Query No. 1: Mining plan approval from Ministry of Coal: Annexure-I-A

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4 Query No. 1: Mining plan approval from Ministry of Coal: Annexure-I-A

5 Annexure-II-A Query No. 2: Rehabilitation plan for management old dump and system for reclamation. Reply: Mine-IA system for reclamation and Rehabilitation plan for management old dump. 1.0 System of Reclamation / method of land Reclamation: In opencast Mining, the overburden above the Mineral is excavated and backfilled after extraction of the Mineral. Due to the overburden excavation, there is complete alteration of topsoil structure which is supporting the vegetation. Hence it is prime importance to restore the mined out area to the original condition to support vegetation cover of the planet. NLC is taking all the efforts to restore the Mined out area to the original condition through knowledge acquired by scientific studies for environment restoration. 1.1 Land Reclamation procedures: The following is the land reclamation and afforestation procedure adopted at Neyveli Mines: 1.2 Levelling the area: The backfilled areas taken over after completion of dumping involves lot of undulations of the ground, heaps and low lying pockets, leading to rough terrain and water stagnation. These undulations will be removed with the help of CME equipments 1

6 1.3 Conservation of top soil: In accordance with the advancement mine cut the top soil is removed by using backhoe shovel. Then the Top soil is transported and stacked separately by using dumpers at the backfilled area. 1.4 Reclamation and Afforestation: Reclamation and Afforestation activities are carried out continually to reclaim the backfilled area both physically and biologically to control soil erosion and also to give a green cover to the barren dump yard to bring back the entire fauna and flora. This is being done by adapting both physical reclamation and biological reclamation. The below picture shows the Agriculture activity sequence at Mined out area: 2

7 1.5 Various types of Reclamation practices of NLC: Chemical Reclamation: In order to transform the dump spoil into fertile lands, soil inputs viz. Saw Dust, Lignite dust, Fly ash, Gypsum, Farm yard manure, urea, super phosphate, potash, Micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo & B) have been added to dumped soil. Bio-reclamation using Bio-fertilizer: A pilot plant facility was setup to produce bio-fertilizer using lignite as carrier. Application of bio-fertilizer increased crop productivity by 15 40%. Biological Reclamation using VAM Fungi: VA-Mycorrhiza (VAM) a kind of fungi is found to have beneficial effects on growth of plants. It is observed that VAM application is highly beneficial to the growth of plants (Increase in growth varied from %). Utilisation of Fly ash in Reclamation: 3

8 Lignite fly ash contains plant nutrients like Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, B, Mo etc. Crops like paddy, groundnut and maize were tested and found that 20T/ha of fly ash increased the yield of paddy by 20-40%. Reclamation using Lignite based Humic acid: NLC has successfully developed a process for extracting humic acid in the form of Potassium humate from lignite. Humic acid helps to retain the nutrients and increases the yield from 20-30% in mine spoil. The below picture shows the Afforestation activity sequence at Mined out area: 4

9 The below picture shows the paddy field in the backfilled reclaimed area. 2.0 Rain water harvesting ponds: 5

10 Rainwater harvesting structures (small water bodies) were developed in the dump yard to reduce the field run off during heavy rainy periods and also maintaining eco-balance in the vicinity. Also it will help in retaining soil moisture around the ponds. In order to establish a green forest area for the total fulfillment of the requirements of the nature, artificial lakes have been developed which also accommodates rain water harvesting system. The lake has been developed and is being maintained with all the connected requirements of a natural lake. Around the lake, retaining wall has been constructed for the protection of the bund as well as the lake. Various types of wild fruit trees, such as Sweet tamarind, Amla, Naval, etc., have been developed around the lake to attract the birds for their feeding. Further, to augment the requirements of these birds, various varieties of fish have also been provided in the lake. Artificial lakes which have been developed fully in all the three mines in a total area of 46 hectares and original habitat formation is being brought out. 3.0 Rehabilitation plan for management dump : Mine-IA do not have external dump. Mine-IA dumped the initial Mine cut quantity at Mine-I void. The internal dump of Mine-IA is progressively reclaimed and afforested Management of Mine-IA Dump: Dumps are permanent sources of land degradation through wash off by rains and air blown through wind action. They also present a repulsive look to the viewer, if not properly afforested. Neyveli mines are located in cyclonic belt and receive an average annual rainfall of 1200 mm. When huge volumes of runoff water is generated due to heavy spells of rain and flows on the dump slopes from a height of 70-85m to the ground and small channels which are normally seen on the slope get enlarged due the increased flow velocity and wide gaping gullies are formed in slopes. The uncontrolled flow of water along the gullies results in erosion of soil and subsequently deposits the silt in toe drains or other water courses in the downstream side and hence floods the regions in the downstream side. 6

11 Slope prior to Stabilisation To have effective control and have stable slope the following are incorporated: 3.2 Slope stabilization: In NLC, a Project namely slope stabilisation of the Mines in Over Burden dumps has been undertaken with the collaboration of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. These dumps were terraced to different Benches with proper drainage and irrigation facilities. In order to have soil compatibility, suitable plant species are identified for plantation in the slopes and also for green belt. In order to have proper moisture on the slopes, drip irrigation system has been deployed. 7

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13 3.3 The following are the civil structures to maintain dump slopes. Edge bund: Edge bunds are formed along the edge of the dump with a top width of 3 meters, bottom width of 6 meters and an average height of 1.5 to 2.0 meters. A small surface drainage channel is formed in front of the edge bund to carry excess runoff water to the lined chutes or to nearby storm water drains, which facilitates regulated flow of water from dump to downstream side. Check wall Check walls of gunny bag or masonry type are constructed on the downstream side of gullies to prevent silt being carried along with the turbulent water. Once the silt gets filled up to the wall, further check walls are constructed on the upstream side of gullies. Gully chute In certain locations where the flow of rainwater is more, a gully chute is formed to allow regulated flow of water from top of dump to the canal in downstream side. Such gully chutes are usually formed along with a series of check walls. 9

14 Retaining wall and catch water drain Retaining wall constructed across the flow of water, breaks the velocity of water, which is later passed through a catch water drain. Catch water drains are maintained every year by de-silting and casting the silt beside the drain to form a defense bund. Silt traps: Silt trap (a masonry chamber) along with necessary cross drainage system is constructed which acts as fourth line of defense against siltation in the main water canal. The water from the catch water drain is allowed to enter the silt trap through weep holes of small aperture size and silt gets deposited in the catch water drain itself. A cross drainage system with series of pipes are constructed 1 meter above the bottom of silt trap. The water after entering the silt trap deposits fine silt at the bottom of the trap chamber and water alone enters the cross drainage pipes, which leads to the main water canal. 4.0 MINE-IA PROPOSED RECLAMATION AND AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME Mine-IA existing project area is 1624 Ha. It is proposed to annex 382 Ha Lignite bearing area along with the existing area. The total project of Mine-IA will be 2006 Ha. The below table shows the existing and proposed Land Reclamation and afforestation programme. MINE-IA AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME (YEAR/STAGE WISE AND LOCATION WISE) Area in Ha Sl. No. Year Greenbelt Area in Ha. (Cumulative) (A) afforested Backfilled / Reclaimed area in Ha. (Cumulative) ( B ) Active Mining area in Ha. ( C ) Infrastructure Area in Ha. (D) Others undisturbed area in Ha. (E) Final void in Ha. (F) Total area in Ha. (Cumulative) = (A)+(B)+ ( C)+(D)+(E)+(F) Total no. of Tree planted 1 Until (end of mine life) After2041 (post mining)

15 5.0 Afforested Dump area Photos: 11

16 Afforested Dump area Photos 12

17 Afforested Dump area Photos 6.0 GREEN COVER AT NEYVELI TOWNSHIP AND INDUSTRIAL AREA: Over a period NLC had raised nearly 189 Lakhs trees at Neyveli Township and Industrial area. This tree cover look like a big dense forest and offer lot of environmental advantages. 13

18 DETAILS OF PREVIOUS AWARDS RECEIVED: NLC is a front runner not only in the field of Lignite Mining and Power generation but also NLC is Mining mineral in a sustainable way, without any damage to Environment. In recognition of its innovative approach in environmental care, NLC has been awarded many awards. Prestigious awards are listed below: ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS RECEIVED: 1. National Energy Conservation Award 2013 for Mine-II among the category of Mining Industries 2. Meritorious Gold award from SCOPE for Environment excellence and Sustainable Development for the year Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar award of MoE&F for the year 2009 for Environment Excellence. 4. GOLDEN PEACOCK Eco Innovation Award SCOPE Meritorious Award for Environment excellence and Sustainable Development ( ) 6. Indo-German Green Tech Environmental Excellence Award K.P. Goenka memorial award for Environmental Care FICCI Award for Environment Preservation and pollution Control Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Award from Government of India 1986 R&D STUDIES FOR LAND RECLAMATION AND AFFORESTATION: NLC is continuously seeking the scientific community help for obtaining latest Land reclamation and afforestation techniques. Different organisations Conducted R&D studies since 1992 on reclamation and rehabilitation of the mine-spoil dumped and back-filled areas at NLC are The CARD, NLC, Neyveli ( ) Annamalai University, Chidambaram ( ) The University of Madras, Chennai ( ) The CFRI, Dhanbad, ( ) and The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore ( ) The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore ( ) 14

19 NLC is adopting the recommendation of the studies made. This helped NLC to make sustainable green environment after mining. The abstract of the various study conducted is given below: 7.0 Works done by the Annamalai University ( ) Studies on soil improvement Results of the studies on the effects of the organic and inorganic amendments on the physical and chemical properties of the post-harvest mine-spoil at the end of the fourth year of cropping showed reduction of bulk density from 1.62 in the pre-planting spoil to 1.17 Mg/m 3, increase in pore-space from 35.8 in the pre-planting soil to 47.2 % and increase in hydraulic conductivity of mine-spoil from 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec. There was no distinct change in the ph and EC of the cropped spoil. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the spoil increased from 9.9 to 11cmol P + /kg in pre-planting spoil to cmol P + /kg. Noteworthy observation was that the organic carbon content which ranged from to 0.03 % in the initial spoils increased by two to three folds to % after final cropping. Available nitrogen status in preplanting soils of 81.0kg/ha increased to 102 kg/ha. Similarly, available phosphorus status in the pre-planting soil of 3.1 kg P 2 O 5 /ha increased to kg/ha depending upon the kinds and amounts of the amendments applied and crops grown. In respect of the available potassium status, it increased from78 kg /ha to kg /ha under the different treatments and crops grown. Microbiological analysis of mine-spoil for the qualitative estimation of fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes and diastrophic bacteria revealed that among the three groups of Organisms viz., fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes that colonized in the mine-spoil, fungi dominated in all the samples followed by bacteria and actinomycetes. The mine-spoil did not contain any diastrophic bacteria (nitrogen-fixing microorganisms). The fungal population recorded in the mine-spoil was 1000 times less than in the normal soil while the bacterial and actinomycetes populations were ten thousand to one lakh times lesser than in the normal soil. 15

20 Studies on the performance of the field crops In Mine-I, in order to achieve the main objective of enrichment of the mine-spoils with suitable amendments to transform them fit for cultivation of crops, the project on reclamation of back-filled areas of Neyveli open-cast mine was conducted by the Annamalai University during the period from 1992 to1997. Different crops viz., cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibre crops, sugarcane, green manures, vegetables, fruits and forest trees were grown and screened. Among the annual crops, in the confirmative trials carried out the crops of rice, sugarcane, maize and finger millet performed well. Among the different rice cultivars grown in the amended mine-soil under field conditions, ADT 38 showed better adaptability. It recorded grain yields of 4.9, 6.2 and 5.7 t/ha in the first, second and third seasons respectively, thereby indicating its consistent performance in amended mine-soil. Organic manures viz., 40 t/ha, 25 t/ha and inorganics viz., lignite fly ash 5 t/ha, humic 30 kg /ha, zinc 25 kg /ha, 200 kg N, 100 kg P 2 O 5 and 100 kg K 2 O/ha and soil application of biofertilizer 4 kg/ha have been found to be very effective in amending and enriching the mine-soil and in transforming it suitable for growing rice (Fig.2) Three crops of sugarcane grown in the amended mine-spoil proved beyond doubt the suitability of sugarcane cultivars CoC 6304, CoC 771 and CoC for mine-spoil. It is possible to get a yield of 70 t/ha on an average. Soil application of 25 t/ha + 50 kg /ha + lignite fly 5 t/ha + humic 30 kg /ha kg N/ha kg P 2 O 5 /ha and 225 kg K 2 O/ha + biofertilizer 4 kg /ha is recommended for the above crop in the mine-spoil(fig.3) 16

21 Finger millet too grew well in the mine-spoil. Normal yield of 3.6 t/ha was obtained when the mine-spoil was amended with 25.5 t/ha, lignite fly 5 t/ha, humic 30 kg/ha and zinc 25 kg /ha along with 120 kg N, 60 kg P 2 O 5 and 60 kg K 2 O/ha (Fig.4) 17

22 Incorporation of Azolla biofertilizer into the mine-spoil before transplanting of rice significantly increased the growth parameters and yield components of rice cv. Savithri (CR 1009) and ADT 39 (Fig.5). 18

23 The Azospirillum application through seed as well as seedling-dip significantly improved the growth and yield of rice in the mine-spoil, amended with organics and inorganics. Green manure Sesbania rostrata (Stem-nodulating legume) grown in mine-spoil applied with press-mud gave a biomass of 10t/ha and in-situ incorporation of this biomass greatly enriched the mine-spoil (Fig. 6&7). Work done by the CARD, NLC, Neyveli ( ) The beneficial effects of biofertilizers on the mine-spoil were demonstrated in 2 sites at mine-i and Mine-IA, about 2 acres each. The project entitled on Production of bio -fertilizer using lignite as carrier material sponsored by the Ministry of Coal and S&T was implemented by the CARD, NLC during The main objective of this project was to setup Pilot Plant Facility to produce various strains of bacterial fertilizers using lignite as a carrier and application to mine-spoil in order to improve the microbial activity, thus resulting in potential increase in fertility status (Fig. 8). To arrive at the dosage required to build up microbial activity, field experiments were carried out with the various strains viz., nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing microbes on crops of green manure, maize and finger millet. Application of biofertilizers increased the soil fertility and crop productivity by % on using the dosage of 8 kg/ha of four bacterial strains viz., Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Phosphobacteria. The total microbial activity was achieved to the tune of million/g of soil. CARD is producing and regularly supplying various biofertilizers to the Mines for reclamation purpose (Fig. 9). 8.0 Work done by the University of Madras and CARD, NLC ( ) The Standing Scientific Committee of Ministry of Coal, Govt.of India sponsored the S & T project Biological methods of employing VAM fungi in Neyveli mine-spoil, ash pond and afforested areas. This project was jointly implemented by CARD,NLC, Neyveli and CAS in Botany, University of Madras ( ). The objective of the project was to study the effect of VAM on trees and testing in waste land soils namely mine-spoil, ash pond and other barren lands. 19

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26 The VAM spores isolated from native plants collected from ash-pond, mine-spoil and red lateritic soils were mass-multiplied in CARD. Three tanks of 3 m x 2 m were constructed and filled with ash-pond soil, mine-spoil and red soil separately. In the tank, sterile 25 kg/tank was added and mixed well. Maize seedlings were raised in the tanks and after 2 months establishment, crop was cut at the base and the roots along with the soil were cut into bits and used as inoculums for treating the plants in the experimental sites. Developed efficient VAM fungi were tested on different fruit and forest trees in about 5 acres of mine-spoil in Mine-I. In the experiment, growth of the all the treated plants showed appreciable increase in growth and it varied from % (Fig. 10). 9.0 Work done by the CARD/ NLC and CFRI, Dhanbad ( ) Utilization of Fly-ash in Agriculture implemented by CARD, NLC and CFRI, Dhanbad. The objective of the project was to study the short-term addition of lignite fly-ash on the effect of growth, yield, and heavy metal uptake of crops and the physical and chemical properties of the mine-spoil area of Neyveli. At Mine-I site, totally 8 crops (paddy - green manure - paddy in rotation) were raised and found that 20 t/ha of fly-ash was beneficial and increased the yield by % (Fig.11) TNAU-NLC Collaboration Work: ( ) Transforming NLC mine-spoils into productive agricultural land through Eco-friendly Integrated Farming System Project from was undertaken in the dumped/backfilled mine-spoil area of the NLC with the broad objective of rehabilitation of the NLC minespoils. The farming system included cropping system, fodder cultivation, agro-forestry, silvipasture, fruit trees cultivation, livestock components, aquaculture, biofertilizer unit and mushroom cultivation. Studies on soil improvement in mine soil back-filled area Studies on the improvement of physical, physic chemical and chemical properties of the mine-spoil after green manuring. The bulk density of the initial experimental soil was 1.43 Mg/m 3, the particle density was 2.0 Mg/m 3,pore pace was 28.6 %, ph was 7.2, EC was

27 dsm -1, organic carbon content was 0.18%, available nitrogen status was 17.6 kg/ha, that of P was 3 kg/ha and that of K was 14 kg/ha. 23

28 After green manuring the physical properties viz., the bulk density decreased from 1.43 to 1.33 Mg m -3, there was no change in the particle density and the pore-space percentage improved from 28.6 to The physico-chemical properties like ph and EC were within the normal range. Regarding the fertility status, organic carbon and available status of N, P and K increased from 0.18 to 0.24%, 17.0 to 62 kg/ha, 3 kg to 6.0 kg/ha and 14.0 kg to 11 kg/ha respectively Effect of organic and inorganics the on physical, physico- chemical and chemical characteristics of the mine-spoil under rice cultivation. Application of green manure along with goat manure and recommended doses of fertilizers 30 t ha -1 + goat 12.5 t ha -1 + RDF) improved the fertility status of mine spoil. The improvement of soil fertility was similar with the application of green manure with FYM and RDF 30 t ha t ha -1 + RDF) as compared to treatment 30 t ha -1 + RDF. Effect of organics and inorganics on the physical, physic-chemical and chemical characteristics of mine spoil under sorghum cultivation. Application of farm yard manure along with the recommended doses of fertilizers and green manure with RDF increased the organic carbon content by 89.7 and 80.1 per cents respectively over the control of green manure alone. In the case of availability of nutrients of N, P and K, the percentage improvement was 8.5, 48.9 and 24

29 46.3 due to the application of farm yard manure along with recommended doses of fertilizers. Similar improvement was recorded in green manure with RDF application treatment as compared to green manure alone treatment. Studies on performance of field crops Field experiment was conducted in project area of Mine-I with different organic sourcebased 3t/ha in mine-spoil ecosystem to study their effects on the growth and development of green manure crop dhaincha during Good quality seeds of dhaincha were sown and the germination percentage was recorded. The vermicompost + mine-spoil at 1: 6 ratio recorded higher germination percentage (95%) when compared to mine-spoil alone (90%). Between the mine-spoils, Mine-I recorded higher mean germination percentage (95%). The highest biomass yield of 36.3 t/ha at 65 DAS was recorded in vermicompost 3t/ha treatment compared to control which recorded 21.3 t/ha at 65 DAS (Fig.13). Field experiment was conducted with 12.5 t/ha, 12.5 t/ha, 12.5 t/ha t/ha and 5 t/ha in mine spoil eco system to evaluate the effects of different organics on the growth and yield of black gram (VBN 4) under mine-spoil ecosystem during The highest pod yield of 1354 kg/ha was recorded in 12.5 t/ha treatment. The highest stover yield of 435 kg/ha was recorded in t/ha t/ha treatment (Fig.14). The residual effects of vermicompost and FYM at different rates in mine-spoil area were studied by raising cereal crop of sorghum after the harvest of black gram in Mine-I site during The highest plant height of 72 cm at 117 DAS was recorded in the treatment of t/ha t/ha. Crop rotation of pulse - cereal and application of organics in mine-soil ecosystem were found to be very effective in improving the soil fertility and health. Rose and jasmine recorded the highest plant height of 79.9 cm and 87.9 cm, maximum number of flowers of 7 and 28 respectively in the treatment that received 3% at 30 days after spray in the experiment conducted to evaluate the effect of 25

30 panchagavya on the growth and flowering pattern of rose and jasmine undermine-spoil eco- system (Fig.15). A field experiment was conducted during in the project site of Mine-I to identify suitable flower crops for mine-spoils. Flower crops of jasmine, rose, chrysanthemum, cross andra and African marigold were planted (Fig.16). Before planting, the pits were filled with pot-mixture containing equal proportions of red earth + sand +FYM. In Jasminium sambac in number of branches/plant was 5, number of flowers/plant was 45 and the weight of flowers/plant was 15.3 g whereas in Jasminium grandiflorum the number of branches/plant was 6, the number of flowers/plant was 130 and the weight of flowers/plant was 13.0 g at 180 DAP. At 270 DAP, J. grandiflorum produced yield of 21.9 kg/ha (Fig.17). 26

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32 In rose, at 270 DAP, the average plant height was 135 cm, number of branches/plant was 9.0, single flower weight was 3.4 g, number of flowers/plant was 50 and flower yield was 49, 281 kg/ha. In Crossandra the average number of branches/plant was 5.0 and the number of flowers/plant was 98 at 270 DAP. In African marigold in the first spell at 150 DAP, the number of branches/plant was 6, number of flowers/plant was 38, single flower weight was 4.7 g and total flower yield/ha was 739 kg and in the second spell at 150 DAP number of branches/plant was 7, number of flowers/plant was 34, single flower weight was 5.4 g and total flower yield/ha was 256 kg. In Mine-I, during in the project to identify suitable flower crops for mine-spoils, Jasmine cv. Ramanathapuram local produced 19 flowers /plant, 8g flower yield/plant and total yield of 31 kg/ha at 14 months after planting. In rose, cv. Andhra red produced more number of branches/plant (10), number of flowers/plant (3), single flower weight (3.4 g) and flower yield/month/320 m 2 (850 Nos) as compared to other varieties at 14 months after planting. In the year in Season I at Mine-I, a field experiment on nutrient management for higher productivity of maize var. Co 1was conducted. Application of NPK at 150 % of the RDF combined with tonnes each of FYM, PM, vermicompost, sheep and goat manure recorded higher plant height (245 cm),cob weight (109 g), DMP (108 g/plant) and grain yield of 2790 kg/ha. In sorghum, fresh shoot weight of 294 g/plant, DMP of g/plant, stubble dry weight of 15.4 g, root dry weight of 24.5 g, root length of 21.7 cm and ear-head length of 25.9 cm were recorded (Fig.18). Red gram var.vbn 1 recorded maximum plant height of 72.5 cm, number of seeds/pod of 4.0, number of pods/plant of 45.0, fresh shoot weight of g/plant and DMP of 26.3 g/plant at harvest. At harvest stage cowpea var. Co 2 recorded maximum plant height of 55.6 cm, number of pods/plant of 24.6, pod yield of 35.0 g/plant and grain yield of 21.5 g/plant (Fig.19). 28

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34 In season II, , in maize at the harvest stage plant height of 174 cm, cob length of 17.9 cm, number of kernel rows/cob of 11.6, 100 kernel weight of 27 g, number of grains/cob of 241, wet fodder yield/plant of 214 g, root length of 19.0 cm and number of roots/plant of 53 were recorded. Plant height of 31.0 cm, number of matured pods of 14/plant, immature pods/plant of 13,total number of pods/plant of 27, pod length of 4.0 cm/pod, mature pod weight of 4g/plant, total root fresh weight of 33 g/plant, DMP of 13 g/plant and root length of 14.7 cm were recorded in black gram. In green gram, at harvest stage, the growth characters like plant height (7 cm), number of leaves/plant (8.0), total fresh weight (67g/plant) and the yield components like number of matured pods/plant (7), number of immature pods/plant (7), pod length (6.0 cm), number of seeds/pod (10) and grain yield/plant (4.0 g) were recorded (Fig.20). In season III ( ), in the study to assess the growth performance of rice in the mine-spoils, growth characters such as plant height (73.5 cm), number of leaves/tiller (4.0), number of tillers/clump (10), number of leaves/clump (211), total fresh weight (486 g/plant), length of panicle (15.6 cm) and root length (23 cm) were recorded at 60 DAT (Fig.21). In horse gram, at maturity stage, the number of branches (9.0/plant), total fresh weight (43g/plant), number of seeds/plant (66), seed weight (2.5 g/plant) and 100 seed weight (3.0g) were recorded. In the year during Season I, in Mine-I, maize hybrid CoH- 4 recorded better yield components of cob length (18.0 cm),cob wet weight (105.6 g), number of seeds (401/cob) and grain yield (2358 kg/ha) at harvest (Fig.22). In sorghum Co 28, the data on growth characters viz., plant height (232.2 cm), root length (25.8 cm), DMP (143.4 g/plant) and yield components like ear-head length (14.6 cm), wet ear-head weight (67.2 g) and yield (4448 kg/ha) were recorded at harvest stage (Fig.23). The cow pea variety Co 2 produced a green biomass yield of 183 g/plant, DMP of 62 g/plant, 28 pods/plant, 18 seeds per pod, pod yield of 42.5 g/ plant and grain yield of 1498 kg/ha at harvest (Fig.24). 30

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38 The growth performance of red gram variety VBN 1 in the mine-spoils as reflected in the growth characters such as plant height (121.5 cm), number of branches/plant (20.0), green biomass (385 g/plant), yield components like number of pods/plant (204), number of seeds/pod (4.0) and grain yield (1171 kg/ha) were recorded (Fig.25). In the year during Season II in Mine-I, the maize hybrid CoH 4 recorded yield attributes of cob length of 32.3 cm, cob breadth of 15.6 cm, cob weight of 173 g, number of rows/cob of 12, grain dry yield/cob of 54 g, number of grains/cob of 283 and 100 grain weight of 16 g, Grain yield of 2424 kg/ha was recorded. The black gram variety T 9 performed well during this season. The variety produced a total grain yield of 958 kg/ha under optimum plant population of 33 plants/m 3. In green gram, the data on plant height (58.2 and 43.5 cm), root length (18 and 13 cm), total fresh weight (110 and 40 g), DMP (27 and 9 g/plant), number of matured pods/plant (26 and 12), matured pod weight (10 and 4g), pod length (6 and 6 cm), seed weight (3 and 3g) and shell weight (5 and 2 g) were recorded in optimum population of 33 plants/m 3 and high density plant population of 50 plants/m 3 respectively (Fig.26). In the year during Season II in Mine-I, rice variety ADT 36 (white ponni) was grown and at harvest stage data on plant height (79.5 cm), number of tillers/clump (24), productive tiller/clump (15), length of panicle (17.8 cm), number of leaves/clump (120), fresh weight without root (182 g/plant), root weight (68 g/plant), root length (25.4 cm), DMP (42 g/plant), 100 grain weight (15.8 g), grain yield/plant (17 g), straw yield (25.4 g/plant) and grain yield (3912 kg/ha) were recorded (Fig.27). 34

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