicate that 60 minutes irradiation of.heterozygous female pupae by moans of a Hanovia Quartz mercury vapour lamp caused 4 rise - in the crossing-over percentage between the genes for yellow and white. However, both controls and experimental cultures yielded high crossing-overvalues viz and 2.95 which might be due to a slight rise in temperature on the stage of thequartz lamp. - interesting phenomenon was the high percentage of v.ng abnormalities of the flies which emerge from the irradieted pupae. For the controls windowglass screens, and for the experimental material vitreosil plate of the., same thickness were used. Screens prepared from the wings of the South African locust, Nomadacris septemfasciata, were used to gauge the penetrability of ultra-violet rays, through chitin. It was found by spectrographic analysis that a vitroosil plate and screens of.3 wing thickness absorb the wavo.engths shorter than A. Also no wing abnormalities were obtained with screens of 3 wing thickness, whereas 2- and 1-wing screens had correspondingly higher. effects* Another phenomenon observed was that among, the y- w crossovers of both controls and experimental material at least 3 shades of red eyes were noticed in mb.lo.s end females. The reason for this is not, yet clear. The xperiments are continued. Eloff, C.,Mode of attachment nucleolus to chroinocenter in salivary gland nucli of some Transvaa]. Drosophilids. Observations on salivary gland nuclei, especially of Zeprionus and of,drosophile funobris seem to indicate in sever?.]. cases: (1) thopresence of radial lines of stress on the nucleolus; (2)e conioa1 elevation on the nucleolus probably where the thread was attached; (3) slightly trumpet-like extremities of the connecting thread. Those suggest that the connecting thread is of tubular nature. POulson, Do Po Effects of The following Notches have been invosti- Notch deficiencieso gated embryologically t. determine the nature of the doielopmental upset which prevents the appearance of Notch males: N a, N-8 (Mohr), N a, N , N N and N The embryological upsets are the same in all cases indicating that the locus involved lies within the facet band. - Only at the time of formation of the nervous system does do re1op mont deviate visibly from normal. There is no separation into superficial cells and neuroblasts, and practically all of, the ventral ectodorm becomes part of an abnormal nervous system. This leaves the ventral side without hypoderm. The same is true of the cells on the dorsal side where the supraoosophagoal ganglia arise. Apparently many mosodormal cells also become included in the nervous system. Thero.i.litt1e or no differentiation of tissues or structures of mesodermal origin. Mid-gut rudiments, although present, do not unite to complete the mid-gut. Hind-gut and Malpighi.n tubes are present, but the stoxnodaoum shows little development. None of the ectodermal derivatives of the anterior end, such as salivary glands or imaginal disc inaginations appear. The gorm cells are present in two groups at the normal level of the gonad. There dppo arc to be no gonad envelopes - Subsequent development is entirely abnormal. Although there is differentiation in the hypertrophying nervous system, the distribution of ganglia and tracts is irregular. Pert of the hind-gut becomes well differentiated. The
7 December 1939 Notes and Wows 12:65 provontricular region of the mid-gut is recognizable* Cellular breakdown is not apparent until some hours after the time of hatching of normal larvae. Mitosis is found after this time..- Tho all-over effect is the development of octodormal organs and tissues, and the failure of the others. The hypertrophy of the nervous system is at the expense of the hypoderm, Sp. rway, H. and P.AR Street. Withered was found in the inbred F 2 from a Tlio sex-linkage of w wild fly where it segregated in 4 out of 8 in Drosophila subobsoura, cultures oxanincdc The phenotype is limited to the whore the ponotrance is between % after outcrossing, but can be raised by soloct.on to 100%. Males from such a selected stock were outcrossed to a stocks Their sonswre outcrossod again, and their progoiy in turn inbred in pairs, Twontyono cultures ; none containing less than 309 wor:o,examined and no vii flies observed. If the mutant woro autosomal it would booxpoctod to segregate in a 1/4 of the cultures and the probability of obsrving -the result obtaind is (3/4)21 or Therefore wi is assumed to be duo to a mutation on the X--chromosomc. Occasiorial withered males hdvo boon observoda Either their phonotype is nt inherited by their sons, or it is due to an independent semi-dominant atosomal mutation. Sutton, E. Cytolo,ical. In(1)A 99 b (Stone) obtained from Toxas 5 analysis of In(i) 9b has an intorcalary roinversion (induced by irradiation) within the limits of the original Lnvorsions Cytological analysis of the salivary chromosomes shows the primary breaks between 1E304 -and 2A1.2 at the left and and between 19D and E at the right end. The secondary breaks of the reinverted segment lie between 6D1.2 and El.2 and between 19A34 and cr,z The now arrangement vithin the chromosome is as follows: Tip to le3.4-l9d to 19C-6El.2 to 19A3Q to 2A162- l9e].2 to chromocorlterg Walotzky, E. (See page 72) B]aro, Richard. Accurate timing of p cpupao and p upaos Technical Notes It has been frequently observed by invostigator.s of temperature-effective periods (TEP) that the TEP of a population is composod of, the differing TEPs of the individuals therein (of G. P0 Child, Gon920: ). This moans that flies of the same chronological ae may aotully be in different d000 pmontal stages. In fact, even with conditions as homogeneous as posc.ble, lae from eggs laid in the same. 2-3 hour period may pupate as much as a day - The difficulty entailed by such a dovelopmen ta I sp oad may be obviated by soloctingthc noart ovo1opmontc1 landmark to the putativo TEP and dividing the population into more homogeneous groups on this basis. For the study of TEPs in early pupal life, puparium formation and pupation may be hoscn as charactorstic stages in dcvolopmental physiology. The initiation of the propupal period 5s -indicated by eversion of the spiracles, cessation of motion, and loss of the definitely sogmentdd appearance of the larvae., Young propupao may be obtained by periodic collebtions and my be idontife. in many stocks -by the color of the cuticlo yihich is white at first and is still a very light brown at the end of tho( -first hour. - At 25 0 C, ppation normally occurs at approximaoly lt hors,afto r puparu formation, i although a considerable variation in time may be found. The beining of the,pup,al pdriod it indcatod by a number of features, particularly by the disappearance of thb large 1-ongitudinal tracheae. The writer prefers to use this developmental event as a point
8 12*66 Notes and Wows DIS-12 of roforeinoo of two reasons* First, there is evidence of a considerable individual difference in length of time of the prepupal stage, which may differ from culture to culture by more than an hour and even shows a. noticeable.spread within the same culturo. Secondly, cultures may be collected on masse in a Petrie dish and be quickly and surely examined at periodic intervals for disappearance of the trachoao. Brody, George. Making eggs visible on medium used for egg collections* Several methods for making eggs more visible on the surface of the collecting medium in ardor to facilitate counting and removal of eggs were tried. A transparent medium (Agar l.5gr., Crystal Clear Karo 15cc., Tap Water 100cc.), tho surface of which had boon inoculated by moans of.a oam l s hair brush with a fermented molassos suspension of yeast, was used in conjunction with black trays. This had the effect of providing a black background for the white eggs. This method gave high yields only for the first few hours of egg collection. The visibility of the eggs on thoaurfaoo of the medium was remarkably good. A further advc.ntago was thosmooth flat surface of this medium. For longer egg collection periods it was necessary to use cornmealmolassos-agar-yoast medium. Charcoal added to the medium was not satisfactory; instead vital dyes added in small quantities just before pouring were used to color the medium. Those tried were Neutral Rod, 11ethy1ono Blue, end Trypan Blue, of which the last was found to be most effective* There was no apparent detrimental effect introduced br those dyes. If the eggs are loft on the medium for more than six to eight hours, the chorion becomes colored. This is an advantage in dochorionation of eggs since tho egg itself remains white, only the chorion being colored, so that if any of the choriori remains on the egg, it is visible* Tioro oggs must be left on the medium, the use of a dark molasses in greater proportion, and cornmeal in lessor proportion, will provido a sufficiently dark background. Brody, George. The use of paper boxes for collecting oggs* Paper boxes arc made in the same way as embedding boxes by folding around a lxlx3 cm. block. Ono end of the box is made longer to facilitate removal from the shell vials in which they are used. The boxes are dipped in a high molting point paraffin (cr ido grade servos equally well) and immediately immersed in cold water. In this way sovoral layers of wax may be addod. Vory little time is required for making those boxes. Eggs may be loft to develop in the boxes. Since they cost almost nothing to rllako, they may be thrown away after using once, and thus cleanliness is onsuiod for every batch f ogg.. Groon,M. and E.M. Slider. ThofonaO is placed in a drop of. Ringer s K method for nounting the or physiological sal -p solution on a lido female reproductive organs and the genitalia dissected with a p&ir of Drosophila., of fine noodles. After the ontiro tract. is removed from the abdomen of the female, blot the exooss salt solution. Place one or two drops of 70% alcohol on the genitalia on the slide* This causes a coagulation of the organs. Occasionally the ovaries clump together; if so, they may be carefully soparatod with the dissecting noodles. After seconds, add a drop of 85% alcohol to the ovaries, followed by 95%, and then absolute. At this stage, carefully add a drop of colloidin (in absolute alcohol and other) to the slide so that it rims under the genitalia. Then immerse the slide in 70% alcohol* This
9 December 1939 Notes and News - 12:67 coagulates the collqidin and thus: fixes the genitalia to the slide. After about 10 minutes in the 70% alcohol, the slide is transferred to dilute oosin or fact groon" (in 95%) for 2-5 seconds. This stains the transparent ducts of the tract. (If a water stain isto be used, the slide should be run down to water from the 70%). Then pass the slide first into,carbol-xylol for minutes, tlwn into xylo]. for 30 minutes, and mount in balsd.m or diaphano. ho proparations should never be placed in absolute alcohol after the cellp.idin has boon added as this would dissolve the colloidin. This method onab1cs ono to make permanent proparr.tions 1n aminiiaum time of 2 hours. The method is applicable for niaking proaratibns of the male reproductive tract. although we have not nmdo many proparations. SUN, Me Modified The lack of proper staining capacity and the smear method for sali- inability to render chromosomes flexible vary chromosome propara- enough so they will spread out on crushing tion are the main difficulties with poor acotocarinino stains. The main source of such defects is often a loss of fixing power of acetic acid when it has boon boilod with carmine powders Fixation of the chromosomes with acetic acid prior to the application of stain has been found to remove the defects. The best way is to dissect salivary glands in Ringer s solution containing a small amount of acetic acid (100 cc of Ringer s solution 14-5 drops of glacial acetic acid). An additional advantage of dissooting the glands in the acoto-ringor mixture is that the fat attached to the glands bocomos fragile and.honco very oasily removed. - After the fat is removed, thoglands aro.irrrniediatoly transforred to the stain. From five to fifteen minutes of staining usually suffices; the exact time of staining has to be determined for each nol batch of stain. After the glands have boon stained sufficiently, thr are transferred to a slide; the stain is thorn properly removed and a clean 45-5QJ acetic acid solution is floodod on the glands. All undesirable particlos which may be present in the stain will be thus removed, and the glands are ready to be crushed. - In preparing permanent slides, an additional staining may be done in order to improve the smears. After dehydration in an alcohol chamber over night, the cover-glasses are taken off and both the slides and cover-glasses are Placed in absolute alcohol containing a small amount of fast green stain (so cc of absolute alcohol / 3 drops of 0.5% fast green in 100% alcohol). The slides and cover-slips are loft inthe solution for about one minute and then mounted in ouparal. The smears thus treated show the cross-bands stained a bluishrod color while the material around the chromosomes has a greenish tinge. By xnorns of this additional staining the small bands which arc stained only faintly with the carmine are made darker and more visible. McQuarrie, Agnes. The culture that has been used in this study Raising the and which has proved to be satisfactory was the oornmel-rno1assos-agar media (see Sturtevant in "Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals", pp )e Powdered brewers yeast was added to the media and also sprinkled upon the moist pap r toweling. An additional supply of yeast is added to the culburo when the larvae are about half grown - To secure the largest larvae, the culture medium must not be allowed to get too old. - The best results in larvae production were found when only a few flies : 8 to 12 adults, were released in a jar. - The bottles are sot in the cold room (12_15 0 C o ) where early growth is started. The culture bottles wore loft in the cold room for two weeks, or until the larvae had begun to work their way out of the medium and to the sides of the jar. - The bottles were then transferred to the ice chamber of the ice box,
10 12:68 - Notes and Nows DIS-12 and it i hero that the larvae undergo the romaindor of their growth, usually about 5 to 10 days. Care must be taken that the cotton plugs do not touch the ice, as water will be absorbed and will inundate the medium and drown the flios. - The work was done in an old-fashioned icc box, be: cause we had no electric rdfrigorator. I bc].iovc much bettor results could be obtained by raising the flies in p. refrigerator whoro the temperaturo could be kept constant. The temperature in the icc chamber was kept as close to 50 C. as possible. Pi].mor, Louise. A spoon for Drosophila egg collootinge Pyraliri, a product of the Dupont Co., has proved a very effective sub&tance for king spoons used in Drosophila og collocting. The grade used is. about 3 mm, thick and is practically transparent. It may be bought in largo shoots. Bpoonsaro out from the material with scissors in any desired shape to fit the culture bottle or containers for laying fomoles. The spoons used in this laboratory are cut with handles which extend out past th&-c - ton stoppers of the bottles or vials. Agar may be added to the spbbns with a bulb pipette or fumiol with rubber tube -Ond clamp. If carefully done the mass adheres to the smooth surface and does not run over the edges* - This material has the advantages (1) that it tran3u.its light and may be placed directly ontho stage of the microscope for counts or obsorva tion, (2) that the spoons containing eggs may be dipped in water, alcohol, or other sterilizing agent, (3) that the eggs may be easily counted and divided :into portions by gutting the agar and lifting out the desired number with a sco.lpol or sootion L ftor, (4) that the food does not stick to the spoons but does adhere sufficiently for average manipulcttion and (5) although the spoons may not be boiled they arc easily ste ilizod in 70% alcohol* Quisonborry, JH.and James In addition to our regular cool-room, we E,Groor. Convorsion of ro- use in another room an auxiliary incubator frigorator to Drosophila. designed by Dr. E. P. Humbo. Such a incubator, unit may be quite useful-to schools which wish to keep stocks through the summer for use during the regular school session without the expense of operating a large coolroom, for small laboratories, or, as in our case, as an auxiliary unit whon work is also done in another room. A large General Electric refrigerator was 80 wired with thermostats that it can be used as a 250 C. or 100 C. incubator. The regular controls and thermostats of the rofrigorator provide the latter tcmporaturo. By simply throwing the switch and defrosting the freezing unit, the box bocomos a 25 0 Co incubator. A simple waior or other thermostat can be used inside of the box for the 25 0 C. The wiring arrangement is shown by the accompanying diagram. ii
11 December 1939 Notes and News 12,09. switch To light socket or heating unit in incubator (refrigerator)* To cooling condonser of rofrigorator control-led by refrigerator thermostat To thermostat inside refrigerator sookot Relay switch General Electric U.s.A. CR OV. 60C. *A 40 or 60 Watt globe may be used. This does not burn when switch is on 10 C. side. Shipman, Eminot E. N-butyl Excellent sections of larvae may be obtained technique for dehydrating by using the n-butyl alcohol technique do- Drosophila larvae scribed by K. A. Stiles, 1934, Nornal butyl technic for animal tissues v.th special reference to insects., Stain Tooh.9: Larvae wore relaxed in hot water before being placed in the fixing agent. Gilson s ivxturo (nitric, acetic, corrosive s alcohol) pivs good results, but othor fixitivies may of courd be used. For dehydration, the writer used Stiles miturs of n-butyl and ethyl alcohols as recommended. Thoxe is a wide time tolerance for tissues in the fluids of the n-butyl series so one can arrange a schedule of ohc nges to uit his convenience. Larvae may be stored in pure n-butyl alcohol. The writer has obtained very good sections from larvae stored for two years in n-butyl. Ii1tration with paraffin must be thorough and must be slowly done. It is best to puncture the chitinous larval skin while the larvae are still in n-butyl in order to secure good infiltration when paraffin is added. The instructions given by Stiles may then be followed during the infiltration. The writer of this note will be glad to send a more complete description of the technique upon request. Trent, S. C. Egg Collector. For experiments requiring the observation of large numbers of eggs the following modification of the method devised by M. Schweitzer in DIS-4 (135) has been found an improvement. It is based upon observation that the flies prefer to lay their eggs in
12 - 12:70 Notes and Nows DIS-12 orovioce. - After the food cake of standard cornmeal agar has hardened on the paper cap, one additional drop of the unsolidifiod medium is dropped upon it forming a smallor second layer at the contor, with the desired cul-de-sac bo twoon. After the flies have had an opportunity to lay, the removal of this layer readily exposes the eggs in a localized area and obviates the loss of time usually spent in searching for thom Buzzati-Travorso, A. The OStcbliSh1flOflt of a "Drosohila wild stock keeping center" in Pavia, Italy. News Items Last April the following circular was sbnt, together with the first list of available stocks of Drosophila spcoios to all the European Drosophila: La corato: ios according o fli3ll and to several other Etropoan gonelial and zoological., institutions: tttho inorasing intorcst in-work on the populati-n-gonotcs of tho genus Drosophilccin Furopo makes it necessary to install a stook-kocping-ccntor 9 where all wild strains of Drosophila spoics from different places should permanently be kept at the disposal of all Dosophi].a geneticists and zoologists intcrcstud in Drosophila systematics. As a matter of fact, thos who collect flies in natu o arc mainly interested in one particular spooios or even in a certain græup of geographical strains, and arc not intcrostcd in keeping other ones which they accidentally catch. The wild stock-keeping-cantor should provide moans to avoid such waste of bry valuable material, which othorwiso would undoubtedly bc lost. On the oior- sidot it.would provide c. source of systematical information and test rr~torialfofor -Drdsophila species in Europe. Sin-,o :bho Ietituto in Pavia has under way systematical work on Drosophila pcic, and sinop it is directly connected and cooperating with the Birlin Inttute (Gonotischo Abteilung qos Kaiser Wilhelm Instituts in &in-euch, and Kaii Yl.holrn Institut fur Biologic in Berlin--Dahiom) which are so ouugoj in population genetics of various Droso phi la specie-c, the undorsignodhu7c agreed in cctablishing such stockkoepi.ngcontcr in -avi The impor aneo and usefulness of such a center for Docophila studios will nocossar ldopond on the degree of active cooperation of European geneticists in eollcting flies". Signodby: HQ Bau-er A BuzcttiT:averso - ; ttschcwsi4 0. Jucci - N.W. Timofeff ioss -ov*y. The stock lists which appohr ii this issue - bf DIS includo rt ll. t, different.stocks received during the summer Buzzati -Travorso A.. Work on the population gorotics - cf a Drosophila spocios belonging to the obscura group. Since the Fall of 1938 work has been - under way on tho population genetics of a so-called Drosophila obsoura. Such a - fly has 5 rod-shaped and.1 dot-shaped. chromosomes. Tho exact taxonomical do- -, termination of such species cannot be. made for the time being, since the who] systoniatics of European Drosophila noos revision. By inbreeding - Thrtiliod- females caught inriature a number of mutations have boon obtained. Work is going on to get marked chromosomes and to make the maps of tho salivary landchromoamos. -A vbry high oo icontratonofhoterozygous inversions seems to be present in the goographiqally different - linos se far examined.. -.
13 D000mbcr 1939 Notes and News 12:71 Buzzati-Trciverso, A. Last April there appeared the first issue "Soientia Gonoti c&u W,4 of the quarterly "Sciontia Genetica l. In now Genetics Journal for this journal, whose Director is Dr. C. Latin countries. Jucci and the author of this note.the oditor, vapors of Latin authors or of non- Latin nuthors, but written in a Latin language s are being published. A number of articles on Drosophila have already appeared. (Soo current bibliography). Frolova, S. A correction Since 1935 I have boon working with Drosophila ropleta. The culture was obtainod by the Institute of Exporirwntal Biology, - Moscow, from a Laboratory of one of the In8titutos of the United States, America* Tho comparison-of the flies from this culture with Drosophila hydqi, sent to the Institute of, Experimental Biology by Professor Kikkc.wa from Japan, revealed neither morphological differences nor differences in the chromosorno complex. - A cross, carried ot not long ago, showed a complete identity of the salivary glandohromosomos in the flies taken from those cultures. Therefore, it became apparent that a culture of Drosophila hydei was erroneously sent to us instead of Drosophila replota. - Thus, in all my works (Naturo, No.3460, vol.137, Biologiohoskij Zhurnal, vol.v, Not 2, 1936; Nature, 1o.3579, 1938; Nature s No ; Bull, do Bi,o].s at do modocino exporiincntc.le, vo]..vi, No.2, 1938; Biologichoskij Zhurnal, vol. VII, No.4, 1938) the cytological data described for Drosqphila rop].eta belong in reality to Drosophila hyoi. - A similar misundorstanding has also tckon place with a culture of Drosophila robusta sent to us from the same Laboratory of the United Stiatesp.kmrica and erroneously termed Drosophila suloata. This error was discovcrod in 1937 when, from the same laboratory, we received the culture of Drosophila robuste.. In my two works published in 1936 (Nature, vol. 138, No93483, 1936; Bull, do Biole at do mdooi.no exporiinontalo, vol.11, No.2, 1936) the oyto1ogioc1 data on Drosophila suloata belong to,.drosophila robusta. Personal News The following is a section taken from the letter written by Boris Ephrussi on October 31, 1939: "For the time being I am out of genetics - there is practically nothing left of my laboratory, since all my malo co-workers are enlisted and the girls Zones I can only keep some of my fly stocks, but it would be impossible to send flies to anybody; maybe this should be stated in DIS, as well as the following: our main worry is now to keep in contact with what is going on in the field we were working in before the war. Difficulties in kooping up with the literature arc groat and will gradually increase. We all will be grateful, therefore, to the American colleagues for sending roprints still more generously than before. Thanks to all in advance I Please send also, as before, 2 copies of DIS. I hope we will use them some day again. This should show you that in spite of the profound sadnos, with which we think of all the projects we had to abandon, we remain greatly optimistic in front of the present situation". A note received from TimefooffRcssovsky indicates that the work in his laboratory is progressing normally with a somewhat reduced staff. Buzzati-Travorso is strugling to keep up with his research at intervals while on leave of absence from military duty. B. Slizynski and Mrs. Slizynska came to Edinbirgbto attend the Genetic Congress and were not able to return home. They are now working at the Instit.ut.a of Animal Genetics at Edinburgh.
14 12*72 DIS-72 - Wo.lotzky, E. Interaction of bifid with other wing mutants. dditional.roserchnotos Previous work has shown the oxistonło of a disproportionate combination effect bf bifid vlth various Beadox allc].s and vith scalloped. Qualitative examination mdicatos that bifid does not interact disproportionately with miniature or radius intorruptu. Disproportionately small wings are formed in the bifid clipped and the bifid vgflippod combinations. No effect of bifid on vgvostigial was dotcotablo. The oibryonic development of these wings is being sidiod. Walctzky, E. Manifold. Reduced wings and.knornial black pigment effects of Wrinklede spots on the head are manifold effects of Wrinkled. The jnanifcstatipn and the pono- tation of these two characters are corro- ].ated in W// flies. The smaller and more ebnomal the wing, the greater the froquoncy and intoiity vth which the pignt appears. When the. ving is practically normal in size cid shape, abnormal pincnt is absont...oso eltti"os also hold i W and 0 / W f lie, which frequently avo practially norma], wings....however, the penct ation of the pigment character i.s not increased ini b W flies whose wings are reduced by the preence of miniature or dump. /flios, V whose wings are very greatly rcducod.through the prosnce1ofgv0st1gial, show no pigment. Similarly the penetration of the pigment phractcr is very 19w in W/9 flies whose wings are greatly reduced through tho( presence.v of vgdp0d or Beadox. Further combinctions are row being studied or, their effocton those corrolations. V V
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Reproduction Review YOU ARE EXPECTED TO KNOW THE MEANING OF ALL THE FOLLOWING TERMS: CHROMOSOME GENE DNA TRAIT HEREDITY INTERPHASE MITOSIS CYTOKINESIS ASEXUAL BINARY FISSION CELL CYCLE GENETIC DIVERSITY
This fact sheet describes epigenetics which refers to factors that can influence the way our genes are expressed in the cells of our body. In summary Epigenetics is a phenomenon that affects the way cells
Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB) A quick overview of cell division The genetic information of plants, animals and other eukaryotic organisms resides in several (or many) individual DNA molecules,
Genetics (20%) Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (2a Genetics) Students know the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms. (pg. 106 Science Framework)
Collated questions Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation DNA STRUCTURE THE ROLE OF DNA IN INHERITANCE (2013:2) (a) Use the diagram above to help you explain the relationship
Trasposable elements: P elements In 1938 Marcus Rhodes provided the first genetic description of an unstable mutation, an allele of a gene required for the production of pigment in maize. This instability
DNA Determines Your Appearance! Summary DNA contains all the information needed to build your body. Did you know that your DNA determines things such as your eye color, hair color, height, and even the
Exam #2 BSC 2011 2004 Fall NAME Key answers in bold _ FORM B Before you begin, please write your name and social security number on the computerized score sheet. Mark in the corresponding bubbles under
INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes Monohybrid Crosses Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Incomplete dominance: when the dominant gene allele is not able to completely
1 NAME PER DATE GENETICS REVIEW We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in appearance. Parents and children generally have similar eye color, hair texture, height and other characteristics
Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses
Lecture 4 Linkage and Recombination CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 9 Notes at: tcd.ie/biology_teaching_centre/local/ junior-freshman/ by1101local This is an Irish family with an autosomal dominant disease mutation
Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity
Main topics: Lab. 9 Deviation of Mendel s first law Monohybrid part 2 Deviation of Mutation a. ABO type b. Fur color of rabbits Deviation of Sex a. Sex limited b. Sex influence c. Sex linkage Deviation
Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE 1. What are the expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios in the F1 generation? a. P= Pure bred black mated with white b. P= Hybrid black mated with white c.
205. POPULATION GENETICS Evolution can be defined as the change in allele frequencies in a population. For this definition to be useful, we must also define the terms "allele frequency" and "population".
MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02 Practice questions lectures 5-12 (Hardy Weinberg, chi-square test, Mendel s second law, gene interactions, linkage maps, mapping human diseases, non-random
Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose
Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown solid using the colligative property of freezing point depression. Background: When
Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes
BIOLOGY I Study Guide # 5: Topic Genetics 1 Biology Textbook pg. 262 285, 340-365 Name: I. Mendelian Genetics (pg. 263 272) Define: a. genetics: b. fertilization: c. true-breeding: d. trait: e. hybrid:
Genetics: Inheritance and Terminology 26 March 2013 Key Concepts Genetics is a science and specific terms are used. Make sure that you know and understand the following terms before you continue. Terminology
Artificial Insemination in Cattle Introduction This slide show is designed to introduce students to artificial insemination in cattle. However, it is only a brief overview and further training is necessary
Name: Date: Period: Genetics Problem Sets Introduction: How do organisms come to look and act the way they do? How are characteristics passed from generation to generation? Genetics, the study of inheritance,
Influence of Sex on Genetics Chapter Six Humans 23 Autosomes Chromosomal abnormalities very severe Often fatal All have at least one X Deletion of X chromosome is fatal Males = heterogametic sex XY Females
Mitosis and Meiosis BRING YOUR TEXT TO LAB! Objectives: 1. To begin to understand the mechanics of cellular Reproduction/Life Cycles and how the process underlies inheritance. 2. To simulate the movement
Protocol 1: Planarian maintenance 1.1. Planarian housing Planarians are shipped by Carolina Biological Supply Company or by Ward Scientific inside a plastic container filled with water. For a short-term
1 Biology Chapter 10 Study Guide Trait A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. Genes Genes are located on chromosomes
BIOL 202 LAB 3 Genetics Introduction Human genetic traits can be used to illustrate a number of genetic examples. Such examples include complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, and sexlinkage.
Heredity 1. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring
Life Science Chapter 7 Genetics of Organisms 7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Genetics the study of inheritance (the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles) Heredity: the
PEER-LED TEAM LEARNING INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY MODULE 11: MENDELIAN GENETICS 1 JOSEPH G. GRISWOLD, PH.D. (City College of New York, CUNY) I. Introduction In sexually reproducing animals, genetic information
Lilly, Brenda, and Juan Botas. 1999. An efficient mutagenesis screen to generate duplications of polytene section 8 on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Dros. Inf. Serv. 82: 105-112. An efficient
Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: Dominance occurs when one allele completely exerts its phenotypic effects over another allele. Incomplete dominance is a situation in which two alleles in the heterozygote
Bacterial Transformation with Green Fluorescent Protein pglo Version Table of Contents Bacterial Transformation Introduction..1 Laboratory Exercise...3 Important Laboratory Practices 3 Protocol...... 4
Human Karyotyping Lab # Background: Occasionally chromosomal material is lost or rearranged during the formation of gametes or during cell division of the early embryo. Such changes, primarily the result
Genetics I. Genetics A. genetics: scientific study of heredity 1. we have known for centuries that traits are passed from parents to offspring 2. we didn t know how the traits were determined B. recall
Unit B: Anatomy and Physiology of Poultry Lesson 4: Artificial Poultry Reproduction Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives:
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