1 Financial Reporting Matters October 2004 Issue 2 A UDIT In this issue of Financial Reporting Matters, we discuss accounting for share-based payment and highlight some common issues relating to financial instruments accounting. Accounting for insurance contracts is enclosed as a supplementary issue. FRS 102 Share-based Payment The new standard, FRS 102 is effective for annual financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005 for listed companies and 1 January 2006 for all other companies. Early adoption is permitted only when the company had disclosed publicly the fair value. The focus of the new standard is on accounting for transactions where the reporting entity pays for goods and services by giving: the entity's own shares or other equity securities (such as share options over their own shares); or other assets (generally cash), where the amount payable will be linked to the price of the entity's own shares or other equity instruments (e.g. warrants). Such transactions are termed share-based payment (SBP) transactions. The scope of the standard also extends to recording the value of certain SBP benefits given to an entity's employees by other group companies, if they relate to services provided to the entity. The standard does not concern itself with other transactions involving equity, when the counter-party is acting in the role of a shareholder. Also, shares issued as consideration in a business combination are outside the scope of FRS 102. Contents Share-based Payment Implementing FRS Supplement Accounting for Insurance Contracts FRS 102 will be of concern to preparers of financial statements for the following reasons: It will require a charge to the profit and loss account for share-based transactions where previously there were none. The requirements involve fair valuing instruments where readily available market prices are usually not available. Singapore subsidiaries of foreign multi-national corporations will have to recognise the expense when shares or share options of the holding company is granted to employees of the subsidiaries, whether they are ultimately charged for the deemed costs. We will introduce the principles and requirements of the standard and provide practical examples of how to deal with some of the questions.
2 2 Financial Reporting Matters Overview FRS 102 introduces specific accounting requirements for an area where only disclosure requirements currently exist. The current disclosure requirements will be replaced by those in FRS 102. FRS 102 sets out how entities must recognise and measure SBP transactions with both employees and non-employees. It will require recognition at fair value for all goods and services received. This includes employee services, where payment is made in shares or options, as well as when payment is in cash (or other assets) if the amount is linked to the entity's share price. FRS 102 also includes new disclosure requirements. Overview of the basics of FRS 102 Share-based Payment Will the SBP be settled in the entity's own equity instruments 1? YES Equity - settled SBP No Cash- settled SBP 2 Is the counterparty an employee? No Can the goods or services received be reliably measured? Yes Yes Fair value the liability for the goods or services received at each balance sheet date until settled Fair value 3 the equity instruments at the date granted Fair value the goods and services at the date received Is the SBP in exchange for services, and if so, is the counterparty required to complete a period of service before the SBP vest? Yes Recognise 4 the services over the vesting period. If the fair value has been estimated with reference to the equity instruments, then also re-estimate the number of instruments that will vest, and/or the length of vesting period, at each balance sheet date until vested. No Recognise 4 the cost of the goods or services immediately. No Fair value 3 the equity instruments at the date the goods or services are received 1 For the purposes of FRS 102, equity instruments include those issued by the entity's parent or another entity in the same group (see "Transactions within the scope of FRS 102" section on page 3 of this update). 2 For the purposes of FRS 102, cash-settled SBP also includes those transactions where the entity has incurred an obligation to transfer assets other than cash. 3 In the rare case that the fair value of the equity instruments cannot be reliably measured, the intrinsic value should be used instead. 4 The cost of the goods or services received is charged to the profit and loss account unless the goods or services qualify for recognition as assets. For cash-settled SBP transactions, the credit is recorded as liability whereas the credit of an equity-settled SBP transaction is recorded in equity (see "Basic recognition principles" section on page 4 for further details on the double entry required).
3 3 Financial Reporting Matters Transactions within the scope of FRS 102 The objective of FRS 102 is to ensure that all SBP transactions are recognised in the financial statements and are measured at fair value. All SBP transactions under which goods or services are received by the entity are within the scope of FRS 102, except for: certain future commodity contracts; and shares issued for acquisition of net assets in business combinations. A SBP transaction is defined as a transaction in which the entity receives goods or services as consideration for equity instruments of the entity (including shares and share options), or acquires goods or services by incurring liabilities to the supplier of those goods or services for amounts that are based on the price of the entity's share price or other equity instruments of the entity. There are two notable exclusions: Commodity contracts that fall under paragraphs 8 to 10 of FRS 32 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation. These are commodity contracts that can be settled net in cash, rather than physical delivery, provided they were not entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of receipt of the commodity in accordance with the entity's expected purchase or usage requirements. The acquisition of net assets in business combinations. The diagram below illustrates the types of transactions that are within the scope of FRS 102: Transactions within the scope of FRS 102 Goods (e.g. fixed assets, inventories, other consumables) Services (e.g. hours worked by employees, advertising or consulting services received) Counter-party Forms of share-based payment (SBP) A's shares Options over A's shares; or Cash or other assets of amount linked to A's share price This could be the employees of A or other providers of goods or services, provided that the counterparty is not acting as a shareholder. Example: The amount of cash consideration varies depending on the increase in A's share price (i.e. share appreciation). Reporting entity A The scope of FRS 102 extends to cover SBP consideration provided by: the entity's shareholders; and other entities in the same group. FRS 102 has a broader application than simply where the reporting entity and the counter-party are the only parties involved in the transaction. Its scope extends to other situations in which the entity receives goods and services, where the entity's parent, or another group entity provided equity instruments as consideration for those goods and services. A common example is where a parent grants options over its own shares to employees of a subsidiary, the subsidiary would have to apply FRS 102 to those benefits in its own financial statements.
4 4 Financial Reporting Matters Basic recognition principles As with all accounting, accounting for SBP transactions essentially involves deciding where to put a debit and a credit and how to measure those debits and credits. Where to put the debits and credits? The debit is charged to the profit and loss account unless the goods or services qualify for recognition as assets. The credit is recorded as a liability if the counter-party will receive cash; or recorded directly in equity if the counter-party will receive the entity's equity instruments. Key points to note: The location of the debit entry is determined based on normal accounting principles. For example, if the SBP relates to services rendered by employees who work on a production line, the debit would generally be recorded as part of inventory, whereas the charge for head office management staff would generally be recognised in the profit and loss account as and when incurred; and There are two possible locations for the credit entry depending on whether the transaction is a cash-settled SBP transaction or an equity-settled SBP transaction. Note that this decision will directly determine whether adopting FRS 102 reduces net assets or only affects reported profit. This is explained further below. Goods or services received by reporting entity Exchange Share based consideration given to counter-party (including employees) Debit Credit or Credit Asset or expense Depending on type of goods or services received Liabilities For a cash-settled SBP Equity For an equity-settled SBP Liabilities are credited where the consideration for the goods or services received is in the form of cash or other assets Crediting liabilities: As shown in the diagram, the credit for a SBP transaction is recorded in liabilities if the transaction is a cash-settled SBP. These are defined as SBPs where the consideration to be paid will be cash or other assets, the amount of which will be based on the price (or value) of the entity's shares or other equity instruments of the entity. For example, an entity (say, Company B) may make a deal with an advertising agency, whereby part of the cash payable to the agency will be determined based on the extent to which Company B's share price increases over the six month period following a major advertising campaign. Company B will record a liability when the advertising services are provided, based on the terms of the agreement and the relevant share price performance (measurement is discussed in greater detail overleaf). As a result, both reported profits and net assets decrease by the amount recorded for the services received. Equity is credited in all other SBP transactions Crediting equity: As shown in the diagram, the credit for all other SBP transactions is recorded in equity. This has the effect of contra-ing the charge made to retained profits via reported profit for the period. In other words, although accounting for equitysettled SBP transactions under FRS 102 will reduce reported profits, it will not reduce net assets.
5 Financial Reporting Matters 5 How to measure the debits and credits? The measurement and timing of recognition of SBP are briefly considered under the respective settlement mode. The requirements for measurement and timing of recognition are dependent on whether the SBP is considered as: equity-settled SBP transactions (e.g. shares and share options); cash-settled SBP transactions (e.g. share appreciation rights); or transactions where there is a choice of cash or equity settlement for either the reporting entity or the counter-party. Appendix A to FRS 102 contains a glossary of terms used in FRS 102. When considering the specific requirements relating to the various types of SBP, it is important to take these into account. Equity-settled SBP transactions The measurement rules for calculating equity-settled sharebased payments involve separate calculations of the value of each instrument granted and the number that is expected to vest FRS 102 adopts a modified grant date approach, which involves applying the following formula: A: B: C: Fair value of the individual equity Number of instruments Total amount to x = instrument, measured at the expected to vest be recognised date of grant Fair value of the instrument Vesting condition Timing of recognition Subsequent adjustment Simple example of an equity settled SBP arrangement with vesting conditions To calculate the fair value of each individual instrument, the rules vary depending on whether the transaction is with a third party or an employee. They also vary depending on whether the fair value of the goods or services can be reliably measured and, if not, whether the fair value of the equity instruments can be reliably measured. In measuring the fair value of an equity instrument, market conditions (such as performance of share price for a period) attaching to that grant would need to be taken into account. However, other vesting conditions, such as length of service, would not be. Intrinsic value should only be used in rare circumstances. If the instruments vest immediately, then the charge is generally recognised immediately. If the instruments do not vest immediately, then the charge is generally spread pro-rata over the vesting period. No changes, other than transfers within equity (such as when options are exercised or lapse), are made after the instruments vest. The fair value of each instrument is not re-estimated. However, the total charge being spread over a vesting period will be re-estimated at each reporting date to take into account changes in estimates of how many instruments will vest (e.g. based on employee turnover rates) under the non-market vesting conditions attached to the grant. Where the length of the vesting period depends on nonmarket vesting conditions being met, this variable is also re-estimated at each reporting date until the instrument has vested. At the beginning of Year 1, an entity granted 500 employees 10 share options each, on the condition that they would remain with the company for three years. The options could be exercised at any time after three years for a 12-month period at an exercise price of $10 each. At the date of grant each option had a fair value of $1, excluding the three-year vesting rule, but taking into account the other features of this option such as the period during which it could be exercised. A vesting period of three years was identified, based on the service condition. At the end of Year 1, it was estimated that only 75% of the workforce would meet the vesting condition. At the end of Year 2, the estimate of the numbers of instruments that would vest was revised to 70%. At the end of Year 3, 90% of the eligible employees were still with the company. During the fourth year, 60% of the employees exercised their options while the remainder let them lapsed.
6 6 Financial Reporting Matters Simple example of an equity settled SBP arrangement with vesting conditions (From previous page) Over the following three years the calculations under FRS 102 were as follows: Year Calculation ($) Remuneration Cumulative remuneration 1 $1 x (500 employees x 10 options x 75%) x 1/3 expense for period ($) 1,250 expenses ($) 1,250 2 $1 x (500 employees x 10 options x 70%) X 2/3 3 $1 x (500 employees x 10 options x 90%) 1,083 2,333 2,167 4,500 In Year 1, one-third of the total fair value of $3,750 was recognised as employee expense (credit equity compensation reserve). In Year 2, the total fair value of the SBP arrangement was revised to be $3,500. Cumulatively, two-thirds of this ($2,333) should have been recognised by the end of Year 2. As the Year 1 charge was $1,250, a further $1,083 was charged as employee expense in Year 2 (credit equity compensation reserve). The catch up in respect of previous years is therefore recognised immediately, rather than being spread over the remaining vesting period. In Year 3, 4,500 options were issued to the employees and the final total fair value of the SBP arrangement was calculated to be $4,500. Cumulatively, $2,333 had been recognised by the end of Year 2. A further $2,167 was therefore charged as employee expense in Year 3 (credit equity compensation reserve). In Year 4 when employees exercised their options, the entries would be as follows: Debit: Cash exercise price received 27,000 Credit: Share capital/premium 27,000 FRS states that an entity should not make any subsequent adjustment to total equity after vesting date. However, transfers within equity are not precluded. When options are exercised, a question arises as to whether the cumulative amount in the equity compensation reserve relates to valuable consideration received in the form of employee services and thus should be recorded in share capital/premium. When options lapse unexercised after vesting, a question also arises as to whether the cumulative amount in equity compensation reserve could be transferred to retained profits. Whether these transfers would be allowed and whether the equity compensation reserve is distributable would be a matter for the company law, of which there is currently no established consensus. Other issues FRS 102 also includes specific requirements regarding modifications to terms and conditions of SBP plans, cancellations and re-load features. It also addresses repurchases of vested equity instruments and requires that, if the repurchase is for an amount in excess of the equity instrument's thencurrent fair value, the amount exceeding fair value must be recognised immediately as an expense.
7 Financial Reporting Matters 7 Cash-settled SBP transactions Cash-settled SBP transactions result in a cash payment (or transfer of other assets) based on the price of the equity instrument (e.g. share price). A common example is where employees are promised cash payments if the entity's share price reaches a certain target within a specified period of time. FRS 102 emphasises that the liability for cash-settled SBP transactions should be measured at its fair value rather than its intrinsic value. The fair value is expected to be higher because the instrument's value is not only its current settlement value, but also the potential future increase in value. The fair value of the goods or services received is not relevant to the measurement of the liability, whether or not the counter-party is an employee. Its only relevance would be if an asset was recorded as a result of the SBP transaction and there were doubts about its recoverability. This is not expected to be common. Briefly the requirements are: Cash-settled SBP transactions are recognised initially when the goods or services are provided. At initial recognition the liability (and debit entry) is measured at the fair value of the liability, irrespective of the nature of the counter-party or goods or services provided. After initial recognition the fair value of the liability is re-measured at each balance sheet date until settlement. Changes as a result of the re-measurement of the fair value are recognised in the profit and loss account, even if initial cost is recognised as an asset (e.g. as part of inventories). If the costs of the SBP transaction are of the type that qualify for recognition as assets (e.g. they relate to factory workers whose wages are included in inventory) care should be taken when re-measuring the liability at each balance sheet date to separately identify new liabilities being initially recognised for services provided in the period, from changes in the fair value of liabilities initially recognised in previous periods. FRS 102 is clear that the latter (i.e. any re-measurement changes after initial recognition) should be recognised directly in the profit and loss account. Transactions where there is a choice of cash or equity settlement for either the reporting entity or the counter-party Detailed rules are in FRS 102 for situations when one or other party to the transaction has a choice of settlement. FRS 102 has detailed rules on how to deal with such transactions. The accounting depends on who has the choice to determine the form of settlement. Where the counter-party has the choice, then a compound instrument exists, whose components need to be accounted for separately as equity and liability, following the rules set out above. Where the entity has the choice, it should account for the transaction as an equity-settled transaction, unless the terms are such that in substance it has a present obligation to settle in cash. The standard gives examples of such situations as follows: - The choice of settlement in shares has no commercial substance (e.g. because the entity is legally prohibited from issuing shares); - The entity has a past practice or a stated policy of settling in cash; or - The entity generally settles in cash whenever the counter-party asks for cash settlement. FRS 102 contains further detail on how these basic principles should be applied.
8 8 Financial Reporting Matters Disclosure requirements The disclosure requirements state three overall aims of the information that is to be provided. The disclosure requirements in FRS 102 are set out under three basic aims. The information disclosed should enable users of the financial statements to understand: the nature and extent of SBP arrangements that existed during the period; how the fair value of the goods or services received, or the fair value of the equity instruments granted, during the period was determined; and the effect of SBP transactions on the entity's profit or loss for the period and on its financial position. For example, paragraph 47 sets out a lengthy list of details that an entity should disclose in respect of fair valuation, such as the option pricing model used to measure the fair value of share options, the inputs to that model and how volatility was determined. All of this information should be given if the SBP transactions are material. A further catch-all paragraph requires more disclosure to be given if the three aims are not met In addition, FRS 102 contains a catch-all paragraph, which states that if complying with the specific detailed requirements does not satisfy the three principles as set out above, then further information should be disclosed as necessary to satisfy them. Other disclosure requirements Key management personnel compensation should be made in total and by categories Singapore Companies Act Certain equity-settled SBP transactions are discloseable under both FRS 102 and the Singapore Exchange Listing manual FRS 24 Related Party Disclosures requires companies to disclose remuneration of key management personnel. This disclosure should be made in total and by categories, including the specific category of 'share-based payment'. When FRS 102 becomes effective, the amount recognised during the period under FRS 102 in respect of SBP involving key management personnel should be disclosed as part of the remuneration of key management personnel. The disclosure requirements set out under Section 201 of the Singapore Companies Act would be fully met when the company provides the necessary disclosures under FRS 102. The Singapore Exchange Listing Manual requires listed entities to disclose information about share option schemes. Therefore, certain equity-settled SBP transactions are disclosed under both FRS 102 and the Listing Rules. Note that the requirements under FRS 102 and the Listing Rules are not identical. For example, the Listing Rules requires additional disclosures in respect of: the names of and number and terms of options granted to each director or employee of the parent company and its subsidiaries who receives 5 percent or more of the total number of options available to all directors and employees of the parent company and its subsidiaries under the scheme; and the aggregate number of options granted to the directors and employees of the parent company and its subsidiaries for the financial year and since the commencement of the scheme to the end of the financial year.
9 Financial Reporting Matters 9 Transitional provisions in the first year of adoption FRS 102 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005 for listed companies, and one year later for all other companies. Note that the reference to 22 November 2002 is to that exact date, not to accounting periods beginning or ending before or after that date. For example, a grant of share options on 1 November 2002 does not fall within the scope of the measurement and recognition requirements of FRS 102, whereas a grant of options on 23 November 2002 does, even though the entity's year-end may be 31 December 2002 (i.e. both transactions were within a period which began before 22 November 2002). The disclosures relating to the nature and extent of SBP transactions are applicable whether or not FRS 102's full requirements are applied to the transaction. However, the standard contains transitional provisions that limit the extent to which the measurement and recognition requirements have to be applied retrospectively to SBP transactions. These transitional provisions vary depending on whether the transactions were before, on or after 22 November This date is related to when the exposure of FRS 102 was first issued for comment, and using it as a cut-off point was presumably intended to prevent entities from taking advantage of the inevitable gap between exposure of proposals and their finalisation. The transitional provisions also vary depending on the position at the "effective date" of FRS 102. This date will be the first day of the annual accounting period in which FRS 102 is first adopted as follows: Year end Latest acceptable "effective date" of FRS December 1 January March 1 April June 1 July 2005 The following table sets out the extent to which companies have to apply the rest of the requirements in FRS 102 to SBP transactions based on the position at these two dates i.e. 22 November 2002 and the "effective date" of FRS 102. Does FRS 102 Share-based Payment apply in full to: Original Grant? Modifications before Modifications on or SBP transactions: effective date? after effective date? All equity-settled grants made on or before 22 November 2002 Optional 1 Optional 2 Yes, mandatory Equity-settled grants made after 22 November 2002 but already vested before the effective date Optional 1 Optional 2 Yes, mandatory Equity-settled grants made after 22 November 2002 and still unvested on the effective date Yes, mandatory retrospective adoption Yes, mandatory retrospective adoption Yes, mandatory adoption Cash settled SBP transactions, where the liability is still outstanding at the effective date Cash settled SBP transactions, where the liability has been settled before the effective date Yes, mandatory retrospective adoption, at least as far back as 22 November 2002 Optional restatement e.g. of comparatives 1 Entities may (but need not) apply FRS 102 to these SBP transactions if, and only if, the fair value of those equity instruments has been disclosed publicly. If FRS 102 is applied, then it should be adopted retrospectively. 2 FRS102 does not contain specific transitional provisions covering these circumstances. However, if the recognition and measurement principles of FRS 102 were applied to the original grant (see note 1), it would seem inconsistent for the later modifications to the grants not to be accounted for under FRS 102. However, by analogy with FRS and 57, it would seem acceptable for the modifications to be accounted for under FRS 102, even when the original grant is not. As can be seen, FRS 102 introduces detailed and specific requirements for transactions that involve settlement in equity instruments or in assets, the amount of which is determined by reference to the value of an entity's equity instruments. This will most commonly, but not exclusively, affect listed companies and companies within listed groups, who have used the liquidity of their shares to reward others for goods or services provided. For such companies, care will need to be taken to make sure that the requirements are complied with.
10 10 Financial Reporting Matters Implementing the standard on financial instruments - FRS 39 Existing status of FRS 39 in Singapore As the deadline for the implementation of FRS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement comes close, we highlight some common issues relating to financial instruments accounting. FRS 39 is effective for annual periods beginning 1 January 2005 and the 'version' of the standard that will be implemented allows "portfolio hedging" or "macro hedging". It also: may limit the financial assets and liabilities to which the fair value option may be applied; and may allow, but not require, an approach to transition that is easier to implement than the current version of FRS 39. There are three other exposure drafts respectively proposing amendments to the disclosure of financial instruments, cash flow hedge accounting for forecast intragroup transactions and financial guarantee contracts. The changes arising are not expected to be effective until January 2006, at the earliest. Does FRS 39 affect entities in the non-financial services industries? Yes, transactions of entities in the non-financial services industries would also need to be accounted for under FRS 39 FRS 39 deals with accounting for financial instruments and applies to entities in all industries that have financial instruments. Financial instruments embrace a broad range of assets and liabilities. They include both common balance sheet items such as cash, receivables, debt and shares in another entity as well as derivatives such as options, forwards and swaps. What are the common items affected by FRS 39? When initially recorded, a financial asset is included in the balance sheet at cost, which should be the fair value of the consideration given. In most cases, this will be equal to the actual cash given. Staff loans and inter-company loans below market interest rates with or without fixed terms of repayment In the case of staff loans or inter-company loans at preferential interest rates, the fair value of the consideration given would not be the same as the actual cash given. Instead, the fair value of such loans is the present value of all future cash receipts using a market interest rate (estimated at the time of disbursement) for a similar loan. The discounting process will result in a present value that is lower than the amount given and the difference is not a financial asset. It should be expensed off in the profit and loss account unless it qualifies for recognition as an asset under another applicable standard (e.g. FRS 38 Intangible Assets). For purposes of discounting, the entity has to estimate the expected repayment period. Even if there is a fixed repayment date, the entity is still required to determine the expected repayment period, if this is likely to be different from the contractual term of the loan. The expected repayment period has to be reestimated at each reporting date. Transaction costs in respect of borrowings If the entity's current accounting policy for transaction costs, e.g. borrowing costs, is to record them as an expense in the profit and loss account when incurred, the entity will need to revise its policy upon implementing FRS 39. FRS 39 requires such transaction costs to be capitalised when the borrowings are initially recorded. These transaction costs are then amortised to the profit and loss account as part of the recognition of effective interest over the expected repayment period.
11 Financial Reporting Matters 11 Provision for doubtful debts Impairment of investment in equity securities FRS 39 changes the way an entity provides for doubtful debts. If the entity's existing practice is to provide based on the expectation that a certain percentage of sales or the debtors balance will ultimately be unrecoverable, it is not acceptable. However, if it provides based on historical information representing actual incurred losses, for example, a certain percentage of the debtors balance in each age category, it may be acceptable. Upon implementation of FRS 39, an entity will no longer be allowed to continue with its policy of providing for diminution in the value of investments in equity securities based on a decline that is other than temporary. Instead, it will be required to consider whether there is any objective evidence that the investment is impaired. An example of objective evidence is a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the investments below their costs. In most instances, an impairment loss would be recognised in the profit and loss account, even if the prospect of the recovery is good and is evidenced by an increase in share price after the reporting date. Even when impairment loss is charged to the profit and loss account in the first instance, reversal of such loss must be recognised in equity. What is a derivative transaction? An entity may have entered into a derivative transaction without being aware of it because of the way FRS 39 defines a derivative. Sale or purchase of financial asset as a derivative Normal sale and purchase contract as a derivative In this section, we identify common transactions that fit the definition of a derivative and discuss the accounting implications. Generally, FRS 39 requires derivatives to be marked to market with changes in fair value taken to the profit and loss account. A derivative is a financial instrument where: the fair value of the instrument changes in response to an underlying factor; there is no initial net investment or a smaller than required initial net investment; and settlement is at a future date. A contract to purchase a financial asset such as shares or bonds meets the three characteristics of a derivative. The underlying factor for such a contract is the change in the share or bond price. At the date of entering into the contract with the broker, there is usually no initial payment required and the shares would be delivered at a future date, depending on the practice in the stock market. The contract is not recognised as a derivative under FRS 39, if it is delivered to the entity within the period of time generally recognised to be the market convention or established by regulation in the marketplace in which the transaction takes place. Otherwise, the contract is a derivative that should be recorded at the fair value for the period before settlement. In the context of a manufacturing or trading entity, a normal purchase order raised by the entity to obtain a product is an example of a purchase contract that has the three characteristics of a derivative. In a purchase contract, the underlying factor is the price of the product. There is also no initial payment required when the purchase contract is signed. In addition, the product is usually delivered at a future date. If the contract is for the purpose of meeting the entity's purchase, sale or usage needs and is expected to be settled by physical delivery, FRS 39 excludes it from the scope and treats it as an executory contract rather than as a derivative. However, if the entity has a practice of settling these contracts on a net basis in cash or in another financial instrument; or trading in the products for the purpose of short-term profit making; such contracts would fall within the scope of FRS 39 and be accounted for as derivatives.
12 Embedded derivative - foreign currency sale and purchase contract Where a sale and purchase contract is denominated in a currency, which is not the functional currency of either party to the contract, there is an embedded foreign exchange forward contract within the sale and purchase contract. FRS 39 requires the foreign exchange forward contract to be separated from the host contract (i.e. the sale and purchase contract) and accounts for it in the same manner as a free-standing derivative i.e. mark-to-market with changes taken to profit and loss account. FRS 39 however, provides exemption from having to separate the embedded foreign currency forward contract. The exemption is applicable if the sale and purchase contract is denominated: in the functional currency of either party; in the currency in which the product is routinely denominated in international commerce (such as US dollars for crude oil); or in the currency that is commonly used in the economic environment in which the transaction takes place. Embedded derivative - operating lease contract An operating lease contract with the landlord may contain an embedded derivative when it contains terms such as the following: Rental is payable based on the entity's profits. There is an option to extend the lease at the existing rate after inflation adjustments. In most instances, such an embedded derivative would not have to be separately accounted for as its risks or characteristics are closely related to the lease contract. Embedded derivative - investment in convertible bonds or high yield deposits Convertible bonds allow the holder of the instrument to convert into the issuer's shares before the maturity date. The equity conversion option is a derivative embedded within the host contract, which is a borrowing instrument. FRS 39 requires this equity conversion option to be separated from the host contract, as the equity conversion option is not closely related to the host. Therefore, if the convertible bonds are not already measured at fair value, the entity will need to measure the embedded derivative separately at fair value. An entity may invest in deposits which offer high interest rates and whose returns are dependent on an underlying factor such as an exchange rate. These investments contain embedded derivatives, which need to be separated from the hosts, if the risks or characteristics of the derivatives are not closely related to the hosts. As can be seen, FRS 39 can potentially affect a broad range of entities in many industries. It also changes the way companies look at financial instruments. Upon implementation of FRS 39, the use of fair value would also become more prevalent. Should you wish to discuss any matter regarding FRS 102 Share-based Payment, please contact: Tham Sai Choy Esther Bay Partner - Audit Partner - Audit Tel: Tel: For more details regarding FRS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, please contact: Ong Pang Thye Maria Lee Partner - Audit Partner - Professional Practice Department Tel: Tel: KPMG 16 Raffles Quay #22-00 Hong Leong Building Singapore Tel: Fax: KPMG, the Singapore member firm of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved. Printed in Singapore. MITA (P) 115/06/2004 This publication has been issued to inform clients of important accounting developments. While we take care to ensure that the information given is correct, the nature of the document is such that details may be omitted which may be relevant to a particular situation or entity. The information contained in this issue of Financial Reporting Matters should therefore not to be taken as a substitute for advice or relied upon as a basis for formulating business decisions. Materials published may only be reproduced with the consent of KPMG.
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