1 Regional Training Workshop in Asia and the Pacific: Sustainable Development and Disaster Risk Management Using E-Government March 2015 Songdo, Republic of Korea E-Government for Disaster Risk Management Keping Yao United Nations Project Office on Governance Division for Public Administration and Development Management United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
2 Contents 1. Critical Role of Good Governance and Effective Institutions in the Context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda 2. Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 3. Risk Governance and Common Challenges 4. Smart Governance for DRM - New Trends of E-Government Development 5. Innovative E-Government Practices for DRM 6. Policy Recommendations
3 Critical Role of Good Governance and Effective Institutions in the Context of the Post 2015 Development Agenda Sustainable development emphasizes a holistic, equitable and far-sighted approach in decision-making at all levels. It rests on integration and a balanced consideration of social, economic and environmental goals and objectives in both public and private decision-making. It emphasizes intragenerational and intergenerational equity (E/2013/69, para. 6)
4 Critical Role of Good Governance and Effective Institutions in the Context of the Post 2015 Development Agenda Eradication of Poverty Well-Being for All Smart Governance, including transparent, effective and accountable institutions, are essential building block for the achievement of sustainable development
5 Critical Role of Good Governance and Effective Institutions in the Context of the Post 2015 Development Agenda This means that there are great expectations for governments to be effective, transparent, accountable and not corrupt. People should have a say on what the government s priorities should be, and confidence that they will implement those priorities competently. Governments should agree and implement standards for making information available to all people on how public money is spent
6 Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 1. Adopted at the Third World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held from 14 to 18 March 2015 in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan (as negotiated as of 28 January 2015): 2. Expected outcome of the Framework over the next 15 years: the substantial reduction of disaster [risk and] losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries 3. To attain the expected outcome, the following goal should be pursued: Prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural [and non-structural], legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience 4. The Hyogo Framework for Action since 2005: Progress and challenges 5. Priorities for action
7 Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
8 Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Common Challenges
9 Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Four Priorities for action: 1. Understanding disaster risk; 2. Strengthening governance/institutional arrangements/organizational, legal and policy frameworks to manage disaster risk; 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience; 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to Build Back Better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
10 Why Smart Governance for DRM? As knowledge networks increase in scope and range, social media reshapes the way people communicate; information is readily available 24/7 and development challenges (including economic, social and environmental) are increasingly inter-twined and complex. What kind of governance can allow for more sustainable solutions? SMART Governance Governments that are succeeding in tackling complex issues are those that are engaged in finding new ways to effectively create public value through innovative, effective, inclusive, collaborative, open and citizen-oriented service delivery and public policy decision-making leveraging the potential of modern technologies. This approach requires a transformation of government s role, leadership capacities, functions, institutional frameworks and processes.
11 Main Pillars of Smart Governance 1) Collaborative Leadership and Shared Vision 2) Integration and Coordination through Whole-of-Government Approaches 3) Citizen Engagement, Collaboration and Co-creation of Public Value 4) Innovative public-private Partnerships 5) Digital Connectivity, Open Data and Use of Analytics 6) Innovation for sustainable development SMART GOVERNANCE Innovation Digital Connectivity Shared Vision Integration Collaboration Partnership
12 Collaborative Leadership and Shared Vision Collaborative leadership is the capacity of leaders to work across organizational boundaries to inspire, engage and motivate people and teams to work together in pursuit of common goals. It is considered as one of essential components to realize the transformation of government. Also, a shared vision needs to be aligned with appropriate leadership capacities, institutional frameworks, processes, resources and infrastructure. SMART GOVERNANCE RWANDA National Information and Communication Infrastructure Plan USA We the People e-petition website Innovation Digital Connectivity Partnership Collaboration Integration Shared Vision
13 Integration and Coordination through W-O-G Approaches Increased effectiveness of government s responses- More effective and coordinated policy responses to complex issues; Enhanced efficiency by reducing duplications of processes and procedures in programme management, and simplifying service delivery; Better service delivery by integrating services and thereby saving time and resources, and increasing citizens trust in government. Innovative Practices FRANCE ABU DHABI, UAE Abu Dhabi Government Contact Centre KOREA Digital Budget and Accounting System (DBAS)
14 Integration and Coordination through W-O-G Approaches World e-government Leaders in Rank Country Region 2014 EGDI 1 Republic of Korea Asia Australia Oceania Singapore Asia France Europe Netherlands Europe Japan Asia United States of America Americas United Kingdom Europe New Zealand Oceania Finland Europe Canada Americas Spain Europe Norway Europe Sweden Europe Estonia Europe Denmark Europe Israel Asia Bahrain Asia Iceland Europe Austria Europe Germany Europe Ireland Europe Italy Europe Luxembourg Europe Belgium Europe World Average UN E-Government Survey In 2014, for the first time, all 193 UN Member States had national websites. At the regional level, Europe continued to lead followed by the Americas, Asia, Oceania and Africa. Effective regional cooperation will help support change programs and advance e- government development (Examples: European Union, African Union s Programme for Infrastructure Development) Almost 43% of United Nations Member States today provide information about their CIO for e-government. 73 Countries offered a One-Stop-Shop portal in
15 Citizen Engagement, Collaboration and Co-creation of Public Value There are different levels of citizen participation in service delivery, citizen s own service production being the highest level of citizen engagement. Citizens can be informed of a service; can be consulted about specific aspects of a service, can be asked to take part in the decisions about the type of services needed by the community and can be empowered to take the lead in the delivery of services. Innovative Practices Citizens as agents of change Crowdsourcing Crowdfunding Challenge Gov Hackhathons - FixMyStreet (UK) - Aircraft noise registration system (Netherlands) - Checkmyschool.org (Philippines) - KIVA - Grameen Foundation - United States - Singapore - Uniked Kingdom - United States Congress
16 Citizen Engagement, Collaboration and Co-creation of Public Value UN E-Government Survey e-information: 104 countries provide archived information about the sectors assessed. e-consultation: 49% of countries provide a facility for feedback regarding the improvement of their online services. e-decision Making: 75 Member States place their e-participation policy online. Today 118 countries use some form of social media. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of countries offering mobile apps and mobile portals doubled to nearly 50 countries.
17 Innovative Public-Private Partnerships PPPs are defined as an innovative organizational and financial solution that emerges from cooperation between the public and the private sector with a view to supplementing the government s public response to growing social needs in a specific sector, country or region. The first step in such an innovative transformation is the creation of a city-wide strategy that allows leaders to view their cities as an interdependent system of systems, and to assess ways in which ICT can be used to improve them all. Innovative Practices e-mitra (India) Eastern African Submarine Cable System (EASSy) Estonia Rural Connectivity Egypt Smart Village 3 Source: infodev and ITU, available at www. ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/practicenote. aspx?id=3160
18 Digital Connectivity, Open Data, Big Data and Use of Analytics Innovative Practices limited knowledge hampers progress towards inclusive growth and employment creation, and technological progress for sustainable development. - Realizing the Future We Want for All Boston About Results (BAR), Boston, United States the City's performance management program that uses performance measurement and data analytics to develop strategies People s Republic of China - Chinese Government Public Information Online portal - National Bureau of Statistics of China - Data Shanghai and Data Beijing Agency for Public Management and egovernment, Norway - e-id - Offentlig Elektronisk Postjournal (centralized platform to search and request documents)
19 Digital Connectivity, Open Data, Big Data and Use of Analytics UN E-Government Survey An estimated 1.1 billion households worldwide are still not yet connected to the Internet. Digital divide: In 2014, 40% of national portals allowed for flexible font size. Only 46 countries have taken the next step and established dedicated portals for data sharing.
20 Digital Connectivity, Open Data, Big Data and Use of Analytics 1. Resilient cloud computing for business continuity 2. Disaster prevention and preparedness using big data 3. Disaster response using big data 4. Disaster recovery using big data
21 Innovation for DRM and Sustainable Development Successful innovation is the creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcomes efficiency, effectiveness or quality (Albury & Mulgan, 2003) Innovation is required to: provide better and more inclusive services; engage civil society and the private sector in development efforts; promote openness and accountability; and promote more inclusive societies. Provision of customized services creating the conditions for wealth creation and employment SMART GOVERNANCE Innovation Digital Connectivity Integration Collaboration Partnership Shared Vision
22 Why smart governance so important for DRM and sustainable development All governments are faced with a set of complex, multi-faceted and interdependent challenges when conducting DRM; Challenges in DRM and sustainable development are such that no single actor let alone single government or single ministry can effectively deal with them on their own; Effective collaboration among agencies across all levels of government is essential, as it is with non-governmental actors, to ensure good governance and good development outcomes; Collaborative governance, underpinned by a well-functioning public administration, is crucial to DRM and sustainable development; E-government and innovation can provide significant opportunities to transform public administration into an instrument of sustainable development.
23 Innovative country practices Denmark s Mobile Alert Systems; Malaysia using SMS for notifying citizens of limited drinking water supplies; UK and US using SMS for alerting flood dangers and China using SMS for typhoon dangers; US FEMA using social media for hurricane Sandy; The Philippines government started a flagship project called Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (NOAH) in June 2012; Japan: information analysis, open data analysis simulation, most advanced earthquake early warning system I-SAHANA Project.
24 Policy recommendation Collaborative governance both vertical and horizontal integration, W-o-G approach to DRM Smart governance innovation using big data and data analytics for DRM; Sustained investment in infrastructure to strengthen resilience; International partnership.
Council of the European Union PRESS EN COUNCIL CONCLUSIONS Brussels, 16 December 2014 Council conclusions on a transformative post-2015 agenda General Affairs Council meeting Brussels, 16 December 2014
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