Data Destruction for Optical Discs

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1 Data Destruction for Optical Discs Tom D. Milster University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center 1630 East University Blvd., Tucson AZ Phone: FAX: Presented at the THIC Meeting at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder CO July 18, 2006

2 Outline I. Introduction to Optical Data Storage II. Data Destruction Motivation and levels of destruction Experimental results with different types of dyes Contrast reversal in Phthalocyanine dye III. Pulsed Data Destruction Justification for pulsed operation Experimental results when Destruction characterization of data in CD-R discs in response to a high power laser beam Recent results with a pulsed high power laser system IV. Pulsed Laser Destroyer Device System configuration and CGH focus servo V. Conclusion 2

3 Writing On a Spinning Disc (Single Layer) input data stream Encoder/ modulator Numerical aperture = NA = sin θ storage medium current drive signal newly written data θ laser source illumination optics intense light beam (half angle = θ) scan spot Input data stream is encoded into a drive signal for the laser Laser pulses energy through the illumination optics Light beam is focused to an intense laser spot Spot alters medium as disc rotates Introduction 3

4 Reading Data From a Spinning Disc (Single Layer) output data stream amplifier/ decoder current signal detectors storage medium servo/data optics reflected light data to be read θ laser source (low and constant power level) beam splitter illumination optics low-power light beam Low-power laser beam scans data pattern on spinning disc. Signal energy is directed with a beam splitter to detectors. Detectors produce a current signal, which is then decoded into user data. scan spot Introduction 4

5 Commercial Sector Technology Trends clear side CD 1.2 mm center hole * (clear) data layer DVD, HD-DVD 1.2 mm Blu-Ray, also called BD (without 1.2 mm cartridge) 0.6 mm 0.6 mm 0.1 mm clear side * 1 (clear) data layer 1 (A,B) bonding agent data layer 2 (A,B) * 2 (clear) clear side clear side protective layer (clear) data layer (A,B) * Substrate also serves as protective layer Introduction 5

6 Planar Optical Data Storage Laboratory Description and Objective Description: Investigate important aspects of recording, reading and destroying data on planar s, like CD, DVD and BD. Objective: Center of excellence for secure data destruction and data recovery on optical media. Optical disc destruction device Approach Classify levels of erasure according to difficulty of recovery. Identify and evaluate data destruction techniques and devices. Test media and evaluate samples as requested by industry and sponsors. Provide consulting services to sponsors. Update sponsors on new technology activity in the field. Contact Tom D. Milster, PI (520) Introduction 6

7 Motivation: Secure Destruction Minimizes Risk (Sensitive data are commonly written to CD-type media.) Method of Destruction Toss in trash can Erase in commercial drive Break in fragments Chop or Knurl (pieces smaller than 5 mm) High-power destroy Incinerate Data Recovery Use commercial drive Use commercial drive + software Use custom spin stand (G3000) Very difficult, must use microscope + custom software, very low probability of success. Impossible Impossible Data Destruction 7

8 Recording Mechanism in CD-R Writable Media Dye / Reflector Feature Dye is bleached (decomposed) and gas bubbles are formed. Substrate Feature Melting of polycarbonate: Melted polycarbonate resin expands into the dye layer. Deformation of groove side walls. AFM scan image of data marks 2.0µm lacquer lacquer lacquer reflector reflector reflector dye dye dye bubble bleached dye Data Destruction expanded groove-wall deformation 8

9 Cyanine Dye Laser beam exposure = 4.3 nj/um 2 Optical Image exposed unexposed area exposed area AFM measurement Before exposure 25nm 25nm 160nm 70nm dye <data mark> <no data mark> Data Destruction After exposure 13nm 10nm <data mark> 70nm 60nm <no data mark> dye 9

10 Azo Dye Laser beam exposure = 2.8 nj/um 2 Optical Image exposed unexposed area exposed area AFM measurement Before exposure 20nm 61nm 100nm dye 20nm After exposure <data mark> 20nm 49nm <no data mark> 84nm bubbles dye 13nm Data Destruction <data mark> <no data mark> 10

11 Phthalocyanine Dye Laser beam exposure = 2.2, 9.4 nj/um 2 Optical Image EX = 2.2 nj/um 2 EX = 9.4 nj/um 2 exposed AFM measurement EX = 9.4 nj/um 2 Before exposure 36nm 200nm 139nm dye 58nm After exposure <data mark> 17nm 109nm <no data mark> 99nm dye 15nm Data Destruction <data mark> <no data mark> 11

12 Contrast Reversal in Phthalocyanine Dye Hypothesis for contrast reversal on dye/ samples phthalocyanine dye at the recorded data marks is not fully inert and responds to additional optical energy, resulting in higher visual-wavelength reflectance of the dye. verified by observing dark recorded data marks turning bright upon laser-exposure through a microscope objective. Contrast enhancement on -only samples due to mixing of the dye and the material. confirmed when exposure to a high-power laser beam caused sparking in -only samples. Brightness in data marks Before exposure After exposure Optical images of boundary betw. unexposed and exposed areas Dye/ sample dye Dark Bright unexposed area exposed area Substrate-only sample unexposed area Bright Bright exposed area Data Destruction 12

13 Data Signals and Histograms (Phthalocyanine) The analog signal is retrieved from a phthalocyanine-dye disc with a CD player. Data streams of 2 M bytes are captured using a 8-bit high-speed digitizer (NI PCI-5112) Histograms of pits are generated from the digitized signals. Before destruction After exposure to intense light TES FES DATA expanded DATA TES: tracking error signal FES: focus error signal pits--c:\erasure\data_for_doe\040616_unerased_ bin--> pits--c:\erasure\data_for_doe\040616_doe5_ bin--> This bar is for all bins longer than Data Destruction

14 Images with 780nm LED (Phthalocyanine) White light Data marks are dark Lands are brighter than grooves. Once exposed, data marks turn brighter than the lands. 780nm LED Data marks are still dark Lands are darker than grooves. Once exposed, data marks are not observable. < Dye/ > < Substrate > < Dye/ > < Substrate > Unexposed area Exposed area Unexposed area Exposed area * No visible, IR filters used Data Destruction 14

15 Color-Filtered Images (Phthalocyanine) < Dye/ sample > Kodak filters No filter Exposed area Unexposed area Exposed area Blue Green Red Red filter Green filter Both unexposed and exposed data marks are not observable in the red-filtered image due to high red light absorption in dye. Data are still visible with the green and blue light. Blue filter Data may be retrievable from the exposed phthalocyanine discs using a modified CD readout system with a green or blue laser may retrieve. * Exposure dose= 5.6 nj/ µm 2 ** Image contrast adjusted. Data Destruction 15

16 Observations from Destruction Experiment and a New Approach When a Phthalocyanine disc is exposed to a high power laser beam Decreased data and pregroove modulation. Data marks are visible with a microscope. Contrast reversal on the dye/ samples: due to partially inert phthalocyanine dye. Contrast enhancement on the samples: due to mixing of dye and polycarbonate. Once exposed to intense laser light, retrievable not with a conventional CD reader, but with a modified CD readout system with a green or blue laser. We expect that data destruction operation with laser pulsing at a proper frequency will make the data on the disc irretrievable. Need to determine the minimum track length (smallest coherent patch) required to recover any bit of information. Pulse the laser so that the exposed and unexposed track lengths are smaller than the smallest coherent patch. Then, it becomes impossible to recover any information from the disc although data marks are visible with a microscope. Data Destruction 16

17 Justification for Pulsing Data Destruction A statistical experiment is performed to determine the minimum track length required to recover partial or complete ATIP* information using a modified commercial CD drive. For near-zero probability of ATIP recovery and less than 5 contiguous user bytes after descrambling, the smallest coherent patch < 5mm. * ATIP: Absolute Time In Pregroove The results obtained in this experiment are consistent with the microscope data experiment. Pulsed Data Destruction 17

18 Pulsed Destruction Experiment Pulsed operation (square wave, f=10, 30, 40 khz) Size of the focused beam : 75um Phthalocyanine dye * Image contrast adjusted exposed area unexposed area f = 10kHz f = 30kHz f = 40 khz 60um 20um 12um 18um tracks scan line beam * Image contrast adjusted Pulsed Data Destruction * Image contrast adjusted 18

19 Laser Destroyer using CGH Focus Sensor Quad-Cell Detector Focus Servo Disc Lens Diffracted beams on detector A B D C 3 rd 2 nd 1 st 0 th -1 st -2 nd -3 rd CGH s k r Beam from disc p High power laser diode 4W, 808nm Collimator lens Polarizing Beam splitter Power monitoring detector Quarter-wave plate Objective lens Actuator CGH Focus lens A D Concept of CGH Focus Servo too close B C A D FES = + in focus FES - B C A D Focus Error Signal ( A + C) ( B+ D) ( A + C) + ( B+ D) position error too far 3 rd order diffraction beams on Quad-cell detector B C 19

20 Pulsed Laser Destroyer (PLD) < Mechanical drawing of the PLD system > < Picture of the assembled PLD system > 20

21 Beams at Detector Plane FES = ( A+ C) ( B+ D) ( A+ C) + ( B+ D) Quad-cell detector 3 rd A B A B A B D C D C D C 2 nd Out of focus In focus Out of focus 1 st 0 th CGH Focus Servo 21

22 Video Clips of Focused Beams 3 rd 2 nd 1 st 0 th CGH Focus Servo 22

23 Conclusions Three major types of recording media used in CD-Rs are characterized in response to a high power laser beam. Data on phthalocyanine-dye discs remain optically visible after exposure to intense laser light. The readout signal from the exposed disc is at a noise level. Possibly retrievable with a modified CD readout system with a green or blue laser. By pulsed destruction operation, a disc will have alternating exposed and unexposed areas. No modified readout system would recover any data. No software algorithms with a microscope can be developed to recover data. We are building a compact pulsed laser destroyer system that works for CD, DVD and BDs. Future work Test the feasibility of secure data destruction: DVD±R and Bluray discs. 23

24 Publication Conference Papers: T. Choi and T. Milster, Change in data marks and groove structure of CDrecordable discs in response to a high power laser beam, ISOM/ODS 05, Optical Society of America Topical meeting on Optical Data Storage, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4090, pp , Honolulu, Hawaii, July S. K. Kasanavesi, T. Milster, D. Felix and T. Choi, Data Recovery from a Compact Disc Fragment, in Optical Data Storage 2004, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5380, pp , Monterey, September Journal papers: T. Choi and T. Milster, Change in Data Marks and Groove Structures of Compact Recordable discs in Response to a High Power Laser Beam, Optical Engineering, Vol. 45, No. 6, June

25 Acknowledgements Warren Bletscher (technician) Taeyoung Choi (Ph. D student) David Flex (technician) Del Hansen (technician) Paul Hauser (undergraduate student) Sashi Kasanavesi (MS student - graduated) 25

26 Static Measurement Method Static measurement instruments used to investigate the mechanisms of data mark formation and erasure. Optical microscope (objective lens:150x, NA=0.9) Atomic force microscope (AFM) Sample preparation Dye + Substrate sample: The lacquer and reflector layers are removed using an air-pressure. Substrate-only sample: The dye is washed off using alcohol after the lacquer and reflector layers are blown off. CD-R structure dye < Dye + Substrate sample > < Substrate-only sample > Data Destruction 26

27 Pulsed Laser Destroyer (PLD) 27

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