Application of ATHENA/RELAP to Fusion Loss-of-cooling Accidents

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1 Application of ATHENA/RELAP to Fusion Loss-of-cooling Accidents Brad Merrill Fusion Safety Program, INEEL 2000 Relap5 International Users Seminar Jackson Hole, WY, September 12-14, 2000

2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE Overview of proposed fusion reactor designs Code capabilities for fusion loss-of-cooling accidents ITER LOCA experience Code comparison with fusion specific LOCA experiments Conclusions

3 Cross-sectional View of ARIES-AT Li17Pb83 Self-cooled Fusion Reactor Design

4

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6 REQUIRED CODE CAPABILITES Fluids other than water (cryogens to liquid metals) Heat transfer for high heat flux (up to 20 MW/m 2 ), single side heating components Accurate pressurization and critical flow predictions for ingress of coolant into a vacuum environment MHD pressure drop predictions for liquid metal coolants Coolant freezing

7 ATHENA a MODIFIED RELAP5-3D ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) A major difference between the two codes is the number of fluids which can be modeled by ATHENA Water Helium Lithium Potassium Hydrogen Lead-Bismuth Heavy water Sodium Sodium-Potassium Lithium-Lead Nitrogen Flibe Liquid metal MHD pressure drop & convective heat transfer correlations High heat flux heat transfer correlations for one-sided heat loads Extensively used by the EU HT in ITER divertor, blanket and vacuum vessel loss-of-cooling analyses (stand alone and as part of ISAS)

8 ITER EXPERIENCE WITH LOCAs Design basis LOCA required suppression system to meet 500 kpa vacuum vessel (VV) design limit Predicted maximum pressure of 380 kpa in 21 seconds, with suppression system opening at 200 kpa Safety issue is mobilization of activated tungsten dust and tritium in VV, no release during DBA Beyond design basis LOCA was a small break with an assumed VV breach (bypass event), release did not exceed non-evacuation goal of 1 Rem at the site boundary Results sensitive to two-phase choked flow and heat transfer models

9 JAPANESE INGRESS OF COOLANT EXPERIMENT (ICE)

10

11 FRENCH EVITA EXPERIMENT Pressurization gas inlet P = 7 bar to P = 40 bar Pressurizer Steam fromvapor phase, 7bar, Flow rate from 2.6 kg/h to 13 kg/h Level control Pressure from 7 bar to 40 bar, 165 C Flow meters Steam fromliquid phase, Pressure from 7bar to 40 bar, Flow rate from 10.3 to 51.6 kg/h Liquid nitrogen tank V=1200 liters Pmax. = 2.9 bar Demineralized water inlet pipe Heating system Internal surface temp. : 165 C Elelectric heater 15 kw Drain line Vacuum vessel V= 0,21 m 3 P = from 0 to 5 bar Available flow: 500 l/h under 2 bar Preheat pipe Vacuum pump Cryogenic plate A = 0,1 m 2 T = C Steam injector (calibrated nozzle) Control-command: Temperature Pressure Vessel heating system Thermal insulation Weighing device Leaktight penetration Optical telemeter (Laser) Nitrogen flow control and removed power measurement Q = 15 to 250 l/h

12 Pre-test Calculations Modelling of the EVITA Facility European Colleague s Experience Dear Brad, according to our discussion in Cadarache relating to the benchmark case5 results (I send you in attachment the description) there was one point that it seemed to influence my low flow rate from the break: it was very little (1.8 g/s) compared with those obtained by the other colleagues (Melcor 70 g/s, Relap 15 g/s, Consen and Trac 7 g/s) and it was mainly steam. cylinder diam. = m height = m VACUUM VESSEL P 0 =500 Pa Volume = 0.21 m 3 injection nozzle elev. 0.9 m elev. 0.7 m injection pipe length : 5 m diam. : m K=2.5 (5 elbows) elev. 0.7 m cylinder diam. = 0.38 m length = 0.8 m PRESSURIZER P 0 = 0.7 MPa T 0 = 165 C Total volume = m 3 Initial water volume = m 3

13 Colleague s Model Viewed with GUI

14 Model elevation and orientation problems fix

15 0.008 EVITA INJECTION FLOW COMPARISON New EVITA model Flow Rate (kg/s) Original EVITA model Time (s)

16 CONCLUSIONS ATHENA has been developed for fusion LOCA, and has be successfully used in the ITER international design study Code comparison with data from ICE and EVITA presently underway with large spread in code predictions New GUI feature for ATHENA makes life easier Results of code validation will be presented at next IRUG meeting

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