1 294 Int. J. Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2007 New ways of innovation: an application of the cyclic innovation model to the mobile telecom industry A.J. (Guus) Berkhout* and Patrick A. van der Duin Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, BX Delft 2628, The Netherlands Fax: *Corresponding author Abstract: New developments in the mobile telecom industry, such as growing transmission bandwidth and sector-crossing business alliances, change the way in which mobile telco s are innovating. Traditional innovation models, such as the single-company linear model ( pipeline model ), do no longer describe how innovation occurs today. An interesting alternative is the boundary-crossing Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM). It considers innovation processes as coupled cycles of change, connecting science with business, and technology with markets, in a cyclic manner. For illustration purposes, CIM has been applied to Lucio. Lucio is a mobile data product-service combination introduced into the Dutch market by KPN Mobile. The analysis shows that Lucio is a multi-sector, class-2 innovation. It also shows that CIM provides insight into the complex network of companies involved, making clear how each company technically and non-technically contributes functionality that together constitutes the innovation. CIM may be considered a promising addition to the growing family of fourth-generation innovation models. Keywords: innovation; innovation processes; innovation models; mobile data services; mobile telecom industry; convergence; unbundling; cyclic innovation model. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Berkhout, A.J. and van der Duin, P.A. (2007) New ways of innovation: an application of the cyclic innovation model to the mobile telecom industry, Int. J. Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp Biographical notes: Guus Berkhout started his career with Shell in 1964, where he held several international positions in R&D and technology transfer. In 1976 he accepted a chair at Delft University of Technology in the field of geophysical and acoustical imaging. During , he was a member of the Delft University Board, being responsible for scientific research, knowledge management and intellectual property. In 2001, he also accepted a chair in the field of innovation management. Professor Berkhout is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and the Netherlands Academy of Engineering (NFTW). He is an honorary member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). He also serves on a number of Governing Boards in the scientific and business communities. Patrick A. van der Duin is an Assistant Professor at Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Section Technology, strategy and entrepreneurship. He receives his master in Copyright 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
2 New ways of innovation 295 economics from the University of Amsterdam. He was a researcher and senior advisor at KPN Research where he participated in future studies research on use of telecommunication services and products. He has done a PhD on the use of qualitative methods of futures research in innovation processes in commercial organizations. 1 Introduction Telecommunication has been part of our society for a long time, but currently receives more attention than ever before. Many scientific journals and business magazines report on spectacular new technological and market developments in the mobile telecom industry. An interesting example is the fast uptake of medium broadband GPRS-based services, already reaching a market penetration rate of 70 80% in many European countries (Carleen et al., 2002). In addition, we see far-reaching changes due to the unbundling of the mobile telecom sector as well as its convergence with other businesses such as IT and media. The mobile telecom industry also receives much attention because of negative aspects such as the enormous financial debts (mobile) telecom operators have accumulated due to spending huge amounts of money on UMTS licenses to build and exploit mobile broadband networks for mobile data services. The subsequent massive lay-offs of employees from telco-companies (both operators and suppliers), depreciation of UMTS licenses and delays of new investments in the mobile telecommunication infrastructure are consequences of their awkward financial position. Nevertheless, there is hope for the future. Drastic cost reductions have worked out, and gradually telecom operators obtain the financial space to consider investing again in a more aggressive business strategy. However, merely investing in product development will not suffice. Utilisation of the latest insights in innovation processes will be a much better strategy. Because underneath the short-term problem how to improve their financial position exists, mobile telco s must address the long-term issue of how to innovate successfully. The mobile telco s are facing a dilemma: on the one hand they need to develop new business (such as new mobile data applications), while on the other hand they do not (yet) have sufficient resources to invest in these emerging opportunities. This dilemma is exacerbated by the uncertainty on which role to play in a mobile industry that has changed from a simple, linear structure into a complex, nonlinear network, often crossing traditional sectoral boundaries. All this affects the new environment in which mobile telcos have to work. It forces them to re-think the way they need to innovate, technically and non-technically. In this paper, we describe how a new way of looking at innovation, provided by the Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM), can deal with the new challenges in innovation. CIM is applied to a recent innovation called Lucio, a mobile telecommunication service offered by KPN Mobile in the Netherlands. We start with an overview of current developments in the mobile telecom industry (Section 2). In Section 3, we discuss the characteristic properties of today s innovation economy, being the business environment of the telecom industry. Section 4 contains a summary of CIM, Section 5 describes Lucio and in Section 6 we apply CIM to Lucio.
3 296 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin We emphasise the new insights the model offers, and we show how CIM can guide the development of future innovations. 2 Developments in the mobile telecom industry and their impact on innovation To characterise today s mobile telecom industry, we outline five major trends. In our view, these trends are the most influential to the forthcoming innnovation wave in the telecom sector. 1 We take a broad view, encompassing not only product innovation and process innovation (technical components), but also changes in the way new products and services are offered to the market (non-technical components). Altogether, this will lead to new business models. 2.1 Increase in bandwidth Extending today s bandwith can be considered as the red thread through almost all new developments in the mobile telecom industry. The growing bandwidth largely follows Gilder s law, which states that every 12 months the capacity of broadband triples. This trend is illustrated in successive mobile communication standards, 1 G for analogue mobile communication in the past (NMT) up to 2 G for mobile communication today (GSM). We are currently in the 2.5 G era, an extension of 2 G, which has a bandwidth of approximately 25 kbps. Mobile services in this category are GPRS-type services and i-mode. The forthcoming standard will be UMTS technology (3G). Initially, it will have a bandwidth of approximately 380 kbps, rising up to 2 Mbps in the near future. UMTS enables viewing real-time video via the mobile phone (William and McKnight, 2003). It is expected that technology beyond UMTS will exceed 10 Mbps. UMTS and beyond are technology push. We know that this kind of push will not automatically guarantee economic value. Commercial success will depend on new applications and new services using this enabling technology. The trend of growing bandwidth facilitates new technological capabilities of the communication channel, which again facilitates new applications, together defining a range of innovation opportunities. 2.2 Unbundling of the industry The telecom industry is being restructured, generally coined by the term unbundling. This trend refers to the development in which vertically integrated telco s, in many situations the national incumbent operators, are being divided into separate commercial organisations that often become independent companies. This important development is initiated by European policy and enforced by national regulators, aiming at liberalising telecommunication markets. The result is often the privatisation of the national PTTs (the incumbent telco s), dividing the company into different independent organisations as well. Each can then be offered to the market for mergers or take-overs. An example is the splitting-up of the wholesale and retail departments of Dutch telco KPN. In addition, they sold their network-building activities. Unbundling has also a close relationship with the decision of telco s to focus on their core business, and to outsource all activities that are considered as non-core.
4 New ways of innovation 297 The trend of sectoral unbundling shows that innovation in the (mobile) telecom industry is increasingly occurring between different companies that are occupying different positions within the telecom value chain. The combination of different players within the telecom value chain has an important influence on innovation in the sector: innovations are created by external partnerships. 2.3 Convergence with other businesses The telecommunication sector in general, and the mobile industry in particular, is no longer a self-containing business but has mixed in many ways with other businesses outside the sector (e.g., Rao, 1999). Particularly, it has developed close ties with the information technology business and the media business. This is reflected by alliances, mergers and take-overs between companies in these different sectors, such as the take-over of Dutch broadcasting company Endemol by Spanish telecom operator Telefonica. Another, more recent example is the decision of Dutch food retailer Albert Heijn, part of the global food company Ahold, to sell pre-paid mobile phones in their stores making them also a retailer in the mobile communications industry. Wirtz (2001) mentions three drivers for this convergence development: technological drivers such as digitalisation, development of intelligent networks, and the technical convergence of media platforms deregulation, that is cross-sector competition spurred by the liberalisation of vertical integration and privatisation of former state-owned PTT s demand-related drivers as expressed in changing customer preferences such as individualisation of customer relations and systematic solutions. The convergence of mobile communication and internet also takes place at an individual level, where users consult the internet via their mobile phone. However, the precise course and consequences of this development with regard to the use of the mobile phone in everyday life are still ambivalent and uncertain (Fortunati and Contarello, 2002; van de Kar and van der Duin, 2004). The trend of cross-sectoral convergence forces mobile telco s to cooperate with companies outside their own industry to ensure cross-sectoral innovation. This type of innovation can be well identified in the Cyclic Innovation Model. 2.4 New business models Sectoral unbundling and cross-sectoral convergence have resulted in a rearrangement of the position of telco s. One consequence is that representation of today s value chain by a linear type of model is no longer valid. Telco s and their partners have different roles and functions. The new product-service combination can no longer be described in terms of a simple sectoral pipeline: one company supplying another company higher up in the value chain, which itself again supplies the next company, etc. Instead, the structure of this new business model looks more like a sector-crossing network or web. Notions like value network, value web or business-matrix are used to describe the complex business interactions of the mobile telecom industry (Ballon et al., 2002; Carleen et al., 2002; Sabat, 2002; Li and Whalley, 2002).
5 298 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin 2.5 New services The effects of cross-company technology and multi-sector business models are reflected in the development and introduction of new services in the mobile telecommunications market (both business-to-business and business-to-consumer). These new services are extending the traditional telecom portfolio far beyond voice-type services. The new mobile services contain an important data element. Table 1 summarises which service categories can be distinguished and which specific services belong to one category for both the consumer and business markets (Preez and Pistorius, 2002). It shows an explosion of new services, many of which are not yet successful. Table 1 New mobile data services for different consumer and business segments Market segment Service categories Specified services Consumer Information services News headlines; market and financial information; new movie releases; what s on Business Personal information management (PIM) Location-based services Entertainment M-commerce Interactive communications Remote access to information Job and information dispatches Remote transactions Telemetry/device-todevice (or: machineto-machine) Source: Preez and Pistorius (2002) ; contact lists; shared scheduling; customised alerts for stock market prices or auction bids Directions from current positions to a specified location; queries for various facilities (e.g., hospital and restaurant) in the user s vicinity Video and audio on demand; mobile betting and gaming Mobile banking, shopping and stock trading; mobile auctions; e-booking and ticketing One-to-one or multiple participant text-based chat; video telephony and conferencing; interactive games. Remote control of appliances (e.g., alarm/vcr setting) Sales force automation through access to stock, product and customer information; remote access to intranet or other corporate repositories; ; online telephone directories Informing field staff of their next assignment (e.g., plumbers, electricians and technical support staff). Sending of information to multiple recipients (e.g., notifications of meetings). Focused/ personalised advertising Remote control of processes and devices; placing and processing customer orders Price changes being sent from a central controller to all vending machines; meter readings; remote vehicle diagnostics Note that the implementation of new services again triggers the demand for new products, which again may offer opportunities to new services, leading to a circle of change.
6 New ways of innovation Innovation economy The changes within the mobile telecom industry, caused by the combination of technological and market developments, as described in Section 2, do not only take place specifically in that industry but are part of a much wider development. Therefore, they have a large effect on national economies. In a national innovation economy, it is value creation by perpetual renewal of products and services that is the source of economic growth. An important basis for renewal is scientific progress. An innovation economy is able to rapidly absorb new explicit knowledge from science and on that basis itself generates new knowledge. This new knowledge lies at a higher aggregation level and is directed towards new technology, new product designs, new methods of production, new forms of service provision and new insights into national and global markets. However, with innovation it is not just explicit scientific knowledge that is used. Much new, often implicit, knowledge also develops outside the confines of science. Indeed, the practical arena has its own kind of dynamics in which new developments are initiated that are perpetually adapted to the aimed-at result. In that way, an empirical learning process arises that creates new knowledge, proven to be successful in practice. In an innovation economy, explicit scientific and implicit practical knowledge show a cyclic interaction, enhancing each other in learning organisations (Senage 1990). What characterises an innovation economy is the creation of high added value for society. Therefore, companies do not only compete on the basis of lower costs but particularly on the basis of more value. In an innovation economy, product-service combinations are diverse, being directed towards the (latent) needs and concerns of people: less illness and more health, less violence and more safety, less bother and more ease, etc. In other words, an innovation economy demands a new kind of entrepreneurship in which what is central is value creation for society. Value creation demands that knowledge needs to be implemented in a wide area in which not only the technical-oriented sciences but also the social-oriented sciences have an important contribution to make, and where not just industry but also consumer organisations have a part to play ( dual nature ). Traditional innovation models fail to describe the dual nature of innovation processes as they occur in real life. 3.1 Departure from linear thinking The history of the development of innovation processes is often divided into four generations (Liyanage and Greenfield, 1999; Miller, 2001; Rothwell, 1994; Roussel et al., 1991; Chiesa, 2001). 2 In the traditional linear model (first generation), innovation was represented by a pipeline of sequential processes that started at pure scientific research and ended with commercial applications. However, this model incorporated too late market information so that often commercial applications were merely technical inventions and were often not adopted by the market. Also, the link between the R&D department and other departments outside R&D was very loose. Second generation models emerged, which paid more attention to the feedback of information from the market, essentially reversing the linear pipeline. Hence, science was replaced by the market as the source of innovation. Processes were still largely seen as sequential steps. Disadvantages of this generation were: too much focus on small improvements of existing products (optimisation), and innovation was managed by a range of loose projects. In the last decade, third-generation models have been introduced
7 300 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin that show less linearity, and, above all, in these models investments in the innovation chain are linked to company strategy. Unfortunately, third generation models look only at product and process innovation (technical) and not at organisational or market innovations (non-technical). In short, third generation innovation models tend to focus on new technological capabilities rather than including emerging societal needs Table 2 summarises the three generations. Table 2 Generation First Second Third Characteristics of different generations of innovation management Characteristics Technology push, linear process, scientific freedom is very important, no strategic goals, no professional project management, no chain management Market pull, linear process, R&D-institutes as organisational matrix, still weak ties between innovation projects and corporate strategy, weak chain management Combination of market pull and technology push, innovation projects are linked to company goals, emphasis on chain management All current generations have the fundamental disadvantage that they represent some kind of a chain, causing science and market to be far away from each other. In the following, we will introduce a radical deviation from previous generations of innovation models, replacing the familiar chain architecture by a cyclic architecture: The circle of change. This circle of change is positioned as an open innovation arena, where change creates opportunity and opportunity triggers entrepreneurs to innovate beyond existing boundaries. 4 Cyclic innovation model We have seen that developments in the mobile telecom industry have generated a new commercial environment in which (business) processes cross traditional company boundaries and combine across industrial sectors. This means that innovation develops in a new direction, requiring new business concepts. These business concepts are the basis of fourth generation innovation models (Niosi, 1999). Fourth generation innovation models can be characterised by the following properties: innovation occurs in partnerships: open innovation ample attention is given to an early interaction between science and business the need for new organisational concepts is emphasised: management of networks entrepreneurship plays a central role. An example of a fourth generation innovation model is the Cyclic Innovation Model (Berkhout, 2000). The Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM) was developed in the nineties as an instrument for continuous reform, which is at the base of ongoing change in public and private organisations. The model describes the innovation arena by a circle of change. It links changes in scientific insights, changes in technological capabilities, changes in product
8 New ways of innovation 301 design and manufacturing and changes in markets. To this end, the model moves away from the traditional chain concept and represents a circle with four nodes of change, connected by four interacting cycles of change. Collectively, they may be seen as the arena of complex, boundary crossing innovation processes which occur in open innovation nowadays. Figure 1 shows the model at the highest conceptual level. 3 Figure 1 The cyclic innovation model visualises the circle of change, linking changes in science (left-hand side) with business (right-hand side) as well as changes in technology (upper part) and markets (lower part) in a cyclic manner In the technical-oriented sciences cycle (upper left part of the model), interaction processes that relate to the development of new technology occur. Input from different scientific disciplines is required to provide a package of specialistic knowledge in fields such as mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology and informatics (disciplines of the hard sciences): technological research is a multidisciplinary activity. In the systems engineering cycle (upper right part of the model), interaction processes which relate to the development of new products occur. Input from different technological areas is required to provide a pacakge of smart methods and tools for new designs and new ways of manufacturing. Note that the engineering cycle is no longer only directed towards the development of material products in the traditional fabrication and process industries. In modern engineering, the focus is also upon biotechnical products, information products, financial products, logistic products, content in the media industry, games in the recreation industry, etc. Note that both material and immaterial products may represent components in a complex system, such as a telecom infrastructure. Such a system may be regarded as one product that functions as a component in the total infrastructural system of a nation. It all depends on the scale of application that is considered. Likewise, in the customised service cycle (lower right part of the model), interaction processes that relate to the development of (new) markets occur. Input from a range of products is required to fulfil the (potential) societal needs. Nowadays, products are increasingly accompanied by services and advanced service provision is increasingly facilitated by technical products. Think of maintenance, distribution, security, etc.
9 302 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin We therefore increasingly deal in innovation with new product-service combinations. The engineering and service cycles interact through product development, highlighting the dual function of products in innovation: technical and social. Hence, products should be seen as socio-technical functions that a company or an alliance of companies has to offer to its (potential) customers. Finally, in the soft sciences cycle (lower left part of the model) new scientific insight is gained into the needs and concerns of society. Input from different scientific disciplines is required to provide a package of specialistic knowledge in fields such as economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and law (disciplines of the soft sciences): improved insight in up- and downgoing markets market transitions requires multidisciplinary research. This particularly applies to today s complex commercial processes, which aim at creating economic value with new product-service combinations. Since today s markets are an amalgam of technical, economic, social and cultural change, the traditional disciplinary models are not very appropriate in such cases. The Cyclic Innovation Model highlights the dual function of science in innovation: technical and social. Note that autonomous social transitions manifest themselves in markets as changes in the need for products and services (the demand). Such societal changes stimulate innovation. On the other hand, autonomous technological developments generate new products and services (the supply). Such technological changes change society. It is the cyclic interaction of both innovation drivers that will create maximum value to the market. A fundamental characteristic of the proposed innovation model is that it describes a circle and not merely a chain. Science is not at the beginning of a chain and the market is not at the end of a chain. Both are part of a perpetual learning process along a dynamic path that has no fixed starting or ending point. Innovation may start anywhere and anytime. The result is an endless build up of value creation that is realised by the reinforcing cycles of the entire circle. In CIM, new technologies (for example, origination from new scientific discoveries) and changes in the market (for example, origination from new life styles) continually influence each other in a cyclic manner. This dual nature of innovation will shape the future. Innovations may introduce small or large changes in society. Often, one refers to incremental and radical innovations. The Cyclic Innovation Model allows a more diverse classification. Innovations of class-1 are based on changes in one node only. For instance, an existing product-service combination which is introduced with a fundamentally new marketing concept. Similarly, innovations of class-2 are based on changes in two nodes, etc. In innovations of class 4 four-star innovations new scientific insight plays a crucial role, initiating new technologies, new product-service combinations and new changes in the market. For instance, think of the life- and nanosciences that will drastically change our life in the future. They are considered system innovations. 4 Figure 1 shows the circle of change at the highest conceptual level. At a lower level, each node comprises a group of different teams that may reside in different companies, and each cycle comprises a matrix network between two neighbouring nodes (Berkhout, 2000). This means that the innovation model represents a playground of coupled networks along the circle that interact in a cyclic manner: the innovation arena. The creation of economic value in this arena requires a new type of entrepreneurship.
10 5 Lucio New ways of innovation 303 Lucio is a mobile data service that was introduced into the Dutch market at the end of It enables employees of companies to access their business information (such as , agenda, adress book and internet) when they are away from their desk. It is offered as a package of different product-service components implemented by a certified system integrator. The mobile device is a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). Other product components that are needed to deliver and to make use of the service are a mobile infrastructure (e.g., GPRS), and a VPN gateway (access to Virtual Private Network) at the premises of the customer. All components are based on a Microsoft Exchange server on a LAN (Local Access Network) and a firewall. Lucio was developed by KPN Mobile, a Dutch mobile operator and service provider, in cooperation with Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft. Lucio was marketed by KPN Mobile as a service that is a guaranteed total solution, a reliable service and easy to use. It is essential to view Lucio as an innovation by combination (Schumpeter, 1934; van den Ende, 2003, p.1505): innovation is not at a component level but at a systems level. Lucio represents a new combination of several components: infrastructure (GPRS), device (mobile phone or PDA), software (e.g., information manager), hardware (e.g., intranet, mailservers) and the actual services (e.g., , agenda). Integrated systems such as Lucio cannot be developed by a single company. Until today, no single company possesses the knowledge and experience to develop such a product-service combination. Figure 2 shows schematically how Lucio is connected to the company network and how it uses different components such as a PDA, network elements (VPN gateway, LAN) and software elements (Microsoft Exchange). Figure 2 Lucio: a mobile system with a PDA and a mobile phone connected to the company s VPN by using GPRS: (a) the system and (b) the screen (a) (b) As already stated, Lucio is a cross-company innovation. Below we show the principal business partners and their role in the development of Lucio: KPN mobile: supplier of GPRS-based services, providing secure connection with the customer local network HP: provider of mobile devices (i.e., the ipaq 3870), and the ProLiant Server Microsoft: provider of software for the PDA device (Pocket PC operating system), and the management information system
11 304 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin Certified system integrators (such as The Vision Web, Flex IT and CSS): providing support to suppliers and customers, and connecting the company network to the mobile network Lucio has a large added value for its users. This is illustrated by two examples: MOJO Concerts, the biggest Dutch organiser of pop-concerts and other big entertainment events, is an intensive Lucio user. Bookers of MOJO use Lucio for their contacts with the agents of pop-artists and with theatres. Employees of MOJO, responsible for operational activities, use Lucio for fast communication such as changes in drawings of the stage that has to be built, or updating the list of the VIPs that attend an event. An important incentive for MOJO to use Lucio is that many of their employees are mobile most of the day. And because Lucio functions independently of local telecom infrastructures, MOJO considers Lucio to be a reliable service. Lucio enables employees of Sité Woondiensten (management of rented houses) to control their appointments, to access the company s information-system (e.g., giving the latest information about the availability of their houses to real estate agents) and to synchronise their mobile devices with the Outlook application at their workplace. Taking into account the large amount of houses and the very frequent changes, many employees need to be informed with minimum delay. It is important for Sité that Lucio prevents their employees the embarrassment of making wrong or double appointments with customers. In addition, they have access to realtime information about their portfolio. In conclusion, with respect to the principal developments summarised in Section 2, Lucio represents an early example of a mobile data service that makes use of a transmission technology (GPRS) with a higher bandwidth than the standard technology (i.e., GSM). It is a service that is not developed and operated by one telco (unbundling), but the result of a joint effort of mobile telco s with companies from other sectors (convergence). It has a different business model than plain old telephony (POT), and it is one of the first mobile data services that is distinctly different from the conventional voice-oriented services. 6 Analysis of Lucio with CIM In this section, we apply the principles of CIM to Lucio. This is an exercise in retrospect, as Lucio was not originally developed on the basis of CIM. Therefore, our analysis of Lucio in terms of CIM was discussed and refined with the product manager at KPN Mobile who was responsible for Lucio (see Acknowledgements). When we reconstruct the innovation processes involved in Lucio in terms of CIM, we notice that neither the science nor the technology nodes play any direct role. New science and technology components were not required to develop Lucio. On the other hand, the market transition node of CIM played a vital role. Large attention was needed to assess the emerging business requirements for access to in-house information and applications at any time and any place. Results of this study were translated to an estimate of the market potential at a very early stage of the project. This was an important starting point
12 New ways of innovation 305 for the development of Lucio. An internal paper at KPN mobile referred to a particular study carried out by IDC (2001) which concluded that almost 30% of the business customers was interested in using a broadband mobile data service that would give them access to their intranet as well as to the internet. More than 20% was very interested in using this new service. Because this study also predicted a significant market growth, a major market transition towards the mobile business age was foreseen by KPN Mobile. To realise the predicted market transition, the added value of Lucio was presented to the business community as a product-service combination that offers fast and easy mobile access to in-house business applications. This yielded the functional specifications for the product development node of CIM: a suitable PDA, interface to the GPRS-infrastructure and connection to the LAN of the client. These hardware and software specifications led to requirements for the technological capabilities of partners needed in the engineering cycle: Microsoft for the software, HP for the PDA and KPN Mobile for the telecom network. In a next step in the project, the constructed image of the future business in the market transition node could be backcasted via the service cycle (lower right-hand side of CIM) and via the product development node towards the engineering cycle to establish the partners needed (upper right-hand side of CIM). In the engineering cycle of CIM, the design of Lucio was a joint venture of KPN, HP and Microsoft, using existing technology. Minor technical adjustments of existing modules only were required (optimisation). The development of a specific Lucio-gateway was undertaken by KPN mobile. In terms of CIM, Lucio is a multi-sector, class-2 innovation (see Figure 3). This means that Lucio had a low technical risk (using existing science and technology), a medium marketing risk (using known market segments) and a high cultural risk (using sector-crossing partners). Figure 3 The cyclic innovation model categorises Lucio as a multi-sector, class-2 innovation, which means that an alliance was made between companies of different business sectors, and that two nodes of change were involved
13 306 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin The product manager of Lucio at KPN Mobile confirmed that one of the major problems was to cooperate with companies from other sectors with different cultures and strategies. For instance, Microsoft regards market introductions as business experiments. This is in conflict with the demand of full reliability, which is of paramount importance to the telecommunication sector in general, and to KPN Mobile in particular. In retrospect, CIM also gave the product manager better insight into the role of the different companies (see Figure 3). This is important because clarity about the different roles of the different actors turns out to be critical in a sector-crossing innovation project such as Lucio. In addition, the use of CIM identifies potential bottlenecks during the development. For instance, managing the engineering partnership was taking place in the upper right-hand cycle, and issues related to the market introduction of Lucio in the lower right-hand cycle. This confirms the dual nature of the development of Lucio: technical and social. Figure 3 shows that the actor in the product development node KPN Mobile needed to bridge two different worlds. 7 Using CIM for a second generation LUCIO Figure 4 shows the role of CIM in creating a second-generation version of Lucio. This will be a different project indeed. Science-based foresight research is required to reveal the (near) future on Information and Communication (IC) technology as well as Mobile Data Services (MDS) markets: left-hand side of CIM. The result gives insight into the forthcoming opportunities both technically and commercially. In addition, MDS-oriented IC projects and IC-based MDS projects need be set up to design and manufacture product-service combinations to create economic value: right-hand side of CIM. Figure 4 Creating the next generation Lucio. The upper part of CIM shows the innovation activities of the Information and Communication (IC) technology partners; the lower part shows the innovation activities of the Mobile Data Services (MDS) business partners. The lef-thand part of CIM shows the science-based foresight activities directed towards new opportunities; the right-hand part shows the commercially driven development activities directed towards new economic value. CIM reveals the necessity of cyclic interaction between what is technically possible (leading edge of IC) and economically desirable (value creation by MDS)
14 New ways of innovation 307 From the technology point of view, the capabilities of UMTS and UMTS-plus will play a vital role in the innovation process. From the market point of view, complex mobile services assisted by real-time simulation as well as real-time monitoring will play a vital role. These powerful services may revolutionarise the work processes in commercial decision making on the spot. If the innovation process is arranged according to Figure 4, the ambition would be very high. It would make the second-generation Lucio a four-star innovation. Applicability to other industrial sectors The proposed innovation model (CIM) shows that innovation is more than science and technology. This means that in all industrial sectors we are dealing with the need for an early interaction between scientific discoveries and business investments, as well as an early interaction between technological inventions and market opportunities: turning strategic knowledge into economic value. These interactions will not only cross the boundaries of traditional sectors, they will also cross the boundaries of the different stages of innovation: away with the pipeline concept in innovation models! This means that all nodes of the proposed innovation model are active in all phases of the innovation path. An interesting example is the pharmaceutical industry, where the slow and costly in-house pipeline model is gradually replaced by a much more open concept with continous interactions along the entire circle at all stages of innovation. In this way, knowledge from other industrial sectors can be utilised, the long distance between science and markets is significantly decreased short connections and innovations build on innovations. Future research The proposed innovation model (CIM) forces management to broaden their thinking on innovation: innovation is not only a matter of new technological inventions but also a matter of new business ideas. Knowledge of changes in markets is as important as knowledge of changes in technology. Both type of changes create opportunities and both opportunities should be integrated. Current research focuses on the lower levels of CIM, where management of partnerships in innovation projects plays a centrale role. We intend to develop the lowest level of CIM into a dynamic planning tool, where all cycles of the innovation circle are involved at all stages of the innovation project. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Jacobine Mannak of KPN Mobile for providing inside information on the development of Lucio (Mannak, 2003a, 2003b), and for her useful comments on an earlier version of this article, and Dr. Dap Hartmann (Delft University of Technology) for his valuable comments.
15 308 A.J. Berkhout and P.A. van der Duin References Ballon, P.S., Helmus, R., van de Pas and van de Meeberg, H.J. (2002) Business models for next-generation wireless services, Trends in Communication, Vol. 9, pp Bassala, G. (2001) The Evolution of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Berkhout, A.J. (2000) The dynamic role of knowledge in innovation, An Integrated Framework of Cyclic Networks for the Assessment of Technological Change and Sustainable Growth, Delft University Press, Delft. Carleen, F.M., Bauer, J.M. and Westerveld, R. (2002) The European market for mobile data: evolving value chains and industry structures, Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 26, pp Chiesa, V. (2001) R&D strategy and organisation, Managing Technical Change in Dynamic contexts, Imperial College Press, London. Fortunati, L. and Contarello, A. (2002) Internet-mobile convergence: via similarity or complimentarity?, Trends in Communication, Vol. 9, pp IDC (2001) The Usage of Mobile Internet and Data Services by Business: An End User Study, Commercial Market Research Agency. Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (1968) Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science, Internal Report, December. Li, F. and Whalley, J. (2002) Deconstruction of the telecommunications industry: from value chains to value networks, Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 26, pp Liyanage, S. and Greenfield, P.F. (1999) Towards a fourth generation R&D management model-research networks in knowledge management, International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 18, Nos. 3 4, pp Mannak, J. (2003a) Mobiele data. Het spel en de knikkers, Internal report KPN Mobile. Mannak, J. (2003b) Mobiele data. Het kan niet missen, KPN Studieblad, April/May/June, pp Miller, W.L. (2001) Innovation for business growth, Research Technology Management, September October, pp Niosi, J. (1999) Fourth-generation R&D: from linear models to flexible innovation, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 45, pp Preez, P.G.T. and Pistorius, C.W.I.. (2002) Analyzing technological threats and opportunities in wireless data services, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 70, No. 1, pp Rao, P.M. (1999) Convergence and unbundling of corporate R&D in telecommunications: is software taking the helm?, Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 23, pp Rothwell, R. (1994) Towards the fifth-generation innovation process, International Marketing Review, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp Roussel, P.A., Saad, K.M. and Erickson, T.J. (1991) Third Generation R&D. Managing the Link to Corporate Strategy, Arthur D. Little, Harvard Business School Press Boston, Massachusetts. Sabat, H.K., (2002) The evolving mobile wireless value chain and market structure, Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 26, pp Schumpeter, J.A. (1934) The Theory of Economic Development, Transaction Publishers London. Senage, P.M. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organisation, Double day & Company, New York. van de Kar, E. and van der Duin, P. (2004) Dealing with uncertainties in building scenarios for the development of mobile services, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 5 8 January, IEEE Computer Society, Big Island, Hawaii. van den Ende, J. (2003). Modes of governance of new service development for mobile networks. A life cycle perspective, Research Policy, Vol. 32, pp
16 New ways of innovation 309 William, L. and McKnight, L.W. (2003) Wireless internet access: 3G vs. WiFi?, Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 27, pp Wirtz, B.W. (2001) Reconfiguration of value chains in converging media and communication markets, Longe Range Planning, Vol. 34, pp Notes 1 Note that many of the trends described here play a significant role in all other industrial activities that share a common infrastructure (gas, electricity, railway, etc.). 2 Fourth-generation innovation must not be confused with fourth-generation R&D: Fourth-generation R&D existed as an organised activity, though marginally, since the very beginning of industrial research (Bassala, 2001, p.112). An example is TRACES, a project carried out in the 1960s that paid much attention to connecting science and technology (Illinois Institute of Technology Research, 1968). 3 Note that a cycle contains a sequence of cohesive processes that perpetually recur with new initial conditions and new boundary constraints. 4 A historical example of a system innovation is the automobile, which required drastic and simultaneous advances in technology (petrol engine), products (cars and roads), services (car and road maintenance), and society (car traffic rules).
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