1 International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research (IJHRMR) ISSN Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN BOKARO STEEL PLANT (SAIL): AN EVALUATION LEENA TOPPO Research Scholar, Faculty of Commerce, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India ABSTRACT Maximizing performance is a priority for most of the organizations today and performance management is a part of a link between organizational strategy and results. Many organizations have shifted from employee s performance appraisal system to employee s performance management system. SAIL is one of the companies. The study highlights the reasons of change and focuses on the evaluation of executives perception towards their performance management system in relation to their age, service length and grade demographics. The perception of executives has been collected through the questionnaire, contains 16 variables regarding awareness of system, planning for performance, convenience of system, transparency in rating system, role of EPMS, about better system, reasons of not to maintain daily records of events. The study reveals that the executives have significant difference in perception regarding most of the factors of EPMS in relation to their age and service length demographic variables. KEYWORDS: Performance, Management, SAIL, BSL, Executives INTRODUCTION Employee performance appraisal is a very critical mechanism of HRD for systematic appraisal of employee s performance that takes necessary steps to remove the short comings of their performance, thus discovering the hidden potential of the employee. In the present highly competitive environment, organizations have to ensure peak performance of their employees continuously in order to compete at the market place. The success of an organization will therefore depend on its ability to measure accurately the performance of its members and use it objectively to optimize them as a vital resource (Pattanayak, 2009). Performance of an individual can be defined as the record of outcomes produced as specified job functions or activities during a specified time period (Bernardin, 2007). Appraisal is the evaluation of worth, quality or merit, so performance appraisal of employees means the evaluation of their performance performed during a certain period of time. In the organizational context, performance appraisal is a systematic evaluation of personnel by supervisors or others familiar with their performance (Prasad, 2006). In the late 20 th century, a great change in approaches to performance appraisal systems across the world took place. There has been a great realization that it is more important to focus on defining, planning and managing performance than merely appraising performance (Pareek & Rao, 2006). Performance appraisal is the traditional approach to evaluate the performance of an employee. Many people think that performance management (also known as performance development ) is a new name given to well-established performance appraisal. There is no difference between the two (Prasad, 2005) as most of the organizations take performance management synonymously with performance appraisal. But still yet performance management is believed to be clearly more than just a new name for performance appraisal (Edmonstone, 1996). The increased competitive nature of the economy and rapid changes in the external environment has forced many organizations to shift from reactive performance appraisals to the proactive performance management to boost productivity and improve organizational performance (Nayab, 2011). Most organizations prefer to call their systems as
2 88 Leena Toppo performance management system rather than performance appraisal system. This is most welcome change since the last fifteen years (Pareek & Rao, 2006). EPMS in BSL In the year 1985, the Chairman of India Steel Authority of India (SAIL) found that SAIL s manpower is its biggest strength but it has not been put to full use. A performance appraisal system was designed with development and differentiation of performance as objectives called as Executive Performance Appraisal System (EPAS) in the year 1986 (Ashokvardhan, 1987). This system was HRD oriented system which requires offices to identify tasks and targets every years, anticipate constraints, plan actions to overcome them, review performance, identify developmental needs and counsel poor performers to help them to develop. EPAS was continued till March The EPAS, although designed very well was not implemented well enough in letters and in spirit. Over a period of time, the system got eroded and inefficiency crept in. Since then SAIL has adopted a new system called as Executive Performance Management System (EPMS). As all the integrated unit of SAIL practice the EPMS, so also in Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL). EPMS aims at assessing the performance, potential, competencies and values of executives up to E7 grade and also performance and development planning on the basis of this assessment. To integrate the goals of company and individual through a process of performance of assessment linked to achievement of organizational objectives started practicing the new system. Pareek and Rao (2006) explained well the need of changes of EPAS to EPMS as follows: The system was not keeping up timeliness too well: The KPAs began getting delayed and the PRP sessions began to get irregular. The system was not too well in fulfilling its objectives: The Reporting and the reviewing officers had started using system as a tool for giving promotions. The development aspects of the appraisals system like the system of job rotation for high and low performers and training and development eroded. Forced Distribution: The criteria of forced distribution had resulted in the grading of the retiring executives as C. This grading was not based on the individual performance but on the year of promotion or retirement of an executive. This paved way for non-transparency. There was a problem of central tendency: Due to non-transparency, the Reporting and Reviewing officers and the HODs were completely in darkness about the final grading. Because of this reason, they began giving grades in totality without giving much consideration to the individual components of the assessment forms. Moreover, today SAIL exists in a world that is substantially different from what it used to be in eighties and nineties. The company needs to be in tune with changing world, new opportunities and challenges of globalization. Therefore, in order to take care of the above mentioned issues and to bring in features like transparency, differential between good and bad performers, development of executives, recognizing future leaders of the company, succession planning for potential etc. SAIL decided to review or change the system on the basis of feedback about the then existing EPAS. In 2007, inputs from various reviews conducted in past, interaction at plant/unit per level with cross section of executives, executive associations, top management and study of best practices of other organizations worldwide in PMS were used to review and design the new Executives performance Management System (EPMS).
3 Performane Appraisal System to Performance Management System in Bokaro Steel Plant (Sail): An Evaluation 89 The EPMS attempts to address the current needs of the company for building leadership among SAIL executives by encouraging the performers and shunning non-performers, rewarding performers, taking to task the nonperformers, and to some extent, bringing in transparency. OBJECTIVE The present study is focused on the EPMS in BSL. Executives perception is one of the important factors to examine the performance appraisal system, so the study centred on the evaluation of executives perception regarding their performance appraisal system. To evaluate executives perception towards the employee performance appraisal system in relation to age, service length and grade demographic. In order to fulfil this objective the following hypothesis has been tested: Ho: There is no significant difference in the executives perception level towards the employee s performance appraisal system in BSL. METHODOLOGY Scope of Study Type of research: Present study is Descriptive in nature. Place of study: The present study aims to bring out effectiveness of T&D programme in Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL), an integrated unit of Steel Authority of India (SAIL). Type and Source of Data Primary and Secondary data has been used for the present study. Secondary data has been collected from the personnel manual of BSL and SAIL. Primary data has been collected by the well structured questionnaire. Most of the constructs are measured on the five point Likert s scale and some are open ended questions to know the suggestions given by the employees. Sampling Sampling Method: Proportionate stratified random sampling method has been used. Sample size & Techniques: The sample size has been taken as 360. Toro Yamane s formula has been used to determine the size of sample as the total population of employees is known. n = N/ [1+N (e) 2 ] n= sample size, N=Population size, e = sampling error (.05) Sample size = 3119/ [ (.05) 2 = 355 Analysis Design Descriptive analysis: Mean, Standard Deviation, Percentage, Pie Chart Inferential Analysis: Chi-square Test, One Way ANOVA, Post hoc test has been used to find the significant pairs etc. Respondents Profile
4 90 Leena Toppo Table 1: Respondents Profile According to their, Service Length and Demographic No. of Demographic Variables Groups Groups Executives in yrs. No % 1 Up to Total in yrs. No. % 1 Up to Above Total No. % 1 E 1 - E 3 (Junior Management) E 4 E 5 (Middle Management) E 6 E 7 (Senior Management) Total Questionnaire To examine and evaluate the perception of employees towards employees performance appraisal system in BSL a well structured questionnaire has been used, the questionnaire consists of 16 variables regarding awareness of system, planning for performance, convenience of system, transparency in rating system, role of EPMS, about better system, reasons of not to maintain daily records of events. Most of the questions are measured in five point scale and open ended question to know employees suggestions. FINDINGS Table No 1. presents executives perception regarding their performance appraisal system practiced in BSL. Table 2: The Employee s Performance Appraisal System Factors Variables Demography 1.Awareness of system 2.Planning for performance 3.Convenience Awareness of executives regarding old appraisal system (EPAS) Awareness regarding New appraisal system (EPMS) Understanding about vision and your work Understanding about KPAs Development plans are based on your performance planning Online system is convenient for you to get feedback and to rate your subordinate Are you able to maintain daily recording of events Total Av. Mean Value Significant t/f/χ 2, L.S p pair (df) 6.25 P < 0.01 S 1vs2, 2vs P > VHS 1vs2, 2vs P< VHS 1vs2, 1vs P > 0.05 NS P < 0.05 S 1vs P > 0.05 NS P < 0.01 HS 1vs P > 0.05 NS P < 0.01 HS 1vs2, 1vs P < 0.05 S 2vs P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P < VHS 1vs2, 1vs P < VHS All 8.5 P < VHS 1vs2, 1vs3 0.04, P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P < 0.05 S 1vs P < 0.01 HS 1vs3, 2vs P > 0.05 NS -
5 Performane Appraisal System to Performance Management System in Bokaro Steel Plant (Sail): An Evaluation 91 4.Transparency in rating system 5.Role of EPMS Fairness of reporting & reviewing officer s rating on your performance Transparency of EPMS Reporting & reviewing officers assessment is similar to your self assessment EPMS assessment helps you to develop leadership talent EPMS plays great role in the performance improvement of team and the organization Your performance plays great role in your promotion Table 2- Contd., Service length P < VHS 1vs2, 2vs P < VHS 1vs2, 2vs P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P < VHS 1vs3, 2vs P > 0.05 NS P< 0.01 HS 1vs2, 1vs P < VHS 1vs2, 2vs P < VHS 1vs3, 2vs P > 0.05 NS P < 0.01 HS 1vs3, 2vs P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P > 0.05 NS P < 0.05 S 1vs P < 0.01 HS 1vs2, 1vs P > 0.05 NS - Table No.2 presents the employee s perception regarding five factors of executives performance appraisal system in BSL, in relation to three demographic variables i.e. age, service length and grade. Executive s perception has been shown with thirteen variables divided under five factors of appraisal system i.e. Awareness of system, Planning for performance, Convenience of system, Transparency of system and Role of EPMS. Statistical analysis shows the executives average perception score were above satisfactory level in most of the taken factors in relation to all demographic variables i.e. age, service length and grade, only regarding maintaining the daily recordings of events under the convenience of system factor, executives were found not satisfied. According to age and service length demographic there were significant difference have found in executives perception regarding most of the taken variables whereas according to the grade demographic there were no significant difference in executives perception regarding most of the taken variables. The findings of analysis are explained below: The executives of middle age (41-50 years) group and middle service length (16-30 years) group are significantly more aware of EPAS than the other age and service length groups. In the relation with grade demographic the executives of junior management level (E 1 -E 3 ) were significantly less aware than the other management levels. Regarding planning for performance, the executives of middle age (41-50 years) group have significantly better understanding about organisational vision/their work and their KPAs. According to their grade groups the executives of junior management level (E 1 -E 3 ) have significantly less understanding about the organizational vision/their work. The executives of youngest age (up to 40 years) group and shortest service length (up to 15 years) group were not satisfied with their development plans. According to grade demographic, junior management level (E 1 -E 3 ) have significantly less average satisfaction about their development plans are based on their performance planning than the executives of other management levels. The executive of oldest age (51-60 years) group and longest service length (above 30 years) group have significantly high less able to maintain daily records of events, than the other age and service length groups. The executives of middle age (41-50 years) group and middle service length (16-30 years) group were significantly less satisfied regarding fairness of reporting and reviewing officers rating on their performance. The executives with highest service length (above 30 years) have more average satisfaction score regarding transparency of EPMS than the executives of other service length groups. The executives of youngest age (up to
6 92 Leena Toppo 40 years) group have significantly more average score of perception regarding their self assessment is similar to their reporting and reviewing officer s assessment and in case of service length and grade the executives of middle service length (16-30 years) group and senior management level (E 6 -E 7 ) have significantly less average perception score. Regarding the EPMS helps in developing leadership qualities there were significant difference in executives perception only according to service length demographic. The executives of longest service length (above 30 years) group have more average perception score than the executives of other service length groups. The executives of youngest age (up to 40 years) and shortest service length (up to 15 years) group have more average satisfaction score than the executives of other age and service length groups, regarding their performance plays great role in your promotion. Reasons of Not Able to Maintain Daily Records of Events The reasons of not able to maintain daily records of events which are used in assessment of executives performance: out of total (360) executive respondents, 31.5 % executives were responded that they were not able to maintain daily records of events. Three major reasons were highlighted behind not able to maintain daily records of events of executives are work load, luck of computer knowledge and lack of computers. Apart from these reasons other reasons were included under head other. Table 3: Distribution of Executives According to the Existence of Reasons for Not Maintaining Daily Records of Events Reasons Yes No Total N % N % N % 1. Work Load Lack of Computer knowledge Lack of Computer Other Table 3 presents the reasons of not maintaining daily records of events. Out of total (113) executives who were not able to maintain daily record, almost 62% (70) executives responded to due to Work Load they were not able to maintain daily records and almost 38% (43) responded No for Work Load. Out of total (113) almost 37% (42) responded due to Lack of Computer Knowledge and 62.8% (71) responded No. Regarding Lack of Computer 26% (30) responded to Yes and 73.5% (83) responded to No for Lack of Computer. Apart of theses reason included in the others, out of total (113) almost 20% (23) executives responded other reason where as 79.6% (90) executives responded to No. The executives who responded to other highlighted the following reasons: The system EPMS is too theoretical and complicated in practice. Executives do not have enough knowledge about EPMS. Executives find EPMS is a complicated system it is not friendly. Demographic distribution of executives, perceptions regarding the reasons of not to maintain daily records of events used in assessment:
7 Performane Appraisal System to Performance Management System in Bokaro Steel Plant (Sail): An Evaluation 93 Table 4: Distribution of Executives Perception According to, Service Length and Demographic Regarding the Reasons for Not Maintaining Daily Records of Event Demographic Variables Reasons Lack of Computer Lack of Work Load (Yrs) No. Knowledge Computer Others N % N % N % N % Up to Total χ 2 =2.25, df=2, p >0.05 χ 2 =21.09, df=2, p < χ 2 =2.76, df=2, χ 2 =0.77, df=2, p p >0.05 >0.05 Service Length (Yrs) No. N % N % N % N % Up to Above Total χ 2 =2.91, df=2, p >0.05 χ 2 =25.23, df=2, p < χ 2 =13.73, df=2, p <0.001 χ 2 =1.69, df=2, p >0.05 Management Levels No. N % N % N % N % E 1 -E E 4 -E E 6 -E Total χ 2 =14.09, df=2, p < χ 2 =28.19, df=2, p < χ 2 =13.11, df=2, p <0.001 χ 2 =1.35, df=2, p >0.05 Table 4 presents executives perception in relation to their age, service length and grade demographic regarding the reasons of not able to maintain daily records of events. According to age demographic out of the total (113) executives who were not able to maintain the daily records of events, most of the executives (61.9%) perceived due to work load they were not able to maintain daily records. Differences found between the responses of different age groups about the reason work load (χ 2 =2.25, df = 2, p >0.05). Regarding lack of computer reason found out in different age group of executives have significant differences (χ 2 =21.09, df=2, p < 0.001). Regarding lack of computer and other reasons also there were no significant differences. According to the service length demographic the executives who said due to work load they were not able to maintain daily records to the satisfactory level most of the shortest (up to 15) service length group executives responded (75%) the differences in the response of executives of various service length groups were not significant (χ 2 =2.91, df=2, p >0.05). Regarding lack of computer knowledge most of the executives who responded yes belong to the shortest service length (up to 15 years) group the differences found were significant (χ 2 =25.23, df = 2, p < 0.001). Most (75%) of the executives who responded yes for lack of computer, were from longest service length (above 30 years). The differences between executives perceptions regarding lack of computers were significant (χ 2 =13.73, df=2, p <0.001). Regarding other reasons the maximum (37.5%) executives were responded from the longest service length group (above 30 years). Difference between the responses of different service length groups were found not significant (χ 2 =1.69, df=2, p >0.05).
8 94 Leena Toppo According to grade demographic most of the executives (70.5%) responded yes for work load from the senior management level (E 6 -E 7 ) regarding work load. The significant differences found in the responses of executives of various management groups (χ 2 =14.09, df = 2, p < 0.001). Regarding lack of computer knowledge the executives of junior management level (E 1 -E 3 ) responses most (68.3), the differences found in executives responses were significantly different (χ 2 =28.19, df=2, p < 0.001). Regarding the reason lack of computer maximum (46.4%) executives from middle management (E 4 -E 5 ) were responded yes. The differences found in responses between various management groups were significant (χ 2 =13.11, df = 2, p <0.001). the differences found in the responses of executives of various management level were not significant regarding the other reasons (χ 2 =1.35, df=2, p >0.05). Figure 1: Executives Perception Figure no. 1 presents executives perception about better system. Out of total executives (360), most of executives 64.4% (232) responded EPMS (new system) is better than EPAS (old system), 27.5% (99) responded cannot say and only 8.1% (29) executives responded that EPAS (old system is better than EPMS. Executives Perception Regarding Better System in Relation to Their Demographic Variable Table 5 presents executives perception about better system according to age, service length and grade demographic. In all the age groups most of the executives responded EPMS is better than EPAS. Out of the total executives of the youngest age group (up to 40 years), 66.7% responded to EPMS is better than EPAS, 31.2% executives said can t say which system is better and only 2.2 % responded EPMS is better than EPMS. The executives from the middle age group (41-50 years) out of total 65.9% responded to EPMS is better system, 29.4% responded to cannot say and 4.8 % said EPAS is better than EPMS. The executives from the oldest age group (51-60 years), 61.7 % responded to EPMS is better than EPAS, 14.9% said EPAS is better than EPMS. And 23.4% responded cannot say. The difference in responses of executives of various age groups observed statistically significant (χ 2 =15.66, df = 4, p < 0.01).
9 Performane Appraisal System to Performance Management System in Bokaro Steel Plant (Sail): An Evaluation 95 Table 5: Descriptive Presentation of Executives Perception Regarding Better System in Relation to, Service Length and Demographic Demographic Total EPAS EPMS Can t Say (in Years) No. N % N % N % Up to Total χ 2 =15.66, df = 4, p < 0.01 Service Length Total N % N % N % Up to Above Total χ 2 =19.71, df = 4, p < Total N % N % N % E 1 -E E 4 -E E 6 -E Total χ 2 =2.31, df = 4, p > 0.05 Executives opinion about better system Executives Perception Regarding Better System According to Service Length Demographic In all service length groups most of the executives responded to the EPMS is better system than EPAS. The executives from shortest service length (up to 15 years), 67.4% executives responded that EPMS is better system than EPAS and rest of the executives (32.6%) said cannot say which system is better, from the shortest service length group (up to 15 years) no executives perceived that EPAS is better than EPMS. Out of the executives from middle service length (16-30 years), 63.5% responded EPMS is better than EPAS, 28.4% said cannot say where as only 8.1% responded EPAS is better than EPMS. In the same way executives from longest service length (above 30 years), 63.5% responded EPMS is better than EPAS. Whereas 19% perceived that EPAS is better than EPMS and 17.5% said cannot said. The difference observed between the responded of various service length groups were statistically significant (χ 2 =19.71, df = 4, p < 0.001). (Table 5) Executives Perception Regarding Better System According to Demographic In all grade groups most of the executives responded to the EPMS is better system than EPAS. Out of the total executives of junior management (E 1 -E 3 ) 62.7% executives said EPMS is better system than EPAS and 26.9% said cannot say which system is better. Whereas only 10.4% responded that EPAS is better system than EPMS. The executives from middle management level (E 4 -E 5 ), 64.6 % executives responded that EPMS is better system, 27.1% said cannot say which system is better and 8.3% responded to EPAS is better system than EPMS. In the senior management level (E 6 -E 7 ) 66.2% executives responded to the EPMS is better system than EPAS, 28.5% said cannot say and only 5.3% responded EPAS is better than EPMS. The differences in response of executives various grade groups about the better system were statistically not significant (χ 2 =2.31, df = 4, p > 0.05). (Table 5) CONCLUSIONS The all above analyses and affairs were focused to find out executives perception about their performance appraisal system. Statistical analysis have revealed that the executives average perception score were above satisfactory
10 96 Leena Toppo level in most of the factors in relation to age, service length and grade demographics except maintenance of daily recording of events where satisfactory level was low. The major reason behind this was that they were not able to maintain daily records of events because of their heavy work load and lack of computer knowledge too. The executives of old age group and those who have more service experience were only able to maintain daily records to the satisfactory level. Another reason that the executives have highlighted was that the executives found the new system (EPMS) to be more complicated in practice. Although executives have better awareness about old system (EPAS) in comparison to new system (EPMS), most of the executives perceived EPMS is better system than EPAS. The young age group executives whose experienced is less have little understanding regarding vision of organisation and their works in comparison to older age group having more experienced and higher level management. It was also observed that the executives of young age group were dissatisfied regarding their development plans when taken according to their performance planning. Executives perception regarding their reporting and reviewing officer s assessment similar to their own assessment was found to have a profound significant effect in variant to all the demographic variables i.e. age, service length and grade. Resulting that the young executives from less experienced and junior management level have more satisfaction than the other executives. Regarding the role of EPMS in development of leadership talent and in improvement of their performance, the young executives with less experience and from junior management level were less satisfied as they were more satisfied about the role of EPMS regarding their promotion. This was further confirmed through statistical analysis which reveals that grade demographic did not have noticeable effect on executives perception regarding the role of EPMS. As the statistical analysis reveals significant difference in the executives average perception score regarding most of the factors of appraisal system in relation to their age and service length demographic variables, so in most of the cases the null hypothesis is rejected. But according to their grade demographic, null hypothesis is accepted in most of the cases as there were no significant differences in executives perception regarding their performance appraisal system. REFERENCES 1. Ashokvardhan, C. (1987). Human resource development in BSL. Faridabad: Thomson Press Ltd. 2. Bernardin, H. J. (2007). Human resource management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. 3. Edmonstone, J. (1996). Appraising the state of performance appraisal. Health Manpower Management, 22(6), Pareek, U. & Rao, T. V. (2006). Designing and managing human resource system. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 5. Pattanayak, B. (2009). Human resource management. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited. 6. Prasad, L.M. (2006). Human resource management. New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons: Educational Publishers. 7. Nayab, N. The difference between performance appraisal and performance management. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from 8. Tripathi, P.C. (2006). Human resource development. New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons: Educational Publishers.
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139 Hitachi s Approach As the role of corporations expands with respect to global social issues like the environment, poverty, and human rights, Hitachi seeks to address the needs and values of its diverse
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IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Business Management (IMPACT: IJRBM) ISSN(E): 2321-886X; ISSN(P): 2347-4572 Vol. 2, Issue 3, Mar 2014, 1-8 Impact Journals A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WORKFORCE DIVERSITY
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