1 Review Paper on Use of Big Data in E-Governance of India Shubham Kalbande¹, Sumant Deshpande² and Prof. Mohit Popat³ CSE,JDIET/SGBAU CSE,JDIET/SGBAU CSE,JDIET/SGBAU ABSTRACT Big data is one of the emerging and critical issues facing government in the digital age. This study firstdelineates the defining features of big data (volume, velocity, and variety) and proposes a big data typologythat is suitable for the public sector. This study then examines the opportunities of big data in generating businessanalytics to promote better utilization and improved personalization of e-government services. Moreover, it discusses the big data management challenges in implementation of an appropriate governance structure, integrating diverse data sources, managing digital privacy andsecurity risks, and acquiring big data talent and tools. An effective big data management strategy to address these challenges should develop a stakeholder-focused and performance-oriented governance structure and implement a capacity for data management and business analytics as well as leverage and prioritize big data assets for performance. This article concludes with the main findings and topics of future research in big data for public administration. Keywords: Big Data, Public Sector,ICT, E-government. 1. INTRODUCTION In E-Governance, government makes best possible use of internet technology to communicate and provide information to common peoples and businessman. Today, electricity, water, phone and all kinds of bills can be paid over the internet. All this is what government and citizens is using and doing. All are dependent on internet and when citizens depends on government internet services all that come is E- Governance. Modern infrastructure allows targeting new large scale problem-governesses which solution was not possible before,e.g. Banking, Media, Airlines, Telecom, Entertainment News, Sports, Astrology, Movie Tickets, Public Works Monitoring, Electricity Board, Health etc. e-governess typically produces a huge amount of data that need to be supported by a new type of e-infrastructure capable to store, distribute, process, preserve, and curate these data: We refer to these new infrastructures as E-governess Data Infrastructure. In e- governess, the data are complex multifaceted objects with the complex internal relations, they are becoming an infrastructure of their own and need to be supported by corresponding physical or logical infrastructures to store, access and manage these data. The emerging E-GOVERNESS should allow different groups of researchers to work on the same data sets, constructing their own distributed approach and collaborative environments, safely store and retrieved intermediate results, and later share the discovered results. New data provide, Third party security and access control mechanisms and tools will allow researchers to link their e-governess results with the initial data and intermediate data to allow future re-use/repurpose of big data, e.g. with the improved research technique and tools. Use of internet by the government to provide its services at the door step of customers, business and other stakeholder. 2. PILLARS OF EGOVERNANCE VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 395
2 There are four pillars of E-Governance:- 1. Connectivity: - Connectivity is required to connect the people to the services of the government. There should be a strong connectivity for an effective e-governance. 2. Knowledge: - Here knowledge refers to IT knowledge. Government should employ skill full engineers who can handle the e-governance in an efficient way. These engineers also handle all kind of fault that may occur during the working of e-governance. 3. Data Content: - To share any kind of knowledge or information over the internet, there should be its database. This database should have the data content which is related to government services. 4. Capital:-Capital can be on public or private partnership. It refers to money used by government to provide their services or to that sector of the economy based on its operation This model of e-governance refers to the government services which are shared by citizens. Here, citizens visit to the link of services that they want to use. This models strong the bond between government and its citizen. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:- 1. Payment of online bills such as electricity, water, telephone bills etc. 2. Online registration of applications. 3. Copies of land-record. 4 Online filling of complaints. 5. Availability of any kind of online information. 3.2 Government to government (G2G):- This model refers to the services which are shared between the governments. There is lots of information that need to be shared between various government agencies, department and organizations. These types of services or information are as:- 1. Sharing of information between police department of various state. 2. Government document exchange which includes preparation, approval, distribution, and storage of all governmental documents is also done through e-governance. 3. Most of the finance and budget work are also done through e-governance. 3.3 Government to businessmen (G2B):- 3. E-GOVERNANCE MODELS E-GOVERNANCE services can be shared between citizens, businessman, government and employees. These four models of e-governance are as:- 1. Government to citizens (G2C) 2. Government to government (G2G) 3. Government to employees (G2E) 4. Government to businessman (G2B) 3.1 Government to citizens (G2C):- Through this model, bond between private sector and government increase and businessmen use to communicate. They share information through this model like:- 1. Collection of taxes. 2. Rejection and approval of patent is also done by this model. 3. Payment of all kind of bills and penalty. 4. Sharing of all kind of information, rules and data. 5. Complaints or any kind of dissatisfaction can be shown by this. VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 396
3 3.4 Government to employees (G2E):- This model increases the transparency between government and its employee. Here, employee can keeps a check on the functioning and working of government and government can keeps on its employees. Information that can be shared by this model:- ce record, employee record etc) from various government offices is done by this model and violence, and regulatory burden (Kaufmann, Kraay and Zoido-Lobaton 1999). The five principles of sincerity, contribution, liability, helpfulness and uniformity exercised within this framework support democratic governance. The concept of e-government started with the advent of government websites in the early 1990s. Before the development e- governance the status of government was rigid, static hierarchical regulated, while web is energetic, smooth and unfettered. dissatisfaction by this model. can be shared by this. - regulation and information for employees yees can check their payment and working record. Figure 1: ICT 4.1 Different Areas of E-Governance 4. ICT AND E-GOVERNANCE: ICT is Information and Communication Technologies." ICT refers to technologies that make available right to use to information throughout telecommunications. It is parallel to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. ICT having number of communication channels like wireless networks, cell phones, Internet and other. The rapid development and implementation of the Information and Communication Technology is transforming every aspect of human life According to Robert E. Davis Developing and implementing IT governance design effectiveness and efficiency can be a multidirectional, interactive, iterative, and adaptive process. ICT has opened up new avenues and opportunities for growth and development around the world, ICT have a valuable prospective to help meet good governance goals in world. It spread information to the user for widen their choices for Economic and social privileges. The E-Governance is the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The word govern derives from the latin word gubernare which means "to direct, rule, guide," originally "to steer (http://dictionary.com). Fundamental aspects of governance are: graft, rule of law, and government effectiveness. Other dimensions are: voice and accountability, political instability Today area of e-governance is very wide. E-Governance is implemented by government in almost every field. From urban states to rural areas and from politics to teaching-governance has spread its root everywhere. Either its public or private sector, common man or businessman all is largely dependent on e-governance. Here we have presented different areas where e-governance is widely used. In the following section, we are describing the projects used in urban and rural areas of India. Various projects:- 1. BHOOSWADEENA-This project is computerized land acquisition system with tight integration with BHOOMI. The purpose of this project is to develop a system to automate the process Land acquisition 2. I-GeoApproach Internet Geometrics:-Purpose of this project is development of Geometrics based web enabled decision support system for Rural Road Network of Madhya Pradesh. 3. RSPCB (Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board);-The project relates to establishment of computer based system by fulfilling the Hardware, Software and Networking Requirements The project will be beneficial to the Government, Central Pollution Control Board, RSPCB itself. 4. CFST:- Citizen Friendly Services of Transport Department This project is started by the government of Andhra Pradesh to VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 397
4 keeps check on pollution control, road safety, road signs and safety of its citizens. 4.2 APPLICATIONS OF E-GOVERNANCE These days, over 1000 e-governance services can be accessed athwart the length and breadth of the country through NeGP. Since Jan 2013, over 237 crore e- transactions have been delivered. E-Governance offers many reimbursement and recompense across the country for the government, corporate sector and society. E-Governance facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal operations and improves performance of government departments while helping all sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum ease of use. E-governance means that government is taking advantage of the new technology development to provide people with better government services. The basic aims of e- governance are to improve the ability of all people to participate in democracy and to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of all kinds of government services. E- government/governance can be directly linked to the main dimensions of good governance (Leitner, 2003), especially. Success of e-governance initiatives would depend on capacity building and creating awareness within government and outside it. Robust interoperability platform is the key to successful delivery of e-governan ce services especially when multiple government departments are involved in catering to the needs of the same set of citizens. Krishna Markande Principal Technical Architect Product Engineering Group Infosys Technologies Limited. There are following applications: 5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS TO BIG DATA E- GOVERNESS Big Data e- governess is becoming a new technology driver and requires re-thinking a number of infrastructure components, solutions and processes to address the following general challenges: Exponential growth of data volume produced by different research instruments and/or collected from sensors Need to consolidate e-infrastructure as persistent research platform to ensure research continuity and crossdisciplinary collaboration, deliver/offer persistent services, with adequate governance model. The recent advancements in the general ICT and big data technologies facilitate the paradigm change in modern e-governess. E-governess that is characterized by the following features: Automation of all e- governess processes including data collection, storing, classification, indexing and other components of the general data duration and provenance Transformation all processes, events and products into digital form by means of multi-dimensional multifaceted measurements, monitoring and control; digitising existing artefacts and other content. Possibility to re-use the initial and published E-governess with possible data re-purposing for secondary research Global data availability and access over network for cooperative group of public user including wide public access to e- governess Advanced security and access control technologies that ensure secure operation of the complex research infrastructures and e-governess instruments and allow creating trusted secure environment for cooperating groups and individual researchers Multidimensional data can involved and distributing the data management efficiently Monitoring the heterogeneous data might be evaluated constructing in the structure manner The data management efficiently could be stored and retrieved by using the big data much effectively in corresponding technology. Figure 3: Applications of E-governance VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 398
5 Figure: Big data structures 5.1. Data Management in Big Data an E-Governess Emergence of computer aided research methods is transforming the way how research are done and egoverness data are used. The following types of e-governess data are defined : Raw data collected from observation and from Experiment (according to an initial research model) Structured data and datasets that went through data Filtering and processing (supporting some particular formal model) Published data that supports one or another e-governess hypothesis, research result or statement Data linked to publications to support the wide research consolidation, integration, and openness. Volume refers to larger amounts of data being Generated from a range of sources For example, big data can include data gathered from the Internet of Things (Iota). As originally conceived, 3 Iota referred to the data gathered from a range of devices and sensors networked together, over the Internet. RFID tags appear on inventory items capturing transaction data as goods are shipped through the supply chain. Big data can also refer to the exploding information available on social Media such as Face book and Twitter. Variety refers to using multiple kinds of data to Analyze a situation or event. On the Iota, millions of devices generating a constant flow of data results in not only a large volume of data but different types of data characteristic of different situations. For example, in addition to WSN, heart monitors in patients and Global position System all generate different types of structured data However, devices and sensors aren t the only sources of data. Additionally, people on the Internet generate a highly diverse set of structured and unstructured data. Web browsing data, captured as a sequence of clicks, is structured data. However, there s also substantial unstructured data. For example, according to kingdom, 4 in 2012 there were 600 million websites and more than 125 million blogs, with many including non structured multidimensional data base.. As a result, there s an assemblage of data emerging through the Internet of People and Things 5 and the Internet of Everything. Velocity of data also is on demand rapidly over time for semi structure data band there s a need for more frequent decision making about that data. As the world becomes more global and developed, and as the Iota builds, there s an increasing frequency of data capture and decision making about those things as they move through the world. Further, the velocity of social media use is increasing. For example, there are more than 250 million face book per day.4 Face book lead to decisions about other Face book, escalating the velocity. Further, unlike classic data warehouses that generally store data, big data is more dynamic. As decisions are made using big data, those decisions ultimately can influence the next data that s gathered and analyzed, adding another dimension to velocity. 5.2 Areas of E-Governance In Rural Areas In rural areas e-governance has its very powerful impact. Here, from agriculture to local information everything is done through e-governance Agriculture:- Following are the projects used in Agriculture. 1. GYANDOOT: In the State of Madhya Pradesh it is an Intranet-based Government to citizen (G2c) service delivery initiative. 2. BELE:- It is a web-based application with 3-tier architecture for capturing and monitoring the major activities and services. 3. AGMARKNET: - It is a project approved by Department of Marketing & Inspection (DMI), Ministry of Agriculture, and Government of India. 4. SEEDNET:-It is a SEED informatics network under ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The project was started in Chhattisgarh in the month of July' 2008 for Kharif season. VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 399
6 5. Mustard Procurement Management System:- It is started by Haryana government. It Conducted the Survey of mustard sown by the farmers and feed this data in to the database of the system. This data is then processed and generate coupons having information of dates on which farmer may visit in the mandi to sale his mustard Local information: - For local information such as prices of seeds, fertilizers, loan rates etc. government has started e- governance service in this area also. Various projects:- 1. E-JanSampark:-Services & Information accessible to the common man in his locality to meet his basic need. This project is started by Chandigarh. 2. Prajavani: - it is started by the Government of Andhra Pradesh.it is a Web based On-line Monitoring of Public Grievances. 3. Web Portals for Hyderabad and Cyberabad Police:-It is designed by hyderabad, developed and hosted with many exciting public utility features like Safety tips for all citizens, verificatiosn status of Passports, Stolen vehicles etc. 4. Intranet Portal of Chandigarh Administration:-It provides an environment where administration could interact. 5. E-DISHA EkalSewa Kendra:-This project is started by Haryana government.e-disha to deliver any service from any counter/location, so at the peak requirements of services, counters can be extended as per crowd. 6. E-Samadhan: - the Government of Himachal Pradesh stressed upon to develop grievances redressed mechanism so that the genuine public grievances may be redressed in a time bound manner Disaster management: - To manage disaster, is a very big challenge for the government as these are natural phenomena and are unpredictable. To deal with these disasters, much state government has started e-governance service for this. Project in this area is:- Chetana: - It is a Disaster management system which has been started in the state of Bihar to deal with natural disasters such as flood and earthquake Land record management:-.by facilatinge-governance service in this area, millions of land records can be maintain in a very short time span. Major projects in this area are:- 1. Bhoomi:-It is the first e-governance land records management system project which is successfully implemented for the benefits of the common man by the Government of Karnataka. 2. Comprehensive Modernization of Land Records (CMLR):- This project is started by the government of Andhra Pradesh. It allows integrating functions of property registration, mutations and updating of field survey maps. 3. Land Record Computerisation: - The objective of the project is to computerize fresh allotment, land transfer, regularisation of occupied land etc. related actives of the Dept. of Land Management at district level. 4. Gyandoot: - it is an intranet in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, connecting rural cybercafés catering to the everyday needs of the masses. 5. Land Records Management System State Government of Punjab. 6. Devbhoomi State Government of Uttarakhand. 7. Bhu-Lekh UP State Government of Uttar Pradesh. 8. E-Dhara State Government of Gujarat Panchayat:-Services provided by e-governance in this area are:- sections of the society. and review for success. the poorest section of the rural society. Various projects:- 1. E-GramViswa Gram Project:- This Project Initiates e-gram Project connecting Gram Panchayats and 6000 Citizen Common Service Centres as a part of the e-gram connectivity Project by Gujarat. 2. RajNidhi: - "RajNidhi" is a web enabled information kiosk system developed jointly by Rajasthan state's Department of Information Technology and Rajasthan State Agency for Computer Services (Raj Comp). VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 400
7 3. Raj-SWIFT:-The Rajasthan State s Department of Information Technology (DoIT) has developed Government s own Intranet called as "raj-swift". 4. Support for P & RD sector in Assam:-NIC, Assam State Centre has been identified as the technical consultant for e- Governance solution and Computerization of the Department of Panchayat and Rural Development. 5. SamanyaMahiti by the State Government of Karnataka 6 BIG DATA AND INDIA There are many ways in which big data can help the Indian Government to grow more and go for the changes and implementing the various policies and government schemes. Now if we consider India then one of the biggest source of big data can be of AADHAAR scheme, a unique identification project, which is undertaken by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), is an agency of Government of India, which was established in February 2009, and will own and operate the Unique identification Number Database. The authority is planning to provide the unique identification numbers to all Indians, but won t be providing the smart cards, that would depend on to the ministries of the country. The authority will maintain a database of residents containing the biometric and other data. Mainly the database would be containing the 12-digit unique number which is going to be issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) for all the residents, all this numbers will be stored in the centralized database and will be linked to the basic demographics and biometric information photograph, ten figure prints and iris of each individual. Random numbers generated will be free from any classification based on caste, religion and Applications of BIG DATA in Government Sector geography. This database would be very large and big but this will allow those people to have identity who do not have any sort of identification Now if we talk about the number of entries under this scheme, total number of AADHAARs issued as of 24-March-2013 is over 304 million (30.4 crore). This is more than 25% of the population of India. And that gives us the insight that how big the data would be within the end of this year, and processing and manipulating this data statistics would help the Government to make various decisions based on those statistics. AADHAAR is an ambitious government Big data project which is going to be one of the largest biometric database in the world by 2014, with the global capturing about 600 million Indian Identities. And dealing with this kind of database is not an easy task, but India is going to be one of the first country who would be dealing with this much large amount of public biometric database. 6.1 Application of big data and e-governance APPLICATIONS OF E-GOVERNANCE These days, over 1000 e-governance services can be accessed athwart the length and breadth of the country through NeGP. Since Jan 2013, over 237 crore e- transactions have been delivered. E- Governance offers many reimbursement and recompense across the country for the government, corporate sector and society. E-Governance facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal operations and improves performance of government departments while helping all sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum ease of use. E-governance means that government is taking advantage of the new technology development to provide people with better government services. The basic aims of e- governance are to improve the ability of all people to participate in democracy and to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of all kinds of government services. E- government/governance can be directly linked to the main dimensions of good governance (Leitner, 2003), especially. Success of e-governance initiatives would depend on capacity building and creating awareness within government and outside it. Robust interoperability platform is the key to successful delivery of e-governan ce services especially when multiple government departments are involved in catering to the needs of the same set of citizens. Krishna Markande Principal Technical Architect Product Engineering Group Infosys Technologies Limited. 7 BIG DATA AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 7.1 Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme IT is also known as the DBT scheme that aims bringing transparency and eliminating the stealing from the distribution funds. This scheme is dependent on AADHAAR card that will VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 401
8 help people to get benefit of this scheme and it will also ensure the government about the number of people who are getting benefit out of this, it includes various different schemes under it like education, scholarships etc. By keeping track of this records will help the Government to decide the funding for a particular states, and they would also be able to keep track of improvement and the growth within the particular region where people are benefited of this scheme. So if these records are analyzed in a proper manner then this statistics will lead to the improvement, and Government would be able to focus on those areas which are really important, thus how big data can play a vital role there Impact on Election and Voting system: As I had mention the biggest example of Big Data and its usage in the Election campaign by the President of United States, Barak Obama, his team focused on to the right public or we can say registered users as per their database records and based on their activities user used to receive s and connected through phone calls. President Obama's election team was able to dynamically analyze the global state of preelection sentiment, and deploy advertising resources and human volunteers to the areas that needed the most attention, virtually in real time. Indian Government can also use the same kind of thing, by analyzing the big data and making policies and the scheme based on those statistics which will help the people of the country as well as the growth of the country Impact on Government Construction Projects : As there are many new projects are assigned in to the various states of the country every month for the development of the region and the country. It may be possible that Construction or the project may be deficient and may create problem in near future, as some of the projects might not be meeting the inspection criteria. So my point here is that real-time analytics can help the government and the other people alike, let me give you an example for that, The University of Texas is working on sensor technology that use wireless sensors to identify failing bridges, lower the cost of monitoring those bridges, and improve the safety of new bridges, and can report dynamic data measurements on a bridge's condition. They're working on sensors that can survive the constant vibration, weather, and even send and receive data through all the steel that normally would make radio transmission a near impossibility. So the thing would be like there would be lot data which is supposed to be filtered out to get the exact information about the bridges and their conditions, that will be bit complex but at a same time it will save lot of resources like money, human lives, etc. This data can be feed to the system and that system can help in the time of critical situation when the project need some maintenance or any repair kind of thing. Thus it can help in that way too Impact on Education: More data about students can help students in various different ways to find their interest, strength, and help to identify student weaknesses in ways that are not possible today. Impact of Big data on to the Education sector can play a really vital role, in the normal case generally school boards decide which text books students are required to follow for their particular subjects and all, but do we know which text book is actually good or bad? No, we depend upon expert opinions. But now we do have the data, as are moving from the hard cover books to the electronic books, as people are using the tablets and the other electronic book delivery mechanism like ipad or Kindle from Amazon etc. They all usually collect the information. If we take an example of an Amazon then it know how long you stay on each page, when you re-read a page, or you read chapter over and over when you Applications of BIG DATA in Government Sector some difficulties within that. All information is kept within Amazon. Those information would be really help a lot to the author or the publisher of the book to improve the things within text books, and that can also help the Board of Education to make some worthy decision based on those statistics, and that will ultimately help the students, same way to the people of the country Impact on Health care : This also a very important area where big data can play a very huge role and can save tons of money. By having an access to all the medical records of the past decade or more, can help government to take a proper decision in this area. When this user data is processed in the right manner and analyzed correctly, it will result in to the complete statistics on which part of the country are suffering from what kind of health related issues and disease. And that can help the government to start new services and can also lead to opening the new VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 402
9 hospitals to serve the patients, Government can also issue some more funding for the research and development of some lifesaving medicines, this way government can help in health care area Generating revenue from Government sites With the Big data technology: Governments can also earn from their running web sites, as they are providing different kind of advertisement on the government sites, and many of the advertisement may be irrelevant.for example site of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation limited (IRCTC), they deal with the tourism things, they may earn if they provide tourism relevant advertisement. With the help of big data they can provide the personalized ads, which would be more relevant to the people who are using such sites, and that will usually increase the rate of generating revenue compare to those irrelevant advertisements. 8. FUTURE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The future research and development will include further SDLM definition, e-governess and Map Reduce components definition and development with focus on infrastructure components of e-governess. Special attention will be given to defining the whole cycle of the provisioning e-governess services on-demand specifically tailored to support instant e- governess workflows using Distributed platforms. This research will be also supported by development of the corresponding Big Data e-governess processes and Map reduces operation.  Gillick et al., 2006, Gillick D., Faria A., DeNero J., and MapReduce: Distributed Computing for Machine Learning, Berkley, and December 18,  K. Shvachko, HairongKuang, S. Radia and R Chansler. The Hadoop Distributed File System. Mass Storage Systems and Technologies(MSST), 2010 IEEE 26th Symposium 3-7 May  F. Chang, J. Dean, S. Ghemawat, W. Hsieh, D. Wallach,M. Burrows,T. Chandra, A. Fikes, and R. Gruber, \Bigtable: A distributed structured data storage system,. in 7th OSDI,2006, pp  A. Stupar, S. Michel, and R. Schenkel, \Rankreduce.processingknearest neighbor queries on top of mapreduce,. in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Large- Scale Distributed Systems for Information Retrieval, 2010, pp  J. Ekanayake, H. Li, B. Zhang, T. Gunarathne, S. Bae, J. Qiu, and G. Fox, \Twister: a runtime for iterative mapreduce,.in Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing. ACM, 2010, pp  J.S. Chase et al., \Dynamic Virtual Clusters in a Grid Site Manager,. Proc. 12th IEEE Int flsymp. High Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC 03), IEEE CS Press, 2003, p CONCLUSION Big Data technologies offer significant potential value for public sector organizations. However, development and implementation of them is difficult, as practitioners are unsure whether their organizations are ready to use Big Data or not. REFERENCES  Bansal, V. and J. Bhattacharya. E-governance solution for government of Maharashtra. Technology whitepaper, India Research Lab, IBM,  Batra, V.; J. Bhattacharya; H. Chauhan; A. Gupta; M.Mohania; U. Sharma \Policy Driven Data.  Administration.. In POLICY 2002, IEEE 3rd International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks. VOLUME-2, SPECIAL ISSUE-1, MARCH-2015 COPYRIGHT 2015 IJREST, ALL RIGHT RESERVED 403
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