Gill Sans bold. Engineering Studies Preliminary Course Stage 6. Bio-engineering

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1 Gill Sans bold Engineering Studies Preliminary Course Stage 6 Bio-engineering ES/S6 Prelim P

2 Gill Sans bold Acknowledgments This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used. All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Materials development:john Shirm Coordination: Jeff Appleby Content review: Stephen Russell Illustrations: Tom Brown DTP: Carolina Barbieri Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales. Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW Revised 2003

3 Module contents Subject overview...iii Module overview...vii Module components... vii Module outcomes... viii Indicative time...ix Resource requirements...x Icons... xi Glossary...xiii Directive terms...xvii Part 1: Bio-engineering scope of the profession Part 2: Bio-engineering materials Part 3: Bio-engineering mechanical Part 4: Bio-engineering communication Part 5: Bio-engineering engineering report Bibliography...21 Module evaluation...23 i

4 ii

5 Subject overview Engineering Studies Preliminary Course Household appliances examines common appliances found in the home. Simple appliances are analysed to identify materials and their applications. Electrical principles, researching methods and techniques to communicate technical information are introduced. The first student engineering report is completed undertaking an investigation of materials used in a household appliance. Landscape products investigates engineering principles by focusing on common products, such as lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical development of these types of products demonstrates the effect materials development and technological advancements have on the design of products. Engineering techniques of force analysis are described. Orthogonal drawing methods are explained. An engineering report is completed that analyses lawnmower components. Braking systems uses braking components and systems to describe engineering principles. The historical changes in materials and design are investigated. The relationship between internal structure of iron and steel and the resulting engineering properties of those materials is detailed. Hydraulic principles are described and examples provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing techniques are further developed. An engineering report is completed that requires an analysis of a braking system component. iii

6 Bio-engineering examines both engineering principles and also the scope of the bio-engineering profession. Careers and current issues in this field are explored. Engineers as managers and ethical issues confronted by the bio engineer are considered. An engineering report is completed that investigates a current bio- engineered product and describes the related issues that the bio-engineer would need to consider before, during and after this product development. Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the preliminary modules. The historical development of irrigation systems is described and the impact of these systems on society discussed. Hydraulic analysis of irrigation systems is explained. The effect on irrigation product range that has occurred with the introduction of is detailed. An engineering report on an irrigation system is completed. iv

7 HSC Engineering Studies modules Civil structures examines engineering principles as they relate to civil structures, such as bridges and buildings. The historical influences of engineering, the impact of engineering innovation, and environmental implications are discussed with reference to bridges. Mechanical analysis of bridges is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and stress/strain. Material properties and application are explained with reference to a variety of civil structures. Technical communication skills described in this module include assembly drawing. The engineering report requires a comparison of two engineering solutions to solve the same engineering situation. Personal and public transport uses bicycles, motor vehicles and trains as examples to explain engineering concepts. The historical development of cars is used to demonstrate the developing material list available for the engineer. The impact on society of these developments is discussed. The mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the effect of friction. Energy and power relationships are explained. Methods of testing materials, and modifying material properties are examined. A series of industrial manufacturing processes is described. Electrical concepts, such as power distribution, are detailed are introduced. The use of freehand technical sketches. Lifting devices investigates the social impact that devices raging from complex cranes to simple car jacks, have had on our society. The mechanical concepts are explained, including the hydraulic concepts often used in lifting apparatus. The industrial processes used to form metals and the methods used to control physical properties are explained. Electrical requirements for many devices are detailed. The technical rules for sectioned orthogonal drawings are demonstrated. The engineering report is based on a comparison of two lifting devices. v

8 Aeronautical engineering explores the scope of the aeronautical engineering profession. Career opportunities are considered, as well as ethical issues related to the profession. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described. Mechanical analysis includes aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. Materials and material processes concentrate on their application to aeronautics. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical profession, current projects and issues. Telecommunications engineering examines the history and impact on society of this field. Ethical issues and current technologies are described. The materials section concentrates on specialised testing, copper and its alloys, semiconductors and fibre optics. Electronic systems such as analogue and digital are explained and an overview of a variety of other technologies in this field is presented. Analysis, related to telecommunication products, is used to reinforce mechanical concepts. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. The engineering report is based on the telecommunication profession, current projects and issues. Figure 0.1 Modules vi

9 Module overview Bio-engineering explores a new and developing field of human endeavour. This field combines engineering and medical research to produce artificial biological components to take the place of human organs that are defective. Examples include artificial joints, artificial limbs, bionic ears, artificial hearts and dental replacements. In addition to designing human organs that are effective substitutes, engineers have the added challenge of using materials that are compatible with living tissue. The task of a bio-engineer is to develop replacement human organs that will be effective substitutes yet not be rejected by the body or promote dangerous side effects. In this way bio-engineering promotes a better quality of life for those who suffer from loss of a limb or a defective organ. In this module you will investigate products of bio-engineering; the materials used by bio-engineers; the mechanics of bio-engineered component as well as use conventional drawing techniques to draw bio-engineered equipment. Module components Each module contains three components, the preliminary pages, the teaching/learning section and additional resources. The preliminary pages include: module contents subject overview module overview icons glossary directive terms. Figure 0.2 Preliminary pages vii

10 The teaching/learning parts may include: part contents introduction teaching/learning text and tasks exercises check list. Figure 0.3 Teaching/learning section The additional information may include: module appendix bibliography module evaluation. Additional resources Figure 0.4 Additional materials Support materials such as audiotapes, video cassettes and computer disks will sometimes accompany a module. Module outcomes At the end of this module, you should be working towards being able to: identify the scope of engineering and recognises current innovations (P1.1) describe the types of materials, components and processes and explains their implications for engineering development (P1.2) describe the nature of engineering in specific fields and its importance to society (P2.2) use mathematical, scientific and graphical methods to solve problems of engineering practice (P3.1) develop written, oral and presentation skills and applies these to engineering reports (P3.2) apply graphics as a communication tool (P3.3) viii

11 describe developments in technology and their impact on engineering products (P4.1) identify the social, environmental and cultural implications of technological change in engineering (P4.3) apply management and planning skills related to engineering (P5.2) apply knowledge and skills in research and problem-solving related to engineering (P6.1) Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents. Indicative time The Preliminary course is 120 hours (indicative time) and the HSC course is 120 hours (indicative time). The following table shows the approximate amount of time you should spend on this module. Preliminary modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours Household appliances 20% 24 hr Landscape products 20% 24 hr Braking systems 20% 24 hr Bio-engineering 20% 24 hr Elective: Irrigation systems 20% 24 hr HSC modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours Civil structures 20% 24 hr Personal and public transport 20% 24 hr Lifting devices 20% 24 hr Aeronautical engineering 20% 24 hr Telecommunications engineering 20% 24 hr ix

12 There are five parts in Bio-engineering. Each part will require about four to five hours of work. You should aim to complete the module within 20 to 25 hours. Resource requirements To complete this module you will need access to the following material and equipment: technical drawing equipment rule, 0.5 mm B grade pencil, protractor, set of compasses, drawing board, tee-square, 60º 30º and 45º set squares, eraser NSW Board of Studies approved calculator. x

13 Icons As you work through this module you will see symbols known as icons. The purpose of these icons is to gain your attention and to indicate particular types of tasks you need to complete in this module. The list below shows the icons and outlines the types of tasks for Stage 6 Engineering studies. Computer This icon indicates tasks such as researching using an electronic database or calculating using a spreadsheet. Danger This icon indicates tasks which may present a danger and to proceed with care. Discuss This icon indicates tasks such as discussing a point or debating an issue. Examine This icon indicates tasks such as reading an article or watching a video. Hands on This icon indicates tasks such as collecting data or conducting experiments. Respond This icon indicates the need to write a response or draw an object. Think This icon indicates tasks such, as reflecting on your experience or picturing yourself in a situation. xi

14 xii Return This icon indicates exercises for you to return to your teacher when you have completed the part. (OTEN OLP students will need to refer to their Learner's Guide for instructions on which exercises to return).

15 Glossary As you work through the module you will encounter a range of terms that have specific meanings. The first time a term occurs in the text it will appear in bold. The list below explains the terms you will encounter in this module. abridged amorphous amputee artificial biological components artificial heart baby boomer bionic ear bio-reactor brazing cadaver skin CD-ROM condensed form of a larger document, extracts from a larger body of text having no formal arrangement or structure a person who has lost a limb bio-engineered replacement parts for the human body a broad term that covers all of the replacement pumps and assisting mechanisms that aid a diseased heart to function properly the group of babies who are now adults who were born immediately after the Second World War. This group has a major impact on resources as they have past through each stage of life. For example schools and medical resources a hearing device that is inserted into the inner ear that synthesises sound and makes it clearer rather than magnifying it a vessel used to maintain a sterile environment for growing skin tissue joining two metals by using brass as the adhesive metal the skin of a deceased person compact disc that is inserted into a computer drive in a similar way to a floppy disc but allowing for much more memory to be stored xiii

16 Cochlear implant cryopreserved effort a hearing device that is inserted into the inner ear that synthesises sound and makes it clearer rather than magnifying it a technique for storing living matter at temperatures well below freezing point electrocardiogram a unit for monitoring heart rates. usually consists of a screen with a moving point that flashes as it moves between acceptable levels ethics focus engineering report a system of moral principles, by which human actions and proposals may be judged good or bad or right or wrong a report written to analyse an engineering situation, need or product based on a selected engineering field flux fulcrum hermetic seal intra-aortic balloon pump inter-library loan Internet load laser beam myoelectric impulses neonatal tissue ophthalmology optometry pathogens a powder or liquid used to clean metal when soldering or brazing a seal which creates an environment that is completely isolated from outside influence a form of artificial heart that is inserted into the aorta an arrangement between libraries that allows for books to be loaned from other libraries across the state and nationally an international connection of computers that allows for the storage and communication of information a high intensity beam of radiation tiny electric currents that allow muscles to be operated the tissue of an infant human study of the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the eye a profession relating to eyes and the development of lenses to correct faults in vision disease causing organisms xiv

17 presbyopia prosthesis scaffold search engine strain stress soldering welding X-rays Young s Modulus the loss of strength in the muscles that alter the shape of the lens in the eye thus causing a loss in the ability to read artificial body part a framework on which something can be built a component of the Internet that allows the used to search the web of computers across the world for key words or phrases the ratio of extension to original length for a material under a tension load load per unit area, measured in pascals as load divided by area joining two metals by using an alloy of lead and tin as the adhesive metal joining of two similar metals by fusing or melting them together high powered rays that pass through matter and leave an image on film a measure of stress as to strain that is an indication of elasticity of a material xv

18 xvi

19 Directive terms The list below explains key words you will encounter in assessment tasks and examination questions. account analyse apply appreciate assess calculate clarify classify compare construct contrast critically (analyse/evaluate) deduce define demonstrate account for: state reasons for, report on; give an account of: narrate a series of events or transactions identify components and the relationship between them, draw out and relate implications use, utilise, employ in a particular situation make a judgement about the value of make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results or size ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information make clear or plain arrange or include in classes/categories show how things are similar or different make, build, put together items or arguments show how things are different or opposite add a degree or level of accuracy depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to (analysis/evaluation) draw conclusions state meaning and identify essential qualities show by example xvii

20 describe discuss distinguish evaluate examine explain extract extrapolate identify interpret investigate justify outline predict propose recall recommend recount summarise synthesise provide characteristics and features identify issues and provide points for and/or against recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from; to note differences between make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of inquire into relate cause and effect; make the relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how choose relevant and/or appropriate details infer from what is known recognise and name draw meaning from plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about support an argument or conclusion sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of suggest what may happen based on available information put forward (for example a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion) for consideration or action present remembered ideas, facts or experiences provide reasons in favour retell a series of events express, concisely, the relevant details putting together various elements to make a whole Extract from The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document, Board of Studies, NSW, Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents. xviii

21 Bio-engineering Part 1: Bio-engineering scope and history of the profession

22 Part 1 contents Introduction... 2 What will you learn?...2 The scope of Bio-engineering... 3 Nature and range of work done...4 Current projects, technologies and innovations...4 Health and safety matters...10 Training for the profession...12 Relations with the community...12 Ethics in engineering...13 Engineers as managers...14 The impact of bio-engineering Exercises Progress check Exercise cover sheet Bio-engineering 1

23 Introduction In this part you will explore the development of the field of bioengineering and the associated issues including training, career pathways as well as ethical and safety considerations. What will you learn? Students will learn about: scope of the profession nature and range of work and careers, current projects and innovations, health and safety matters, training for the profession, relations with the community, technologies unique to the profession, ethics and engineering and engineers as managers historical and societal influences historical background to bio-engineering, historical developments of products, the effect of bio-engineering on people s lives. Students will learn to: conduct research on the nature and range of work done by bio-engineers identify the health and safety issues relevant to bio-engineering appraise the training requirements and career prospects debate social and ethical issues relating to bio-engineering discuss the impact of bio-engineering on people s lives. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents. 2 Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

24 The scope of bio-engineering Bio-engineering applies the basic principles of engineering to the development of innovative methods for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries as well as playing a crucial role in the advancement of medical devices and technologies. It is an interdisciplinary subject, which combines wide-ranging scientific knowledge with technological processes and engineering skills to provide systems for many applications. Bio-engineers can be involved in a diverse array of fields including bio-materials and biomechanics, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computing and image processing, nuclear medicine, ultrasonics, nanotechnology and can include the application of mechanics to musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. Bioengineers can be involved in developing systems for the rejuvenation and maintenance of sustainable environments. Bio-engineering can involve designing and developing new instruments for monitoring the performance of human organs, such as the heart, developing information structures, such as computer generated models of joints, like the hip or knee, as well as creating new materials for bioengineered articles, such as artificial hearts and cochlear implants. Bioengineering involves any area of human exercise where an article or system is developed that will replace or enhance a body organ or function. These powerful technologies allow vast new possibilities for increasing our understanding of complex living organisms and, ultimately, for preventing disease, maintaining health, and improving the quality of life. Bio-engineering 3

25 Nature and range of work done Established areas in bio-engineering include: Bio-mechanics deals with the mechanical functioning of parts of the body, such as joints and limbs Bio-materials deals with the study of materials that are compatible with living tissue Bio-instrumentation relates to the design and development of instruments that can be used to monitor and measure bio-engineered devices Bio-computing relates to the development and application of computer programs that will simulate biophysics Rehabilitation engineering relates to the design and development of rehabilitation equipment, such as wheelchairs and crutches Systems physiology involves the observation and measurement of physiological events, for example the electronic impulses between muscles and hands. Specialists often work together to solve specific problems. The development of the artificial heart relied on computer simulation programs of fluid and the hearts action, bio-materials experts to identify bio-compatible materials, bio-instrumentation engineers to develop suitable heart monitoring equipment as well as rehabilitation engineers. Bio-engineers are involved in an extensive array of projects that cover so many areas it is almost impossible to define what they do. It perhaps is easier to say that they are not involved in civil, aeronautical and transport engineering yet! Current projects, technologies and innovations There are many projects currently being developed in the field of bioengineering, ranging from the development of mechanical artificial human body parts, computer modeling and simulation for training surgeons, genetic technologies including stem cell research and the growth of artificial organs. Biomedical devices and bio-materials may be used to assist the human body in many ways. Such devices can be used to assist or replace damaged or diseased body parts either externally or internally. 4 Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

26 Not only do bio-engineers have to develop suitable mechanisms to imitate the function of a human organ, they are also faced with the challenge of finding materials that are compatible with living tissue. Developing a suitable mechanism is often relatively easy compared to finding and developing bio-compatible materials with which to construct it. List three bio-medical devices commonly used by many of the population. Did you answer? Contact Lenses Eye Glasses Dentures The development of bio-engineered articles has been characterised by the search to find suitable materials to use in the construction of devices. If you have access to the internet further information on the range of bioengineered products able to be used in place of body parts can be found at the following website: <http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/kids/html/yorick_no.1.htm> (accessed ) Development of eye glasses Many problems with vision are due to refractive errors where the optics of the eye are out of focus, like a camera that has not been properly focused. This may be due to diseases of the eye or due to a condition known as presbyopia. The word presbyopia comes from the Greek for elderly vision. Presbyopia patients have trouble seeing clearly when reading or doing other near work tasks. This is because the focusing mechanism of the eye does not work as well as it gets older. Presbyopia is usually experienced at 40 to 50 years of age and the first sign is that a book or newspaper is held away from the eyes. Bio-engineering 5

27 Glasses are a bio-engineered article that have been and are being developed to overcome problems related to vision. Initially, there was a single eyepiece called a monocle, which was little more than a magnifying glass in a metal frame. The development of glasses has occurred at two levels, the frames and the lenses. The frames were initially made from metal and were very heavy. The development of lightweight, strong polymers and metal alloys have reduced considerably the weight and increased their toughness. Figure 1.1 Eye glasses Optical lenses have also seen improvement in design and construction. There are two fields of bio-engineering relating to vision and its improvement. Optometry is a profession related to the eyes and the development of lenses to correct faults in vision. The other is Ophthalmology, the study of the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the eye. Lenses can have a specific purpose, such as reading or for distance vision. Combination lenses, such as bifocals, allow for reading in the bottom section and normal vision in the top section. This allows a user to alternate between normal vision and reading without removing their glasses. Lenses are available now that are light sensitive, becoming darker in sunlight so that they can be used to reduce ultraviolet light in the same way as sunglasses. 6 Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

28 Contact lenses that float on the tear fluid covering the cornea of the eye can be used to correct refractive errors. This allows a user to be independent of glasses as well as change the colour of his/her eyes with a tinted lens. Laser surgery is being used to alter the shape of the cornea as a way of correcting refractive errors thereby eliminating the need for glasses and contact lenses completely. The design and development of glasses has expanded considerably since the use of monocles. Research is being undertaken in the development of silicon chip implants inside the eye that are connected to the optic nerve and the brain to restore vision to blind people. Development of artificial limbs The use of artificial limbs is not new, evidence has been found that as early as 2500 BC splints were being used in Egypt while Herodotus in 500 BC wrote about a slave who escaped by cutting off his foot and replacing it with a wooden substitute. A copper and wooden leg was unearthed at Capri, Italy in 1858, which dated from 300 BC. The American Civil War raised the awareness of the need for the development of replacement body parts. After the War the government promised replacement limbs for all of the solders that became amputees. Modern artificial limbs, known as prosthetics, include legs, feet, arms, hands and eyes. The artificial hand You may have seen characters such as Captain Hook whose hand was bitten off by a crocodile in the movie Peter Pan or other pirates like him who lost a hand during a sword fight and had it replaced by a steel hook. This was a practical alternative which allowed people to get on with their job and daily life. The next phase in the development of an artificial hand was a metal hand with joints on two fingers and the remaining three rigid. This looked acceptable under a glove and could be used for simple tasks. Teams of bio-engineers, computer programmers and medical experts, such as physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons, have combined their skills to develop artificial limbs and joints. Computers can now simulate the movement of a bone or joint under different loads and conditions. Bio-engineers have used these results to refine and improve the motion and flexibility the artificial hands. Bio-engineering 7

29 Modern artificial hands work with a pincer movement between two or three fingers and a thumb. It is often covered with a skin like plastic glove to give it a realistic appearance. The major change in the modern artificial hands has been in the development of electric sensing apparatus that allows the hand to be controlled by muscle movements. Muscles operate by extremely small electric currents known as myoelectricity. Metal discs situated inside the socket of the stump touch tissue and pick up these myoelectric impulses. These impulses are then amplified and used to activate and control an electric motor in the prosthesis. The actions of the artificial hand are similar to a natural hand in that muscles are used to send impulses, which can open and close the fingers. After the fitting of an artificial hand the recipient will have to relearn how to grasp and hold objects, as the muscles sending the signals to the prosthesis are different to the ones that worked the origional hand. Modern technology, improved design and the development of new materials have seen artificial limbs develop to the point where they are assisting people to return to something approaching a normal life and make a big improvement on the quality of life of an amputee. Biomedical implants Internal implants need to be surgically placed and can include metal pins, screws and plates inserted into bones to act as supports. Artificial joints, such as hip and knee joints are common. The cardiovascular system can be aided with pacemakers, artificial heart valves and even an artificial heart. Cochlear implants The cochlear implant, also known as the bionic ear, can improve the ability of a severely impaired person to hear. An electrode is surgically implanted into the nerve endings of the spiral cochlear, inside the ear. The electrode is then attached to a receiver implant, lying just below the skin and behind the ear. Outside the skin, above the implant, sits a transmitting coil that receives electrical signals from a speech processor that is connected to a microphone placed behind the ear. The microphone collects sounds, which are processed into electrical signals and sent to the transmitting coil for conversion into radio (FM) signals. These radio waves then carry a coded signal to the receiver implant under the skin. The implant sends this signal to the electrode inside the cochlear, stimulating the nerve endings, which are hopefully 8 Part 1: Bio-engineering Scope and history of the profession

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