Query No. 1: Mining plan approval from Ministry of Coal: Annexure-I-A

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Query No. 1: Mining plan approval from Ministry of Coal: Annexure-I-A"

Transcription

1

2

3

4 Query No. 1: Mining plan approval from Ministry of Coal: Annexure-I-A

5 Annexure-II-A Query No. 2: Rehabilitation plan for management old dump and system for reclamation. Reply: Mine-IA system for reclamation and Rehabilitation plan for management old dump. 1.0 System of Reclamation / method of land Reclamation: In opencast Mining, the overburden above the Mineral is excavated and backfilled after extraction of the Mineral. Due to the overburden excavation, there is complete alteration of topsoil structure which is supporting the vegetation. Hence it is prime importance to restore the mined out area to the original condition to support vegetation cover of the planet. NLC is taking all the efforts to restore the Mined out area to the original condition through knowledge acquired by scientific studies for environment restoration. 1.1 Land Reclamation procedures: The following is the land reclamation and afforestation procedure adopted at Neyveli Mines: 1.2 Levelling the area: The backfilled areas taken over after completion of dumping involves lot of undulations of the ground, heaps and low lying pockets, leading to rough terrain and water stagnation. These undulations will be removed with the help of CME equipments 1

6 1.3 Conservation of top soil: In accordance with the advancement mine cut the top soil is removed by using backhoe shovel. Then the Top soil is transported and stacked separately by using dumpers at the backfilled area. 1.4 Reclamation and Afforestation: Reclamation and Afforestation activities are carried out continually to reclaim the backfilled area both physically and biologically to control soil erosion and also to give a green cover to the barren dump yard to bring back the entire fauna and flora. This is being done by adapting both physical reclamation and biological reclamation. The below picture shows the Agriculture activity sequence at Mined out area: 2

7 1.5 Various types of Reclamation practices of NLC: Chemical Reclamation: In order to transform the dump spoil into fertile lands, soil inputs viz. Saw Dust, Lignite dust, Fly ash, Gypsum, Farm yard manure, urea, super phosphate, potash, Micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo & B) have been added to dumped soil. Bio-reclamation using Bio-fertilizer: A pilot plant facility was setup to produce bio-fertilizer using lignite as carrier. Application of bio-fertilizer increased crop productivity by 15 40%. Biological Reclamation using VAM Fungi: VA-Mycorrhiza (VAM) a kind of fungi is found to have beneficial effects on growth of plants. It is observed that VAM application is highly beneficial to the growth of plants (Increase in growth varied from %). Utilisation of Fly ash in Reclamation: 3

8 Lignite fly ash contains plant nutrients like Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, B, Mo etc. Crops like paddy, groundnut and maize were tested and found that 20T/ha of fly ash increased the yield of paddy by 20-40%. Reclamation using Lignite based Humic acid: NLC has successfully developed a process for extracting humic acid in the form of Potassium humate from lignite. Humic acid helps to retain the nutrients and increases the yield from 20-30% in mine spoil. The below picture shows the Afforestation activity sequence at Mined out area: 4

9 The below picture shows the paddy field in the backfilled reclaimed area. 2.0 Rain water harvesting ponds: 5

10 Rainwater harvesting structures (small water bodies) were developed in the dump yard to reduce the field run off during heavy rainy periods and also maintaining eco-balance in the vicinity. Also it will help in retaining soil moisture around the ponds. In order to establish a green forest area for the total fulfillment of the requirements of the nature, artificial lakes have been developed which also accommodates rain water harvesting system. The lake has been developed and is being maintained with all the connected requirements of a natural lake. Around the lake, retaining wall has been constructed for the protection of the bund as well as the lake. Various types of wild fruit trees, such as Sweet tamarind, Amla, Naval, etc., have been developed around the lake to attract the birds for their feeding. Further, to augment the requirements of these birds, various varieties of fish have also been provided in the lake. Artificial lakes which have been developed fully in all the three mines in a total area of 46 hectares and original habitat formation is being brought out. 3.0 Rehabilitation plan for management dump : Mine-IA do not have external dump. Mine-IA dumped the initial Mine cut quantity at Mine-I void. The internal dump of Mine-IA is progressively reclaimed and afforested Management of Mine-IA Dump: Dumps are permanent sources of land degradation through wash off by rains and air blown through wind action. They also present a repulsive look to the viewer, if not properly afforested. Neyveli mines are located in cyclonic belt and receive an average annual rainfall of 1200 mm. When huge volumes of runoff water is generated due to heavy spells of rain and flows on the dump slopes from a height of 70-85m to the ground and small channels which are normally seen on the slope get enlarged due the increased flow velocity and wide gaping gullies are formed in slopes. The uncontrolled flow of water along the gullies results in erosion of soil and subsequently deposits the silt in toe drains or other water courses in the downstream side and hence floods the regions in the downstream side. 6

11 Slope prior to Stabilisation To have effective control and have stable slope the following are incorporated: 3.2 Slope stabilization: In NLC, a Project namely slope stabilisation of the Mines in Over Burden dumps has been undertaken with the collaboration of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. These dumps were terraced to different Benches with proper drainage and irrigation facilities. In order to have soil compatibility, suitable plant species are identified for plantation in the slopes and also for green belt. In order to have proper moisture on the slopes, drip irrigation system has been deployed. 7

12 8

13 3.3 The following are the civil structures to maintain dump slopes. Edge bund: Edge bunds are formed along the edge of the dump with a top width of 3 meters, bottom width of 6 meters and an average height of 1.5 to 2.0 meters. A small surface drainage channel is formed in front of the edge bund to carry excess runoff water to the lined chutes or to nearby storm water drains, which facilitates regulated flow of water from dump to downstream side. Check wall Check walls of gunny bag or masonry type are constructed on the downstream side of gullies to prevent silt being carried along with the turbulent water. Once the silt gets filled up to the wall, further check walls are constructed on the upstream side of gullies. Gully chute In certain locations where the flow of rainwater is more, a gully chute is formed to allow regulated flow of water from top of dump to the canal in downstream side. Such gully chutes are usually formed along with a series of check walls. 9

14 Retaining wall and catch water drain Retaining wall constructed across the flow of water, breaks the velocity of water, which is later passed through a catch water drain. Catch water drains are maintained every year by de-silting and casting the silt beside the drain to form a defense bund. Silt traps: Silt trap (a masonry chamber) along with necessary cross drainage system is constructed which acts as fourth line of defense against siltation in the main water canal. The water from the catch water drain is allowed to enter the silt trap through weep holes of small aperture size and silt gets deposited in the catch water drain itself. A cross drainage system with series of pipes are constructed 1 meter above the bottom of silt trap. The water after entering the silt trap deposits fine silt at the bottom of the trap chamber and water alone enters the cross drainage pipes, which leads to the main water canal. 4.0 MINE-IA PROPOSED RECLAMATION AND AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME Mine-IA existing project area is 1624 Ha. It is proposed to annex 382 Ha Lignite bearing area along with the existing area. The total project of Mine-IA will be 2006 Ha. The below table shows the existing and proposed Land Reclamation and afforestation programme. MINE-IA AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME (YEAR/STAGE WISE AND LOCATION WISE) Area in Ha Sl. No. Year Greenbelt Area in Ha. (Cumulative) (A) afforested Backfilled / Reclaimed area in Ha. (Cumulative) ( B ) Active Mining area in Ha. ( C ) Infrastructure Area in Ha. (D) Others undisturbed area in Ha. (E) Final void in Ha. (F) Total area in Ha. (Cumulative) = (A)+(B)+ ( C)+(D)+(E)+(F) Total no. of Tree planted 1 Until (end of mine life) After2041 (post mining)

15 5.0 Afforested Dump area Photos: 11

16 Afforested Dump area Photos 12

17 Afforested Dump area Photos 6.0 GREEN COVER AT NEYVELI TOWNSHIP AND INDUSTRIAL AREA: Over a period NLC had raised nearly 189 Lakhs trees at Neyveli Township and Industrial area. This tree cover look like a big dense forest and offer lot of environmental advantages. 13

18 DETAILS OF PREVIOUS AWARDS RECEIVED: NLC is a front runner not only in the field of Lignite Mining and Power generation but also NLC is Mining mineral in a sustainable way, without any damage to Environment. In recognition of its innovative approach in environmental care, NLC has been awarded many awards. Prestigious awards are listed below: ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS RECEIVED: 1. National Energy Conservation Award 2013 for Mine-II among the category of Mining Industries 2. Meritorious Gold award from SCOPE for Environment excellence and Sustainable Development for the year Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar award of MoE&F for the year 2009 for Environment Excellence. 4. GOLDEN PEACOCK Eco Innovation Award SCOPE Meritorious Award for Environment excellence and Sustainable Development ( ) 6. Indo-German Green Tech Environmental Excellence Award K.P. Goenka memorial award for Environmental Care FICCI Award for Environment Preservation and pollution Control Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Award from Government of India 1986 R&D STUDIES FOR LAND RECLAMATION AND AFFORESTATION: NLC is continuously seeking the scientific community help for obtaining latest Land reclamation and afforestation techniques. Different organisations Conducted R&D studies since 1992 on reclamation and rehabilitation of the mine-spoil dumped and back-filled areas at NLC are The CARD, NLC, Neyveli ( ) Annamalai University, Chidambaram ( ) The University of Madras, Chennai ( ) The CFRI, Dhanbad, ( ) and The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore ( ) The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore ( ) 14

19 NLC is adopting the recommendation of the studies made. This helped NLC to make sustainable green environment after mining. The abstract of the various study conducted is given below: 7.0 Works done by the Annamalai University ( ) Studies on soil improvement Results of the studies on the effects of the organic and inorganic amendments on the physical and chemical properties of the post-harvest mine-spoil at the end of the fourth year of cropping showed reduction of bulk density from 1.62 in the pre-planting spoil to 1.17 Mg/m 3, increase in pore-space from 35.8 in the pre-planting soil to 47.2 % and increase in hydraulic conductivity of mine-spoil from 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec. There was no distinct change in the ph and EC of the cropped spoil. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the spoil increased from 9.9 to 11cmol P + /kg in pre-planting spoil to cmol P + /kg. Noteworthy observation was that the organic carbon content which ranged from to 0.03 % in the initial spoils increased by two to three folds to % after final cropping. Available nitrogen status in preplanting soils of 81.0kg/ha increased to 102 kg/ha. Similarly, available phosphorus status in the pre-planting soil of 3.1 kg P 2 O 5 /ha increased to kg/ha depending upon the kinds and amounts of the amendments applied and crops grown. In respect of the available potassium status, it increased from78 kg /ha to kg /ha under the different treatments and crops grown. Microbiological analysis of mine-spoil for the qualitative estimation of fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes and diastrophic bacteria revealed that among the three groups of Organisms viz., fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes that colonized in the mine-spoil, fungi dominated in all the samples followed by bacteria and actinomycetes. The mine-spoil did not contain any diastrophic bacteria (nitrogen-fixing microorganisms). The fungal population recorded in the mine-spoil was 1000 times less than in the normal soil while the bacterial and actinomycetes populations were ten thousand to one lakh times lesser than in the normal soil. 15

20 Studies on the performance of the field crops In Mine-I, in order to achieve the main objective of enrichment of the mine-spoils with suitable amendments to transform them fit for cultivation of crops, the project on reclamation of back-filled areas of Neyveli open-cast mine was conducted by the Annamalai University during the period from 1992 to1997. Different crops viz., cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibre crops, sugarcane, green manures, vegetables, fruits and forest trees were grown and screened. Among the annual crops, in the confirmative trials carried out the crops of rice, sugarcane, maize and finger millet performed well. Among the different rice cultivars grown in the amended mine-soil under field conditions, ADT 38 showed better adaptability. It recorded grain yields of 4.9, 6.2 and 5.7 t/ha in the first, second and third seasons respectively, thereby indicating its consistent performance in amended mine-soil. Organic manures viz., 40 t/ha, 25 t/ha and inorganics viz., lignite fly ash 5 t/ha, humic 30 kg /ha, zinc 25 kg /ha, 200 kg N, 100 kg P 2 O 5 and 100 kg K 2 O/ha and soil application of biofertilizer 4 kg/ha have been found to be very effective in amending and enriching the mine-soil and in transforming it suitable for growing rice (Fig.2) Three crops of sugarcane grown in the amended mine-spoil proved beyond doubt the suitability of sugarcane cultivars CoC 6304, CoC 771 and CoC for mine-spoil. It is possible to get a yield of 70 t/ha on an average. Soil application of 25 t/ha + 50 kg /ha + lignite fly 5 t/ha + humic 30 kg /ha kg N/ha kg P 2 O 5 /ha and 225 kg K 2 O/ha + biofertilizer 4 kg /ha is recommended for the above crop in the mine-spoil(fig.3) 16

21 Finger millet too grew well in the mine-spoil. Normal yield of 3.6 t/ha was obtained when the mine-spoil was amended with 25.5 t/ha, lignite fly 5 t/ha, humic 30 kg/ha and zinc 25 kg /ha along with 120 kg N, 60 kg P 2 O 5 and 60 kg K 2 O/ha (Fig.4) 17

22 Incorporation of Azolla biofertilizer into the mine-spoil before transplanting of rice significantly increased the growth parameters and yield components of rice cv. Savithri (CR 1009) and ADT 39 (Fig.5). 18

23 The Azospirillum application through seed as well as seedling-dip significantly improved the growth and yield of rice in the mine-spoil, amended with organics and inorganics. Green manure Sesbania rostrata (Stem-nodulating legume) grown in mine-spoil applied with press-mud gave a biomass of 10t/ha and in-situ incorporation of this biomass greatly enriched the mine-spoil (Fig. 6&7). Work done by the CARD, NLC, Neyveli ( ) The beneficial effects of biofertilizers on the mine-spoil were demonstrated in 2 sites at mine-i and Mine-IA, about 2 acres each. The project entitled on Production of bio -fertilizer using lignite as carrier material sponsored by the Ministry of Coal and S&T was implemented by the CARD, NLC during The main objective of this project was to setup Pilot Plant Facility to produce various strains of bacterial fertilizers using lignite as a carrier and application to mine-spoil in order to improve the microbial activity, thus resulting in potential increase in fertility status (Fig. 8). To arrive at the dosage required to build up microbial activity, field experiments were carried out with the various strains viz., nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing microbes on crops of green manure, maize and finger millet. Application of biofertilizers increased the soil fertility and crop productivity by % on using the dosage of 8 kg/ha of four bacterial strains viz., Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Phosphobacteria. The total microbial activity was achieved to the tune of million/g of soil. CARD is producing and regularly supplying various biofertilizers to the Mines for reclamation purpose (Fig. 9). 8.0 Work done by the University of Madras and CARD, NLC ( ) The Standing Scientific Committee of Ministry of Coal, Govt.of India sponsored the S & T project Biological methods of employing VAM fungi in Neyveli mine-spoil, ash pond and afforested areas. This project was jointly implemented by CARD,NLC, Neyveli and CAS in Botany, University of Madras ( ). The objective of the project was to study the effect of VAM on trees and testing in waste land soils namely mine-spoil, ash pond and other barren lands. 19

24 20

25 21

26 The VAM spores isolated from native plants collected from ash-pond, mine-spoil and red lateritic soils were mass-multiplied in CARD. Three tanks of 3 m x 2 m were constructed and filled with ash-pond soil, mine-spoil and red soil separately. In the tank, sterile 25 kg/tank was added and mixed well. Maize seedlings were raised in the tanks and after 2 months establishment, crop was cut at the base and the roots along with the soil were cut into bits and used as inoculums for treating the plants in the experimental sites. Developed efficient VAM fungi were tested on different fruit and forest trees in about 5 acres of mine-spoil in Mine-I. In the experiment, growth of the all the treated plants showed appreciable increase in growth and it varied from % (Fig. 10). 9.0 Work done by the CARD/ NLC and CFRI, Dhanbad ( ) Utilization of Fly-ash in Agriculture implemented by CARD, NLC and CFRI, Dhanbad. The objective of the project was to study the short-term addition of lignite fly-ash on the effect of growth, yield, and heavy metal uptake of crops and the physical and chemical properties of the mine-spoil area of Neyveli. At Mine-I site, totally 8 crops (paddy - green manure - paddy in rotation) were raised and found that 20 t/ha of fly-ash was beneficial and increased the yield by % (Fig.11) TNAU-NLC Collaboration Work: ( ) Transforming NLC mine-spoils into productive agricultural land through Eco-friendly Integrated Farming System Project from was undertaken in the dumped/backfilled mine-spoil area of the NLC with the broad objective of rehabilitation of the NLC minespoils. The farming system included cropping system, fodder cultivation, agro-forestry, silvipasture, fruit trees cultivation, livestock components, aquaculture, biofertilizer unit and mushroom cultivation. Studies on soil improvement in mine soil back-filled area Studies on the improvement of physical, physic chemical and chemical properties of the mine-spoil after green manuring. The bulk density of the initial experimental soil was 1.43 Mg/m 3, the particle density was 2.0 Mg/m 3,pore pace was 28.6 %, ph was 7.2, EC was

27 dsm -1, organic carbon content was 0.18%, available nitrogen status was 17.6 kg/ha, that of P was 3 kg/ha and that of K was 14 kg/ha. 23

28 After green manuring the physical properties viz., the bulk density decreased from 1.43 to 1.33 Mg m -3, there was no change in the particle density and the pore-space percentage improved from 28.6 to The physico-chemical properties like ph and EC were within the normal range. Regarding the fertility status, organic carbon and available status of N, P and K increased from 0.18 to 0.24%, 17.0 to 62 kg/ha, 3 kg to 6.0 kg/ha and 14.0 kg to 11 kg/ha respectively Effect of organic and inorganics the on physical, physico- chemical and chemical characteristics of the mine-spoil under rice cultivation. Application of green manure along with goat manure and recommended doses of fertilizers 30 t ha -1 + goat 12.5 t ha -1 + RDF) improved the fertility status of mine spoil. The improvement of soil fertility was similar with the application of green manure with FYM and RDF 30 t ha t ha -1 + RDF) as compared to treatment 30 t ha -1 + RDF. Effect of organics and inorganics on the physical, physic-chemical and chemical characteristics of mine spoil under sorghum cultivation. Application of farm yard manure along with the recommended doses of fertilizers and green manure with RDF increased the organic carbon content by 89.7 and 80.1 per cents respectively over the control of green manure alone. In the case of availability of nutrients of N, P and K, the percentage improvement was 8.5, 48.9 and 24

29 46.3 due to the application of farm yard manure along with recommended doses of fertilizers. Similar improvement was recorded in green manure with RDF application treatment as compared to green manure alone treatment. Studies on performance of field crops Field experiment was conducted in project area of Mine-I with different organic sourcebased 3t/ha in mine-spoil ecosystem to study their effects on the growth and development of green manure crop dhaincha during Good quality seeds of dhaincha were sown and the germination percentage was recorded. The vermicompost + mine-spoil at 1: 6 ratio recorded higher germination percentage (95%) when compared to mine-spoil alone (90%). Between the mine-spoils, Mine-I recorded higher mean germination percentage (95%). The highest biomass yield of 36.3 t/ha at 65 DAS was recorded in vermicompost 3t/ha treatment compared to control which recorded 21.3 t/ha at 65 DAS (Fig.13). Field experiment was conducted with 12.5 t/ha, 12.5 t/ha, 12.5 t/ha t/ha and 5 t/ha in mine spoil eco system to evaluate the effects of different organics on the growth and yield of black gram (VBN 4) under mine-spoil ecosystem during The highest pod yield of 1354 kg/ha was recorded in 12.5 t/ha treatment. The highest stover yield of 435 kg/ha was recorded in t/ha t/ha treatment (Fig.14). The residual effects of vermicompost and FYM at different rates in mine-spoil area were studied by raising cereal crop of sorghum after the harvest of black gram in Mine-I site during The highest plant height of 72 cm at 117 DAS was recorded in the treatment of t/ha t/ha. Crop rotation of pulse - cereal and application of organics in mine-soil ecosystem were found to be very effective in improving the soil fertility and health. Rose and jasmine recorded the highest plant height of 79.9 cm and 87.9 cm, maximum number of flowers of 7 and 28 respectively in the treatment that received 3% at 30 days after spray in the experiment conducted to evaluate the effect of 25

30 panchagavya on the growth and flowering pattern of rose and jasmine undermine-spoil eco- system (Fig.15). A field experiment was conducted during in the project site of Mine-I to identify suitable flower crops for mine-spoils. Flower crops of jasmine, rose, chrysanthemum, cross andra and African marigold were planted (Fig.16). Before planting, the pits were filled with pot-mixture containing equal proportions of red earth + sand +FYM. In Jasminium sambac in number of branches/plant was 5, number of flowers/plant was 45 and the weight of flowers/plant was 15.3 g whereas in Jasminium grandiflorum the number of branches/plant was 6, the number of flowers/plant was 130 and the weight of flowers/plant was 13.0 g at 180 DAP. At 270 DAP, J. grandiflorum produced yield of 21.9 kg/ha (Fig.17). 26

31 27

32 In rose, at 270 DAP, the average plant height was 135 cm, number of branches/plant was 9.0, single flower weight was 3.4 g, number of flowers/plant was 50 and flower yield was 49, 281 kg/ha. In Crossandra the average number of branches/plant was 5.0 and the number of flowers/plant was 98 at 270 DAP. In African marigold in the first spell at 150 DAP, the number of branches/plant was 6, number of flowers/plant was 38, single flower weight was 4.7 g and total flower yield/ha was 739 kg and in the second spell at 150 DAP number of branches/plant was 7, number of flowers/plant was 34, single flower weight was 5.4 g and total flower yield/ha was 256 kg. In Mine-I, during in the project to identify suitable flower crops for mine-spoils, Jasmine cv. Ramanathapuram local produced 19 flowers /plant, 8g flower yield/plant and total yield of 31 kg/ha at 14 months after planting. In rose, cv. Andhra red produced more number of branches/plant (10), number of flowers/plant (3), single flower weight (3.4 g) and flower yield/month/320 m 2 (850 Nos) as compared to other varieties at 14 months after planting. In the year in Season I at Mine-I, a field experiment on nutrient management for higher productivity of maize var. Co 1was conducted. Application of NPK at 150 % of the RDF combined with tonnes each of FYM, PM, vermicompost, sheep and goat manure recorded higher plant height (245 cm),cob weight (109 g), DMP (108 g/plant) and grain yield of 2790 kg/ha. In sorghum, fresh shoot weight of 294 g/plant, DMP of g/plant, stubble dry weight of 15.4 g, root dry weight of 24.5 g, root length of 21.7 cm and ear-head length of 25.9 cm were recorded (Fig.18). Red gram var.vbn 1 recorded maximum plant height of 72.5 cm, number of seeds/pod of 4.0, number of pods/plant of 45.0, fresh shoot weight of g/plant and DMP of 26.3 g/plant at harvest. At harvest stage cowpea var. Co 2 recorded maximum plant height of 55.6 cm, number of pods/plant of 24.6, pod yield of 35.0 g/plant and grain yield of 21.5 g/plant (Fig.19). 28

33 29

34 In season II, , in maize at the harvest stage plant height of 174 cm, cob length of 17.9 cm, number of kernel rows/cob of 11.6, 100 kernel weight of 27 g, number of grains/cob of 241, wet fodder yield/plant of 214 g, root length of 19.0 cm and number of roots/plant of 53 were recorded. Plant height of 31.0 cm, number of matured pods of 14/plant, immature pods/plant of 13,total number of pods/plant of 27, pod length of 4.0 cm/pod, mature pod weight of 4g/plant, total root fresh weight of 33 g/plant, DMP of 13 g/plant and root length of 14.7 cm were recorded in black gram. In green gram, at harvest stage, the growth characters like plant height (7 cm), number of leaves/plant (8.0), total fresh weight (67g/plant) and the yield components like number of matured pods/plant (7), number of immature pods/plant (7), pod length (6.0 cm), number of seeds/pod (10) and grain yield/plant (4.0 g) were recorded (Fig.20). In season III ( ), in the study to assess the growth performance of rice in the mine-spoils, growth characters such as plant height (73.5 cm), number of leaves/tiller (4.0), number of tillers/clump (10), number of leaves/clump (211), total fresh weight (486 g/plant), length of panicle (15.6 cm) and root length (23 cm) were recorded at 60 DAT (Fig.21). In horse gram, at maturity stage, the number of branches (9.0/plant), total fresh weight (43g/plant), number of seeds/plant (66), seed weight (2.5 g/plant) and 100 seed weight (3.0g) were recorded. In the year during Season I, in Mine-I, maize hybrid CoH- 4 recorded better yield components of cob length (18.0 cm),cob wet weight (105.6 g), number of seeds (401/cob) and grain yield (2358 kg/ha) at harvest (Fig.22). In sorghum Co 28, the data on growth characters viz., plant height (232.2 cm), root length (25.8 cm), DMP (143.4 g/plant) and yield components like ear-head length (14.6 cm), wet ear-head weight (67.2 g) and yield (4448 kg/ha) were recorded at harvest stage (Fig.23). The cow pea variety Co 2 produced a green biomass yield of 183 g/plant, DMP of 62 g/plant, 28 pods/plant, 18 seeds per pod, pod yield of 42.5 g/ plant and grain yield of 1498 kg/ha at harvest (Fig.24). 30

35 31

36 32

37 33

38 The growth performance of red gram variety VBN 1 in the mine-spoils as reflected in the growth characters such as plant height (121.5 cm), number of branches/plant (20.0), green biomass (385 g/plant), yield components like number of pods/plant (204), number of seeds/pod (4.0) and grain yield (1171 kg/ha) were recorded (Fig.25). In the year during Season II in Mine-I, the maize hybrid CoH 4 recorded yield attributes of cob length of 32.3 cm, cob breadth of 15.6 cm, cob weight of 173 g, number of rows/cob of 12, grain dry yield/cob of 54 g, number of grains/cob of 283 and 100 grain weight of 16 g, Grain yield of 2424 kg/ha was recorded. The black gram variety T 9 performed well during this season. The variety produced a total grain yield of 958 kg/ha under optimum plant population of 33 plants/m 3. In green gram, the data on plant height (58.2 and 43.5 cm), root length (18 and 13 cm), total fresh weight (110 and 40 g), DMP (27 and 9 g/plant), number of matured pods/plant (26 and 12), matured pod weight (10 and 4g), pod length (6 and 6 cm), seed weight (3 and 3g) and shell weight (5 and 2 g) were recorded in optimum population of 33 plants/m 3 and high density plant population of 50 plants/m 3 respectively (Fig.26). In the year during Season II in Mine-I, rice variety ADT 36 (white ponni) was grown and at harvest stage data on plant height (79.5 cm), number of tillers/clump (24), productive tiller/clump (15), length of panicle (17.8 cm), number of leaves/clump (120), fresh weight without root (182 g/plant), root weight (68 g/plant), root length (25.4 cm), DMP (42 g/plant), 100 grain weight (15.8 g), grain yield/plant (17 g), straw yield (25.4 g/plant) and grain yield (3912 kg/ha) were recorded (Fig.27). 34

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level

More information

Fly Ash a Potential Source of Soil Amendment and a Component of Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply System

Fly Ash a Potential Source of Soil Amendment and a Component of Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply System Fly Ash a Potential Source of Soil Amendment and a Component of Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply System Mittra B. N. 1, S. Karmakar 2, D. K. Swain 3 and B. C. Ghosh 1 1 Indian Institute of Technology,

More information

AGRICULTURE & LIVESTOCK

AGRICULTURE & LIVESTOCK Annex VI: AGRICULTURE & LIVESTOCK A. Introduction 1. Agriculture is a dominant sector in the economy of all three tsunami-affected states and the union territory of Pondicherry. In Tamil Nadu, the most

More information

Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L.

Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L. Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L. Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi Fereshteh Ghanepasand Mohammad Taghi Darzi Dept. of Agronomy, Roudehen Branch, Islamic

More information

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda Maize Production in Uganda Farmers have improved maize yields from 1,000Kg/ha to 3,000-5,000 Kg/ha using the recommended technologies Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries

More information

Chapter 1 Exam Questions (Soil and Plant Nutrition)

Chapter 1 Exam Questions (Soil and Plant Nutrition) Chapter 1 Exam Questions (Soil and Plant Nutrition) Soil particle size is important. Which is a larger particle, sand or clay? Sand What are the components of soil and the relative percentage of each?

More information

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 15 IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which one is an oil yielding plant among the following? (a) Lentil (b) Sunflower (c) Cauliflower (d) Hibiscus 2. Which one is not a

More information

Overview. Soil ph. Soil Fertility or Soil Quality? Liebig s Law of Minimum

Overview. Soil ph. Soil Fertility or Soil Quality? Liebig s Law of Minimum Managing Soil Fertility in Organic Systems Overview Soil Fertility Soil Quality Reducing tillage Organic amendment Tools Soil testing Manure, compost, organic fertilizer analysis Forbes Walker, Environmental

More information

Nitrogen is an essential element for all living things. It is a key component of proteins.

Nitrogen is an essential element for all living things. It is a key component of proteins. MODULE NUMBER 1 NITROGEN AND TROPICAL AGRICULTURE SUMMARY As a key component of proteins, nitrogen is essential for all life. Nitrogen moves in a cycle from the atmosphere into the soil and plant system,

More information

Bounty Forage Sorghum

Bounty Forage Sorghum Bounty Forage Sorghum Sorghum bicolor x sudanese Bounty Forage Sorghum has been bought in as a replacement for the long standing Zulu 2. Bounty offers a new package with improved cold tolerance, early

More information

NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA

NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA Onua Amoah (CEO, Anuanom Industrial Bio Products Ltd., Ghana) Order of presentation Introduction Which feedstock for biodiesel

More information

A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES

A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES Narong Chinabut Office of Science for Land Development Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok

More information

Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report

Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report gardening.cornell.edu Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report 1. Be certain your soil ph is in the optimal range. 2. Add a nitrogen (N) source at the recommended rate. 3. Add a phosphorus

More information

AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY E. Subramanian 1, G. James Martin 2, E. Suburayalu 3 and R. Mohan 4 Abstract Field experiments were conducted at Central Farm, Coimbatore to develop

More information

Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P)

Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) FERTILIZERS Ideally, fertilizer recommendations should be based on the results of recent soil analysis done on representative soil samples. Where vegetable crops are to be grown for the first time, or

More information

POMEGRANATE NUTRITION. Dr. Mongi Zekri

POMEGRANATE NUTRITION. Dr. Mongi Zekri POMEGRANATE NUTRITION Dr. Mongi Zekri Fertilizer Requirements Fertilizer requirements for pomegranate trees are similar to those for citrus. CITRUS CITRUS POMEGRANATE Background information Best quality

More information

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USAGE INTRODUCTION

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USAGE INTRODUCTION ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USAGE INTRODUCTION The EU endeavours to follow the principles of sustainable agriculture and highlights the significance of soil protection. Our most important natural resource

More information

African Organic Agriculture Manual Booklet Series No. 4 Soil organic matter management HOW DO I IMPROVE THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER?

African Organic Agriculture Manual Booklet Series No. 4 Soil organic matter management HOW DO I IMPROVE THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER? African Organic Agriculture Manual Booklet Series No. 4 Soil organic matter management HOW DO I IMPROVE THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER? What do I need to know about soil organic mat Soil organic matter is essential

More information

mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching?

mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? nutrients release as leaves decompose leaf litter shallow roots take up Have you ever looked closely at a forest floor? It s covered in leaf litter - a nutrient-rich,

More information

Annual forage sorghum

Annual forage sorghum Annual forage sorghum Scientific name(s) Sorghum spp. annual forage hybrids Sorghum vulgare sweet sorghum Sorghum spp. hybrid sweet sudan grass hybrids Strengths Easy to establish Highly productive Good

More information

CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN

CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN CORN CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN NaanDanJain has many years experience with corn irrigation. Modern irrigation can increase the productivity of the crop for higher yields, using less water and fertilizers.

More information

The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture

The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture A good soil environment is vital for the growth and health of plants Tight and compacted soils may limit plant growth and cause disease problems.

More information

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas B-6053 04-01 Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas Charles Stichler and Mark McFarland* Crop fertilization is not an exact science. The soil is a dynamic, changing, and complex mixture of organic

More information

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant The Pursuit of Protein and Profit All agricultural enterprises, in essence, are based on the pursuit

More information

Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land

Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land JANUARY 2008 PRIMEFACT 735 Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land Dr Yin Chan Principal Research Scientist (Soils), Richmond Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) can improve soil health and

More information

Soil Quality Management and Assessment in Organic Agriculture

Soil Quality Management and Assessment in Organic Agriculture Soil Quality Management and Assessment in Organic Agriculture Varughese Philip Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore Soil Management Section Plant Health Laboratory Department Laboratories Group,

More information

Research Article A high yielding Lucerne variety CO 2

Research Article A high yielding Lucerne variety CO 2 Research Article A high yielding Lucerne variety CO 2 C. Babu 1, K. Iyanar 1, K. Velayudham 2 and A. Kalamani 1 1 Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics 2 Directorate of Crop

More information

NO-TILL AND NITROGEN FIXING INOCULANTS

NO-TILL AND NITROGEN FIXING INOCULANTS NO-TILL AND NITROGEN FIXING INOCULANTS Tom Wacek R & D Director for Urbana Laboratories St. Joseph, Missouri Nitrogen fixation is the utilization of the free gaseous nitrogen in the air by soil bacteria

More information

Soils, soil organisms, soil amendments, and their relation to plant health

Soils, soil organisms, soil amendments, and their relation to plant health Soils, soil organisms, soil amendments, and their relation to plant health Thanks to Craig Cogger Extension Soil Scientist WSU-Puyallup http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/soilmgmt Outline Introduction to soils

More information

United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL)

United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL) United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL) Guidelines and Tips for the Cultivation of Tissue Culture-Derived Date Palm Trees Introduction

More information

Soil Fertility and Amendments for Rangeland Reclamation

Soil Fertility and Amendments for Rangeland Reclamation Soil Fertility and Amendments for Rangeland Reclamation Jay Norton, Soil Fertility Specialist University of Wyoming http://uwyo.edu/soilfert BLRS Soils Workshop, May 30, 2009 soil amendment: Any material

More information

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type.

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type. Plant nutrients All plants require nutrients to survive and grow. Plants take nutrients from the air, the soil, and the water. Because you cannot see nutrients they are colourless gases or are like dust

More information

Demonstrate that rhizobial inoculation can increase the yield of legumes. Demonstrate the effect of different soils on the response to inoculation.

Demonstrate that rhizobial inoculation can increase the yield of legumes. Demonstrate the effect of different soils on the response to inoculation. MODULE 7: DEMONSTRATION 2 A POT EXPERIMENT TO DEMONSTRATE THE YIELD RESPONSE TO LEGUME INOCULATION PURPOSE Demonstrate that rhizobial inoculation can increase the yield of legumes. Demonstrate the effect

More information

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland Wheat in Poland Cereals are cultivated on 7859 kha, in which 22,9% is covered by wheat. Winter wheat monoculture in Poland Monoculture effects

More information

Kitchen Garden? What is a. Farmers from Mulsam in Jajarkot, Nepal, display vegetables from their kitchen gardens

Kitchen Garden? What is a. Farmers from Mulsam in Jajarkot, Nepal, display vegetables from their kitchen gardens The Farmers' Handbook - "Near The House 2", What is a Kitchen Garden? Farmers from Mulsam in Jajarkot, Nepal, display vegetables from their kitchen gardens A kitchen garden is where herbs and vegetables

More information

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant Nutrient requirements Five (5) critical aspects of importance for grapevine nutrition Which elements are required by the vine

More information

Appendix C. Re-vegetation and Rehabilitation Sub-Plan

Appendix C. Re-vegetation and Rehabilitation Sub-Plan Appendix C Re-vegetation and Rehabilitation Sub-Plan DRENNAN SOLAR ENERGY FACILITY REVEGETATION & REHABILITATION PLAN PRODUCED FOR ERM ON BEHALF OF SOLAIREDIRECT BY Simon.Todd@3foxes.co.za JUNE 2013 BACKGROUND

More information

The nutrient management plan comprises the following elements:

The nutrient management plan comprises the following elements: Experience gained while testing soil samples and advising on nitrogen nutrients management in Poland as an extension worker presentation of Agronom software NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLAN Nutrient management

More information

Soil Quality Restoration can reclaim compacted, marginal urban soils. Source: Iowa Stormwater Management Manual

Soil Quality Restoration can reclaim compacted, marginal urban soils. Source: Iowa Stormwater Management Manual City of South Portland Stormwater Manual Design Specifications Soil Quality Restoration Adopted from Iowa Stormwater Management Manual http://www.intrans.iastate.edu/pubs/stormwater/index.cfm Overview

More information

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT BASICS. Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT BASICS. Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT BASICS Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers What are Your Objectives for Soil and Crops? Increase soil organic matter Improve soil tilth Enhance nitrogen availability Increase

More information

GREENING OF THE FALLOWS bringing fallows into cultivation

GREENING OF THE FALLOWS bringing fallows into cultivation Page 1 GREENING OF THE FALLOWS bringing fallows into cultivation Vikas Nath Policy Analyst ActionAid URL: www.vikasnath.org In view of the concern to provide food security to the burgeoning millions in

More information

Soil Erosion. Physics. Grade LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION READINESS ACTIVITIES MATERIALS. Science

Soil Erosion. Physics. Grade LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION READINESS ACTIVITIES MATERIALS. Science Soil Erosion Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual reading DESCRIPTION Soil erosion is a major problem in Agriculture. Tonnes of soil are lost from fields every year. This not only reduces crop production,

More information

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL PAPER CONTENT

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL PAPER CONTENT Soil Testing is one of a range Animal Welfare Approved technical papers designed to provide practical advice and support to farmers. For more information visit www.animalwelfareapproved.org SHORT DESCRIPTION

More information

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Start Farming Introduction to Soils Fact 4 Determining Nutrient Applications for Small Farms Basic Calculations Conventional Generally production systems in Pennsylvania use a mixture of nutrient sources.

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

More information

The Basic Humic Acid Products

The Basic Humic Acid Products The Basic Humic Acid Products Over at least twelve years of actual field experience with an ample variety of humic acid formulations (some of them developed many years before) have given us a singular

More information

Sorghum Production under Spate Irrigation Systems. Dr. Frank van Steenbergen, Director MetaMeta December 14 th, 2016

Sorghum Production under Spate Irrigation Systems. Dr. Frank van Steenbergen, Director MetaMeta December 14 th, 2016 Sorghum Production under Spate Irrigation Systems Dr. Frank van Steenbergen, Director MetaMeta December 14 th, 2016 Sorghum is fifth most important cereal globally and feeds around 500 million people;

More information

Potting Mix Choices and Recommendations

Potting Mix Choices and Recommendations Potting Mix Choices and Recommendations Ted Bilderback Nursery Crops Specialist North Carolina State University There are no "one size fits all" recipes for growing containerized ornamental plants. However,

More information

Alternative Media and Mixes Suitable For Growing Container Vegetables

Alternative Media and Mixes Suitable For Growing Container Vegetables American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy 5 (): 4-9, 01 ISSN 1995-896X IDOSI Publications, 01 DOI: 10.589/idosi.aeja.01.5..110 Alternative Media and Mixes Suitable For Growing Container Vegetables E.N. Ogbodo

More information

ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY By RanaZulfiqar Ali Director Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad Comparison with World (2011-12) Item Sugarcane production 05 Area under sugarcane 05 Production

More information

SWEET SORGHUM FORAGE SORGHUM GRAIN SORGHUM HYBRID

SWEET SORGHUM FORAGE SORGHUM GRAIN SORGHUM HYBRID Summary SWEET SORGHUM FORAGE SORGHUM GRAIN SORGHUM HYBRID Advanced Agriculture around the globe! PROGRESS Agrar - 2012 SUMMARY SORGHUM Table of Content Page 1. What is Forage Sorghum?... 2. Sweet Sorghum

More information

Impact of Water Saving Irrigation Systems on Water Use, Growth and Yield of Irrigated Lowland Rice

Impact of Water Saving Irrigation Systems on Water Use, Growth and Yield of Irrigated Lowland Rice Agriculture, Environment and Food Security in the Context of Rice Impact of Water Saving Irrigation Systems on Water Use, Growth and Yield of Irrigated Lowland Rice W. M. W. Weerakoon, T. N. N. Priyadarshani,

More information

Efficacy of fly-ash based bio-fertilizers vs perfected chemical fertilizers in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Efficacy of fly-ash based bio-fertilizers vs perfected chemical fertilizers in wheat (Triticum aestivum) MultiCraft International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 7, 2010, pp. 31-35 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY www.ijest-ng.com 2010 MultiCraft Limited.

More information

Soil Amendment. Composting & Soil Health. By Monika Meulman Gardener & LEGS Chair. Soil Amendment 101

Soil Amendment. Composting & Soil Health. By Monika Meulman Gardener & LEGS Chair. Soil Amendment 101 Soil Amendment Composting & Soil Health By Monika Meulman Gardener & LEGS Chair What is Soil? - complex mix of minerals, organic matter, & life Main types of soil in garden - Clay - Silt - Sand - Loam

More information

Irrigated Winter Wheat

Irrigated Winter Wheat Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide Irrigated Winter Wheat Brad Brown, Soil Scientist Parma Research and Extension Center The following fertilizer guidelines are based on University of Idaho research that

More information

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

More information

Alternative Fertilisers and Soil Amendments

Alternative Fertilisers and Soil Amendments Alternative Fertilisers and Soil Amendments Brian Hughes, Rural Solutions, March 2012 Introduction A wide range of products are now available which are considered alternative fertilisers or products which

More information

SHAC Environmental Products

SHAC Environmental Products SHAC Environmental Products Reduced Odors, Reduced Organic Solids, Improved Water and Soil Quality, Improved Nutrient Transfer and Improved Bio Activity Naturally and Safely USING NATURES CYCLE TO PROMOTE

More information

Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management

Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 59-63 (2011) Printed in India Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management S. M. NAWLAKHE 1 AND D. D. MANKAR 2 Department

More information

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist The increasing acreage of hops in the Northeast has prompted the need for fertility guidelines

More information

Soil Erosion and Control

Soil Erosion and Control Soil Erosion and Control Erosion is by water and wind. Crudely, about 2/3 is by water and 1/3 by wind. The loss of topsoil means loss of soil fertility. Plant growth is reduced and the soil is even more

More information

The effect of flax seed inoculation by Azospirillum brasilense on flax yield and its quality

The effect of flax seed inoculation by Azospirillum brasilense on flax yield and its quality The effect of flax seed inoculation by Azospirillum brasilense on flax yield and its quality N. Mikhailouskaya Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk, Belarus ABSTRACT Field experiment

More information

Water security and Agroecology transform lives in the Drylands of Kenya

Water security and Agroecology transform lives in the Drylands of Kenya Water security and Agroecology transform lives in the Drylands of Kenya Introduction Drylands represent 40% of the Earth's surface, produce 44% of the world s food and are home to 80% of the world s poor.

More information

Population of livestock and poultry in India and Tamilnadu

Population of livestock and poultry in India and Tamilnadu Lec1: Prelusion-Significance of livestock and poultry in Indian economy-livestock and Poultry census - role of livestock and poultry in Indian agriculture. Livestock farming is an integral part of crop

More information

Pyrolysis Partners, LLC. Stephen Joseph was the chairman of Anthroterra Pty while this trial was conducted.

Pyrolysis Partners, LLC. Stephen Joseph was the chairman of Anthroterra Pty while this trial was conducted. Improving Yields of Strawberries Grown in South Florida Through Addition of Compost Biochar and Minerals Steffen D. Koehler, Pyrolysis Partners, LLC Ed Gerhardt, Pyrolysis Partners, LLC Stephen Joseph

More information

Water Pollution Graphing

Water Pollution Graphing Water Pollution Graphing Revised October 2011 PURPOSE: To describe and identify the link between land use activities within a watershed and water quality. SUMMARY: Students will evaluate the quality of

More information

Sunlight is the single most important element in fruit and vegetable gardening, and it is closely followed by Soil.

Sunlight is the single most important element in fruit and vegetable gardening, and it is closely followed by Soil. Sunlight is the single most important element in fruit and vegetable gardening, and it is closely followed by Soil. Choose a location with a southern exposure, away from buildings, trees and other objects

More information

WATER HARVESTING AND AQUACULTURE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION TO AQUACULTURE

WATER HARVESTING AND AQUACULTURE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION TO AQUACULTURE WATER HARVESTING AND AQUACULTURE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION TO AQUACULTURE 2 INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR AQUACULTURE AND AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS AUBURN UNIVERSITY 3 INTRODUCTION More than one-fourth

More information

Mud in the Water. www.agclassroom.org/ok. Oklahoma Academic Standards. Objective. Background. Resources Needed. Activities

Mud in the Water. www.agclassroom.org/ok. Oklahoma Academic Standards. Objective. Background. Resources Needed. Activities Mud in the Water Objective Students will learn about soil erosion and water pollution by building a demonstration model from pop bottles and observing the movement of pollutants from soil into water. Background

More information

Agriculture. Total marks 100. Section I Pages 2 22

Agriculture. Total marks 100. Section I Pages 2 22 2015 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION Agriculture Total marks 100 Section I Pages 2 22 General Instructions Reading time 5 minutes Working time 3 hours Write using black pen Draw diagrams using pencil

More information

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS overflow can lead into a permeable conveyance system to increase further the benefit and reduce the need for pipe systems. Pollutant removal rates have been shown to be high, with some pollutants being

More information

Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT

Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: Petroleum hydrocarbons Heavy metals Pesticides Solvents Soil pollutant any factor which deteriorates

More information

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR FISH PONDS

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR FISH PONDS WATER HARVESTING AND AQUACULTURE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR FISH PONDS INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR AQUACULTURE AND AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS AUBURN UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION Chemical fertilizers

More information

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Fauna- No particular type of fauna finds except snakes, hynus & Jackals, wild cat, wildhen etc. are found in and around the area.

Fauna- No particular type of fauna finds except snakes, hynus & Jackals, wild cat, wildhen etc. are found in and around the area. Environmental Management Plan Baseline information Topography:- The general slope of the area is towards east and gently sloping from 25 0 to 30 0 except southern part which is sloping towards south The

More information

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1 Site Selection / Soil / Water / Crop Planning / Equipment First Steps Site Selection Soil Water / Irrigation Crop Planning Equipment

More information

Irrigating with animal manure water

Irrigating with animal manure water Irrigating with animal manure water By Fanie Vorster ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering 1. Introduction Livestock manure is a resource that can be a valuable asset to your farming operation if

More information

National Environment Awareness Campaign(NEAC) 2014-2015. Theme

National Environment Awareness Campaign(NEAC) 2014-2015. Theme National Environment Awareness Campaign(NEAC) 2014-2015. Theme COMBATING DESERTIFICATION, LAND DEGRADATION AND DROUGHT Background Note Desertification is about land degradation: the loss of the land s

More information

UNDERSTANDING THE SOIL TEST REPORT

UNDERSTANDING THE SOIL TEST REPORT NC STATE UNIVERSITY Urban Horticulture Note No. 6 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Durham County Center 721 Foster Street Durham, North Carolina 27701 919-560-0525 Fax: 919-560-0530 www.ces.ncsu.edu/durham/

More information

Section 4 Soil Conservation

Section 4 Soil Conservation Section 4 Soil Conservation Key Concept Soil is a nonrenewable resource that can be endangered if it is used unwisely. What You Will Learn Soil is important for plants and animals and for the storage of

More information

Chapter A3. Features of soil

Chapter A3. Features of soil Chapter A3. Features of soil PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To introduce the general features of soils CHAPTER CONTENTS texture structure slaking and dispersion infiltration and permeability organic matter, ph

More information

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From?

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From? What Is Humic Acid? Humic and Fulvic acids are the final break-down constituents of the natural decay of plant and animal materials. These organic acids are found in pre-historic deposits. Humic matter

More information

Waterway Technote Drains

Waterway Technote Drains Waterway Technote Drains Contents Benefits of good drain practice 1 Are your drains healthy? 2 The Sustainable Dairying Water Accord 3 Planning drain maintenance 3 Fencing and clearing 3 Bank shaping (battering)

More information

What is Conservation Agriculture?

What is Conservation Agriculture? What is Conservation Agriculture? CA is a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurrently

More information

CITY OF LETHBRIDGE SECTION CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 TOPSOIL AND FINISH GRADING

CITY OF LETHBRIDGE SECTION CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 TOPSOIL AND FINISH GRADING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Material Supplied by Contractor/Developer.1 Contractor Developer will supply topsoil delivered to job site. 1.2 Related Work.1 Preparation to subgrade

More information

Examples for Land Use Action Plan and Mapping Exercise

Examples for Land Use Action Plan and Mapping Exercise A Land Use Action Plan helps to assess areas of food safety actions that should be addressed because of contamination risks, and it describes a set of steps that will reduce these risks. The following

More information

Introduction Ask the members whether one of them uses compost in his/her garden. Make him/her explain why and how it is used.

Introduction Ask the members whether one of them uses compost in his/her garden. Make him/her explain why and how it is used. Compost Information for VAG Leaders Preparation: - In this factsheet, the members will learn about compost: what is it? How to make it? What can be composed? - The leader must be sure to bring the materials

More information

Growth through genetics, prosperity through innovation

Growth through genetics, prosperity through innovation Growth through genetics, prosperity through innovation At Advanta, we use genetics to leapfrog into the future and innovation to usher in prosperity. The first Indian multinational seed company with a

More information

FARMING FOR THE FUTURE How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System

FARMING FOR THE FUTURE How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System european fertilizer manufacturers association Global trends in population growth (Population 1000 million),

More information

Advanced Soil Organic Matter Management

Advanced Soil Organic Matter Management Extension Bulletin E-3137 New February 2011 Advanced Soil Organic Matter Management Managing Soils Soil organic matter (SOM) is the foundation for productive soil. It promotes healthy crops, supplies resources

More information

Nature Farming in Myanmar C. C. Myint Institute of Agriculture, Pyinmana, The Union of Myanmar

Nature Farming in Myanmar C. C. Myint Institute of Agriculture, Pyinmana, The Union of Myanmar Nature Farming in Myanmar C. C. Myint Institute of Agriculture, Pyinmana, The Union of Myanmar Abstract Present agricultural systems in Myanmar follow the traditional methods which utilize the available

More information

Drip Fertigation in Horticultural crops

Drip Fertigation in Horticultural crops Drip Fertigation in Horticultural crops G. Sri Krishna, Research Associate, Agricultural Research Station, Utukur, Kadapa - 516003 Mail: srikrishna12@rediffmail.com Application of Fertilizers to plantation,

More information

VALUE OF MANURE AS A FERTILIZER Ray Massey, Economist University of Missouri, Commercial Ag Program

VALUE OF MANURE AS A FERTILIZER Ray Massey, Economist University of Missouri, Commercial Ag Program VALUE OF MANURE AS A FERTILIZER Ray Massey, Economist University of Missouri, Commercial Ag Program This paper discusses the value of manure as a soil amendment/fertilizer source. It does not attempt to

More information

Importance of Nitrogen in Soils John Sawyer, Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University

Importance of Nitrogen in Soils John Sawyer, Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University Importance of Nitrogen in Soils John Sawyer, Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University Nitrogen (N) cycling in soils is a complex mix of chemical and biological processes. Add

More information

MICRO IRRIGATION A technology to save water

MICRO IRRIGATION A technology to save water MICRO IRRIGATION A technology to save water 1. Introduction Efficient utilization of available water resources is crucial for a country like, India, which shares 17% of the global population with only

More information

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil.

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil. Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You

More information

Using composting beds to treat acidity in saline drain water

Using composting beds to treat acidity in saline drain water Government of Western Australia Department of Water Using composting beds to treat acidity in saline drain water Introduction Acidic saline water is common in drains used to manage shallow saline watertables

More information

Chemical nutrient analysis of different composts (Vermicompost and Pitcompost) and their effect on the growth of a vegetative crop Pisum sativum

Chemical nutrient analysis of different composts (Vermicompost and Pitcompost) and their effect on the growth of a vegetative crop Pisum sativum Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2011, 1 (1):116-130 Chemical nutrient analysis of different composts (Vermicompost and Pitcompost) and their

More information

GardenNotes #241 Soil Amendments

GardenNotes #241 Soil Amendments Colorado Master Gardener sm Program Colorado Gardener Certificate Training Colorado State University Extension GardenNotes #241 Soil Amendments Outline: Terms, page 1 Managing soil texture and structure,

More information