1 BETWEEN: AND BETWEEN: Court File Nos.: 30762, 30929, IN THE SUPREME COURT OF CANADA (ON APPEAL FROM THE FEDERAL COURT OF APPEAL) Court File No ADIL CHARKAOUI - and - MINISTER OF CITIZENSHIP AND IMMIGRATION AND THE SOLICITOR GENERAL OF CANADA -and HASSAN ALMREI - and - MINISTER OF CITIZENSHIP AND IMMIGRATION AND THE SOLICITOR GENERAL OF CANADA Appellant Respondents Court File No Appellant Respondents - and Court File No AND BETWEEN: MOHAMED HARKAT Appellant - and - MINISTER OF CITIZENSHIP AND IMMIGRATION AND THE SOLICITOR GENERAL OF CANADA Respondents - and - CRIMINAL LAWYERS ASSOCIATION (ONTARIO); UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, FACULTY OF LAW INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS CLINIC, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH; CANADIAN COUNCIL OF AMERICAN-ISLAMIC RELATIONS AND CANADIAN MUSLIM CIVIL LIBERTIES ASSOCIATION; CANADIAN ARAB FEDERATION; CANADIAN CIVIL LIBERTIES ASSOCIATION; CANADIAN COUNCIL FOR REFUGEES, AFRICAN CANADIAN LEGAL CLINIC, INTERNATIONAL CIVIL LIBERTIES MONITORING GROUP AND NATIONAL ANTI-RACISM COUNCIL OF CANADA; AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL CANADA; CANADIAN BAR ASSOCIATION; FEDERATION OF LAW SOCIETIES OF CANADA; BRITISH COLUMBIA CIVIL LIBERTIES ASSOCIATION, and ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ONTARIO Interveners FACTUM OF THE INTERVENER Criminal Lawyers Association (Ontario)
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I - THE FACTS... 1 PART II - POINTS IN ISSUE... 1 PART III - ARGUMENT... 2 Page A. Does Reliance on Secret Evidence at a Judicial Hearing Violate ss. 7 and 1 of the Charter?... 2 B. Does Automatic and Non-Reviewable Detention by the Executive Violate ss. 7, 9 and 1 of the Charter? PART IV - SUBMISSIONS IN RELATIONS TO COSTS PART V - NATURE OF THE ORDER REQUESTED PART VI - AUTHORITIES PART VII - STATUTORY PROVISIONS OR REGULATIONS... 16
3 PART I - THE FACTS 1. On May 4, 2006, Mr. Justice LeBel granted the Criminal Lawyers Association (Ontario), hereinafter the C.L.A., intervener status in the three within appeals. Leave was granted to file a single consolidated Factum, not to exceed 20 pages in length, in relation to all three appeals. The Court reserved on the C.L.A. s request to make 20 minutes oral argument until after receipt of the Factum. - Order of LeBel J., dated May 4, The C.L.A. adopts the facts as set out in the Facta of the parties and in the Judgements below. The C.L.A. takes no position with respect to the facts or the merits of the three appeals. PART II - POINTS IN ISSUE 3. The C.L.A. sought, and was granted, leave to intervene in relation to only two issues that arise in the within appeals, as follows: (i) (ii) Whether reliance on secret evidence tendered at the judicial hearing of a Ministerial security certificate, pursuant to s. 78 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (hereinafter I.R.P.A.), violates ss. 7 and 1 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom (hereinafter the Charter); Whether ss of I.R.P.A., to the extent that they authorize automatic detention without judicial review, pending the s. 78 hearing, violate ss. 7, 9 and 1 of the Charter.
4 2 PART III - ARGUMENT A. Does Reliance on Secret Evidence at a Judicial Hearing Violate ss. 7 and 1 of the Charter? 4. It is important to accurately identify the principle of fundamental justice that is at stake in relation to this first issue. The C.L.A. submits that the principle at issue is whether a litigant at a judicial hearing is entitled to know the case that is being put against him/her and is entitled to respond to it. The principle is sometimes referred to compendiously as the right to meet the case. 5. It is submitted that s. 78 of I.R.P.A. clearly violates the above principle. Section 78(e) requires the judge to hear certain evidence tendered by the Government in the absence of the opposing litigant. Section 78(h) provides for a summary of the evidence to be given to the opposing litigant that enables them to be reasonably informed of the circumstances giving rise to the certificate. However, s. 78(g) then derogates from this general principle by exempting the secret evidence heard under s. 78(e) from the s. 78(h) summary. Finally, and most importantly, s. 78(g) expressly provides that the secret evidence exempted from the summary can still be relied on by the Court: the information or evidence described in paragraph (e) shall not be included in the summary but may be considered by the judge in deciding whether the certificate is reasonable [Emphasis added.] - I.R.P.A., S.C. 2001, c. 27, s If it is a principle of fundamental justice that a litigant at a judicial hearing is entitled to know the case being put against him/her and is entitled to respond to it, then s. 78 would appear to violate that principle. The part of the Government s case that is heard in secret pursuant to s. 78(e) cannot be summarized for the litigant pursuant to s. 78(h) and yet it can be relied on by the Court pursuant to s. 78(g). Accordingly, part of the Government s case is never heard or met by the opposing litigant.
5 3 7. The Respondent Ministers have obfuscated this simple issue by describing the principle of fundamental justice that is at stake in a different manner. For example, the Respondents Factum in the Almrei Case asserts at para. 64 that Almrei has not established that it is a principle of fundamental justice that persons have a right to be given complete disclosure of security information. The Factum goes on to assert in a similar vein at para. 77 that this Court s jurisprudence has held that the public interest in non-disclosure of material that could be injurious to national security can trump the public interest in disclosure. The s. 7 issue is characterized in similar terms in the Respondents Facta in the other two cases (for example, at paras in the Respondents Factum in Harkat Case). 8. The C.L.A. submits that the right to disclosure is not the principle of fundamental justice that is at stake in these appeals. The right to disclosure, as enunciated by this Court, is a right to pre-hearing production of all relevant and non-privileged materials that may assist the litigant in preparing its case (e.g. see: R. v. Stinchcombe, infra). Privileged information has never come within the ambit of this right, even in the criminal law context, except in a narrow set of circumstances where it is essential to establishing innocence (e.g. see; R. v. Leipert, infra). The relevant and non-privileged materials that are disclosed prior to trial cover a broad array of both inculpatory and exculpatory information. Some of this material, if it is admissible evidence, may eventually be called by one of the parties at trial. Much of this material is discarded or is simply used as background information that assists counsel s preparation. Invariably, the evidence tendered at trial has been disclosed prior to trial. - R. v. Stinchcombe,  1 S.C.R R. v. Leipert,  1 S.C.R What s. 78 of I.R.P.A. provides for is not the protection of privileged national security materials from disclosure. It is s. 38 of the Canada Evidence Act (hereinafter, the C.E.A.) that provides this protection. Rather, s. 78 of I.R.P.A. goes much farther by providing that one litigant can call secret evidence at a judicial hearing, to advance its case, and a court of law can rely on that evidence even though the opposing litigant has neither heard nor been able to challenge the secret evidence. This has nothing to do with the right to pre-trial disclosure of all relevant and non-privileged information. Indeed, it could be argued that it is only as a result of
6 4 calling the secret evidence at a judicial hearing, and by relying on it, that the proponent of the evidence waives its previously valid claim of privilege (e.g. see: R. v. Shirose and Campbell, infra). - R. v. Shirose and Campbell,  1 S.C.R The C.L.A. adopts the submissions of the Appellant Almrei, at paras of his Factum, as to why s. 7 liberty and security of the person interests are engaged by s. 78 I.R.P.A. proceedings. In this regard, the close connection between s. 78 procedures and the ss arrest and detention of the litigant is determinative of the fact that s.7 of the Charter is engaged. 11. It is therefore submitted that the important question in relation to the provisions found in s. 78 of I.R.P.A. is whether there exists a principle of fundamental justice that bars a party to judicial proceedings from advancing its case on the basis of secret evidence. 12. The C.L.A. accepts the three part test for determining whether an asserted right or rule amounts to a s. 7 principle of fundamental justice, as set out in the Respondent Ministers Facta (e.g. at para. 31 of the Respondents Factum in the Harkat Case). It is submitted that the right to know the case being put against a litigant at a judicial hearing, and the right to respond to it, easily satisfies this three part test. It is a right that is based in law, particularly in the long history of the common law. It is a right that accords with broad societal notions of fairness and justice. Finally, it is a rule that can be and has been applied with precision. 13. It is important to note that this principle of fundamental justice is not one that is limited to the criminal law context. Rather, its origins are in the common law and it has always been applied in the administrative law context as a principle of natural justice, as well as in civil and criminal trials. In a pre-charter decision, Township of Innisfil v. Township of Vespra, infra, Estey J. gave the unanimous decision of this Court and described how the principle has historically operated in the administrative law context: It is within the context of a statutory process that it must be noted that crossexamination is a vital element of the adversarial system applied and followed in our legal system, including, in many instances, before administrative tribunals since the earliest times. Indeed the adversarial system, founded on cross-examination and the right to meet
7 5 the case being made against the litigant, civil or criminal, is the procedural substructure upon which the common law itself has been built. That is not to say that because our Court system is founded upon these institutions and procedures that administrative tribunals must apply the same techniques. Indeed, there are many tribunals in the modern community which do not follow the traditional adversarial road. On the other hand, where the rights of the citizen are involved and the statute affords him the right to a full hearing, including a hearing of his demonstration of his rights, one would expect to find the clearest statutory curtailment of the citizen s right to meet the case made against him by cross-examination. [Emphasis added.] Estey J. went on to adopt Dean Wigmore s famous pronouncement that cross-examination in both the civil and criminal context is beyond any doubt the greatest legal engine ever invented for the discovery of truth. - Township of Innisfil v. Township of Vespra,  2 S.C.R The 1960 Canadian Bill of Rights legislated the right to a fair hearing in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice, pursuant to s. 2(e). This provision clearly applies to every law of Canada that determines rights and obligations and is not limited to criminal proceedings. In Duke v. The Queen, infra this court interpreted s. 2(e) as giving the litigant the opportunity adequately to state his case. In R. v. Seaboyer, infra McLachlin J., as she then was, applied the reasoning in Duke to the Charter and described the s. 7 right to a fair hearing as the right to call and challenge evidence. More recently, in R. v. Lyttle, infra, this Court unanimously applied McLachlin J. s reasoning in Seaboyer and stressed once again that this particular right is not limited to criminal proceedings: Cross-examination may often be futile and sometimes prove fatal, but it remains nonetheless a faithful friend in the pursuit of justice and an indispensable ally in the search for truth. At times, there will be no other way to expose falsehood, to rectify error, to correct distortion or to elicit vital information that would otherwise remain forever concealed. In R. v. Osolin,  4 S.C.R. 595, 86 C.C.C. (3d) 481, 109 D.L.R. (4th) 478, Cory J. reviewed the relevant authorities and, at p. 663, explained why cross-examination plays such an important role in the adversarial process, particularly, though of course not exclusively, in the context of a criminal trial
8 6 Commensurate with its importance, the right to cross-examine is now recognized as being protected by ss. 7 and 11(d) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. See Osolin, supra, at p [Italics of Major and Fish JJ. in original; underlining added.] - R. v. Lyttle,  1 S.C.R R. v. Seaboyer,  2 S.C.R Duke v. The Queen,  2 S.C.R It is therefore submitted that the right to meet the case, as Estey J. described it in Township of Innisfil, supra, is a longstanding principle of fundamental justice in civil, criminal and administrative law proceedings. The real issue on the present appeals is whether limitations on this right can be justified in the national security context. The C.L.A. adopts the submissions of the Appellant Harkat, at paras of his Factum, as to whether this analysis should take place within the context of s. 7 itself or under s. 1 of the Charter. 16. The C.L.A. submits that there is a fatal impediment to the Government s argument that the procedure set out in s. 78 of the I.R.P.A. is necessary and proportionate in the national security context. This impediment is simply that the Government has chosen the most rightsinfringing model available. There are at least five less restrictive models which have a history of working well in the national security context. 17. The first alternative model is s (2) of the C.E.A. which enacts a judicial discretion to balance the interest in disclosure of national security information against the interest in secrecy, as follows: If the judge concludes that the disclosure of the information would be injurious to international relations or national defence or national security but that the public interest in disclosure outweighs in importance the public interest in non-disclosure, the judge may by order, after considering both the public interest in disclosure and the form of and conditions to disclosure that are most likely to limit any injury to international relations or national defence or national security resulting from disclosure, authorize the disclosure, subject to any conditions that the judge considers appropriate, of all of the information, a part or summary of the information, or a written admission of the facts relating to the information. - Canada Evidence Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-5 as amended, s (2)
9 7 18. The C.E.A. provisions apply to both civil and criminal proceedings under Parliament s jurisdiction. They provide a less restrictive alternative to s. 78(h) of I.R.P.A. which mandates automatic non-disclosure of anything that would be injurious to national security, no matter how important disclosure of some of the information under some conditions might be in a particular case. Under s (2) of the C.E.A., a judge must balance the competing interests and may impose conditions on the disclosure of national security information. Examples of conditions that could be imposed under s (2) include the release of information to securitycleared counsel for the permanent resident or foreign national on an undertaking not to disclose the information to his or her client. As discussed below, this approach to disclosure of confidential information has proved successful in other proceedings. 19. The importance of judicial discretion in managing national security information is further underscored by the C.E.A.'s protection of an accused's right to a fair trial in criminal proceedings where an order is made prohibiting the disclosure of such information. Section 38.14(1) of the C.E.A. provides that the person presiding over such a criminal proceeding may make any order that he or she considers appropriate in the circumstances to protect the right of the accused to a fair trial. Potential orders include but are not limited to (a) an order dismissing specified counts of the indictment or information, or permitting the indictment or information to proceed only in respect of a lesser or included offence; (b) an order effecting a stay of the proceedings; and (c) an order finding against any party on any issue relating to information the disclosure of which is prohibited. No such remedies are available under I.R.P.A. which provides, in stark contrast, that information or evidence not disclosed on national security grounds may be considered by the judge in deciding whether the certificate is reasonable. - C.E.A., supra, s There is no apparent justification for Parliament s limitation of judicial discretion under s. 78(h) of I.R.P.A. The Government must be driven to argue that claims of national security privilege are not adequately dealt with under its own legislation, the C.E.A.
10 8 21. The second alternative model is the procedure in place at the time of Chiarelli, infra, that was upheld by this Honourable Court. It was less restrictive than the newly legislated I.R.P.A. procedure. In that case, the Court noted that the documentary evidence relied on in support of the Ministerial certificate was disclosed to Chiarelli but that two R.C.M.P. witnesses had testified in camera. Sopinka J. gave the unanimous judgement of the Court and described the procedure as follows: Although the first day of the hearing was conducted in camera, the respondent was provided with a summary of the evidence presented. In my view, these various documents gave the respondent sufficient information to know the substance of the allegations against him, and to be able to respond. The respondent was also given the opportunity to respond, by calling his own witnesses or by requesting that he be allowed to cross-examine the R.C.M.P. witnesses who testified in camera. The chairman of the Review Committee clearly indicated an intention to allow such cross-examination. I conclude that the procedure followed by the Review Committee in this case did not violate principles of fundamental justice. In other words, Chiarelli is a case where full documentary disclosure was made, a summary of the two RCMP witnesses in camera testimony was provided and, finally, an opportunity to cross-examine the two witnesses on their in camera testimony was also provided. Sections 78 (e),(g) and (h) of I.R.P.A. now expressly provide that secret evidence can be relied on by the tribunal but is not to be included in the summary disclosed to the opposing litigant. Furthermore, there is no cross-examination on that evidence. It has not been demonstrated why the Chiarelli procedure, approved unanimously by this Court, is now unworkable. - Chiarelli v. Canada (M.E.I.),  1 S.C.R The third alternative model is the U.K. procedure involving the use of Special Advocates with national security clearance. That model is discussed thoroughly in the Appellant Harkat s Factum at paras The C.L.A. adopts those submissions. 23. The fourth alternative model is the one used by Associate Chief Justice O Connor at the Arar Inquiry. When the Government requests that certain evidence be heard in camera, due to national security concerns, and the Commissioner agrees with the necessity of the Government s request, a large number of counsel who are independent of the Government still have access to
11 9 the protected information and are allowed to participate at the in camera hearing by examining and cross-examining the witnesses. Commission counsel, the Commission s amicus curiae and counsel to the witnesses testifying at the in camera hearing are all entitled to rights of access and participation at these secret proceedings, provided they receive national security clearance and provided they give undertakings of confidentiality respecting the secret evidence. Senior members of the private bar have participated at the in camera hearings in this manner and there is no suggestion that national security has been threatened (contrary to the submission at para. 81 of the Respondent Ministers Factum in the Almrei Case suggesting that such a procedure is too risky). - Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in relation to Maher Arar, Rules of Procedure and Practice, Rules 47-8, 50, 53-4 and The fifth alternative model is drawn from recent experience in the criminal courts, when dealing with cases that raise national security concerns. Given that Canadian citizens are not subject to I.R.P.A. proceedings under s. 78, the criminal law must be used to protect the public from those citizens who are a threat to national security. For example, all of the major suspects who were not charged and all three of the accused who were eventually charged in relation to the 1985 Air India and Narita bombings were Canadian citizens who had immigrated to this country from the Punjab and had become citizens. An extensive CSIS investigation was conducted, both prior to and after this incident which is the most serious threat to national security ever to occur in this country. CSIS officers and a CSIS informant testified at the trial. Many CSIS documents were tendered in evidence at the trial, both by the Crown and the defence. Extensive disclosure of sensitive CSIS information was successfully obtained, prior to trial, due to the trial Judge s ruling that CSIS was to be considered as part of the Crown for Stinchcombe disclosure purposes. - R. v. Malik, Bagri and Reyat, 2002 B.C.S.C Notwithstanding this substantial involvement of a national security investigation in the Air India case, every single disclosure dispute concerning CSIS documents was resolved by counsel, out of court, without the necessity of any s. 38 privilege claims. The procedure used successfully in the Air India trial was for the Crown to provide defence counsel with access to
12 10 the relevant CSIS files on an undertaking of confidentiality, somewhat like the procedure now being used at the Arar Inquiry. The use of such undertakings had been approved by the B.C. Court of Appeal in two earlier cases, R. v. Fisk, infra and R. v. Guess, infra, where disclosure of potentially privileged information had been sought (informant privilege in Fisk and third party wiretaps in Guess). The Guess/Fisk procedure was recently adopted in the Ontario Superior Court in R. v. Stucky, infra, a case that also involved disclosure disputes about a large number of potentially privileged documents. The Respondent Ministers submit, at para. 81 of their Factum in the Almrei Case, that this procedure impairs the solicitor-client relationship because counsel is given access to confidential material, and to in camera proceedings, while the client is denied such access. This submission ignores the simple solution emphasized by Chief Justice McEachern in R. v. Fisk, infra, namely, that counsel should only accept access to disclosure on an undertaking of confidentiality with the consent of his client. This is precisely what counsel did in the Air India trial, on repeated occasions, and there is no suggestion that the solicitorclient relationship was impaired in that very lengthy and difficult case. Counsel s role is more than a mere agent for the client as counsel have broad public interest duties to the administration of justice, as officers of the Court, which require independence from the client (e.g. see: Rondel v. Worsley, infra). - Rondel v. Worsley,  1 A.C. 191 (H.L.) - R. v. Fisk (1996), 108 C.C.C.(3d) 63 (B.C.C.A.) - R. v. Guess (2000), 148 C.C.C. (3d) 321 (B.C.C.A.) - R. v. Stucky,  O.J. No (S.C.) - Michael Code, Problems of Process in Litigating Privilege Claims Under the Flexible Wigmore Model, LSUC Special Lectures 2003: The Law of Evidence, Irwin Law 2004, pp It is therefore submitted that the procedural regime enacted by s. 78 of I.R.P.A. is demonstrably over-broad and unnecessary. A number of less restrictive models exist which have been shown to work well in the exact same context of national security privilege.
13 11 B. Does Automatic and Non-Reviewable Detention by the Executive Violate ss. 7, 9 and 1 of the Charter? 27. Section 82(2) of I.R.P.A. provides for the warrantless arrest and detention of a foreign national who is named in a Ministerial security certificate. Section 83(1) provides for judicial review of the detention of permanent residents, within 48 hours of their arrest on a security certificate, but not for judicial review of the detention of foreign nationals. Finally, s. 84(2) provides for an eventual judicial review of the detention of a foreign national but only after the security certificate has been found to be reasonable by a Federal Court judge at a s. 78 hearing. 28. In other words, the effect of the legislative scheme is to provide for automatic detention of foreign nationals, without any prior judicial authorization and without any subsequent judicial review, pending completion of the s. 78 hearing. The sole authority for the foreign national s detention pending the hearing of the merits of the case is an Executive fiat. Furthermore, the Executive fiat is based on the Executive s own untested allegations. The analogy, in the criminal law context, would be a provision requiring the detention before trial of an accused, pursuant to a warrantless arrest and without any bail hearing, until after the accused had been convicted at his/her trial. 29. The irony of these provisions is that they provide for a judicial review of the detention at a time when it is less justified, namely, after the security certificate has been found to be reasonable by a judge at a s. 78 hearing. It is prior to the s. 78 hearing that a judicial detention review is most important. One simply has to imagine a reasonable hypothetical case where the Ministers have a weak basis for the security certificate, that is unlikely to succeed at the eventual s. 78 hearing, and where the foreign national has reasonably strong ties to Canada and reliable sureties who can properly supervise him/her pending the s. 78 hearing. In such a case it would be grossly unjust to deny bail and yet there is no provision for a timely judicial review of the Ministerial detention order. 30. It is submitted that this Court s decision in R. v. Swain, infra is dispositive of this issue. In that case the Court struck down the old provisions of the Criminal Code that had provided for the automatic detention, without a hearing, of those accused who had been acquitted of an
14 12 offence on the basis of a s. 16 insanity defence. Although these accused were not guilty of any offence, as a matter of criminal law, they were still potentially dangerous in some cases on mental health grounds. The Court held that preventive detention of insane acquittees could be justified in some cases but only after a hearing where rational criteria were applied. It was the automatic and non-discriminating detention of all insane acquittees, without a hearing, that violated ss. 7 and 9 of the Charter and that was overbroad and disproportionate within the meaning of s. 1 of the Charter. - R. v. Swain,  1 S.C.R The insane acquittees who were detained under the pre-swain provisions of the Criminal Code had been found to have committed the actus reus of a serious criminal offence, usually a homicide. Section 16 insanity defences were rarely raised in cases other than murder because of the harsh remedy, namely, automatic and indefinite detention. In other words, there were good reasons to detain many of these individuals, after their trial was concluded, in order to protect the public from an ongoing and dangerous mental disorder. These individuals had all had access to a bail hearing prior to trial and the effect of this Court s decision in Swain was simply to provide them with a detention review after the trial. At the post-trial hearing the Court would decide which individuals were still dangerous, and should not be released, and which individuals did not require ongoing detention. - R. v. Swain, supra 32. There is simply no justification or explanation for why foreign nationals, who are the subject of a Ministerial security certificate, should not be subject to the same analysis and treatment as the insane acquittees in Swain. Indeed, there was arguably a stronger justification for automatic detention of someone found at trial to have already committed the actus reus of a serious crime, like a homicide. The Government s argument in the present cases must be that its decisions are always infallible, because two Ministers sign a security certificate, or that the judiciary cannot be trusted to separate and discriminate between those foreign nationals who should be detained and those who should be released. Neither argument is acceptable as a matter of constitutional law. In Hunter v. Southam, infra, this Court s seminal decision concerning s. 8
15 13 of the Charter, it was held that searches and seizures by the Executive presumptively require prior judicial authorization. It is submitted that Executive seizures of the person under I.R.P.A., without a warrant, must require judicial review of the detention within a short time after it occurs in order to comply with ss. 7 and 9 of the Charter. - Hunter et al v. Southam Inc.,  2 S.C.R It is therefore submitted that the legislative scheme in I.R.P.A. violates ss. 7, 9 and 1 of the Charter by providing for the automatic non-reviewable detention of foreign nationals, named in a Ministerial security certificate, prior to their s. 78 hearing. PART IV - SUBMISSIONS IN RELATIONS TO COSTS 34. The Intervener is not seeking costs.
16 14 PART V - NATURE OF THE ORDER REQUESTED 35. The Intervener submits that s. 78 of I.R.P.A. violates s. 7 of the Charter and cannot be justified pursuant to s. 1 of the Charter and that the Constitutional Questions stated in the appeals ought to be answered in this manner. 36. The Intervener further submits that ss of I.R.P.A. violate ss. 7 and 9 of the Charter and cannot be justified pursuant to s. 1 of the Charter and that the Constitutional Questions stated in the appeals ought to be answered in this manner. The estimated total length of time for the Intervener s oral argument, if permitted, is 20 minutes. ALL OF WHICH IS RESPECTFULLY SUBMITTED BY: July 2, 2009 MICHAEL CODE Sack Goldblatt Mitchell Barristers and Solicitors 20 Dundas Street West, Suite 1100 Toronto, Ontario M5G 2G8 Tel: Fax: Counsel for the Intervener, the Criminal Lawyers Association (Ontario)
17 15 PART VI - AUTHORITIES Cited at Page Chiarelli v. Canada (M.E.I.),  1 S.C.R Michael Code, Problems of Process in Litigating Privilege Claims Under the Flexible Wigmore Model, LSUC Special Lectures 2003: The Law of Evidence, rwin Law 2004, pp Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in relation to Maher Arar, Rules of Procedure and Practice, Rules 47-8, 50, 53-4 and Duke v. The Queen,  2 S.C.R Hunter et al v. Southam Inc.,  2 S.C.R R. v. Fisk (1996), 108 C.C.C.(3d) 63 (B.C.C.A.) R. v. Guess (2000), 148 C.C.C. (3d) 321 (B.C.C.A.) R. v. Leipert,  1 S.C.R R. v. Lyttle,  1 S.C.R R. v. Shirose and Campbell,  1 S.C.R R. v. Seaboyer,  2 S.C.R R. v. Malik, Bagri and Reyat, 2002 B.C.S.C R. v. Stinchcombe,  1 S.C.R R. v. Stucky,  O.J. No (S.C.) R. v. Swain,  1 S.C.R Rondel v. Worsley,  1 A.C. 191 (H.L.) Township of Innisfil v. Township of Vespra,  2 S.C.R
18 16 PART VII - STATUTORY PROVISIONS OR REGULATIONS I.R.P.A., S.C. 2001, c. 27, s. 78 Canada Evidence Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-5 as amended, s (2); 38.14
Submission to the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security in respect of Bill C-44, An Act to Amend the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and other Acts Federation of Law Societies
SUPREME COURT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Court Record Access Policy The Supreme Court of British Columbia 800 Smithe Street Vancouver, BC V6Z 2E1 www.courts.gov.bc.ca Page 1 of 39 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I: GENERAL
Dr Ben Saul BA(Hons) LLB(Hons) Sydney DPhil Oxford Professor of International Law, Sydney Centre for International Law Australian Research Council Future Fellow Joint Select Committee on Australia s Immigration
DOCUMENT TITLE: DISCLOSURE BY THE CROWN IN CRIMINAL CASES NATURE OF DOCUMENT: AG DIRECTIVE FIRST ISSUED: DECEMBER 23, 1999 ADDENDA: 1. Practice Note Re Certain Photographs and Recordings 2. Practice Note
Submission on Proposals for Privilege Protection and Self-Regulation for Patent and Trade-mark Agents NATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW SECTION CANADIAN BAR ASSOCIATION February 2004 TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE PAYMENT OF CRIMINAL LEGAL AID FEES Courts Policy Division Department of Justice and Equality March 2015 Note: This document does not purport to provide legal advice or to provide
CANADA James SULLIVAN Blake, Cassel & Graydon LLP 595 Burrard Street P.O. Box 49314 Suite 2600, Three Bentall Centre Vancouver (C.-B.) V7X 1L3 CANADA Phone: 604-631-3300 Fax: 604-631-3309 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
VICTIMS OF CRIME If the people who make the decisions are the people who will also bear the consequences of those decisions, perhaps better decisions will result. Introduction - John Abrams The Attorney
CRIMINAL JUSTICE BRANCH, MINISTRY OF ATTORNEY GENERAL CROWN COUNSEL POLICY MANUAL INTRODUCTION History of the Criminal Justice Branch: Over three decades ago, the Criminal Justice Branch was created following
Access to Court Records Effective Date: February 28, 2011 Policy Code: ACC-2 Scope of Application: Applies to all members of the public including media who wish to access court records of the Provincial
INQUIRY REPORT File #s 10-021AR, 10-022AR, 10-025AR and 10-026AR Michael McEvoy Acting Information and Privacy Commissioner Public Body: Date: May 22, 2012 DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENERGY, MINES AND RESOURCES
ORDER MO-2628 Appeal MA11-7 City of Waterloo Tribunal Services Department Services de tribunal administratif 2 Bloor Street East 2, rue Bloor Est Suite 1400 Bureau 1400 Toronto, Ontario Toronto (Ontario)
ORDER MO-2114 Appeal MA-060192-1 York Regional Police Services Board Tribunal Services Department Services de tribunal administratif 2 Bloor Street East 2, rue Bloor Est Suite 1400 Bureau 1400 Toronto,
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Citation: Merlo v. Canada (Attorney General), 2013 BCSC 1136 Date: 20130625 Docket: S122255 Registry: Vancouver Between: Brought under the Class Proceedings Act,
INFORMATION / FACT SHEET CRIME TO TRIAL PROCESS CRIMINAL COURT HEARINGS EXPLAINED *(Please be advised that this is a general guide only and is by no means an exhaustive summary of all criminal court hearings.
Criminal Law Glossary Arrest Charge Convicted Court Crime/Offence Crown Attorney or Prosecutor Criminal Custody Guilty Illegal Innocent Lawyer To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers
COMPUTER MISUSE AND CYBERSECURITY ACT (CHAPTER 50A) (Original Enactment: Act 19 of 1993) REVISED EDITION 2007 (31st July 2007) An Act to make provision for securing computer material against unauthorised
Bill C-20 An act to amend the Criminal Code (Protection of children and other vulnerable persons) and the Canada Evidence Act The Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime is a national, non-profit
Queensland DRUG REHABILITATION (COURT DIVERSION) ACT 2000 Act No. 3 of 2000 Queensland DRUG REHABILITATION (COURT DIVERSION) ACT 2000 Section TABLE OF PROVISIONS PART 1 PRELIMINARY Page 1 Short title.....................................................
Community Legal Information Association of Prince Edward Island, Inc. Going to Court: Criminal Trial Procedure If you've been charged with a crime and your case has not been diverted from the courts system,
If You Can t Get a Lawyer for Your Criminal Trial How to Make a Rowbotham Application Denied legal aid? Can t afford a lawyer? Facing a serious/complex criminal charge? December 2012 2012, Legal Services
Law Office Searches: A Primer 1 by Ian R. Smith Fenton, Smith Barristers Toronto, Ontario Introduction This paper is intended for the lawyer who finds him- or herself in the following unpleasant situation:
THE CHARTER AND STUDENT HANDOUT SECTION 1 OF THE CHARTER The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, enacted in 1982, changed the law so that Canadians now have constitutionally guaranteed rights that
ALBERTA S JUSTICE SYSTEM AND YOU This brochure will give you the facts about your justice system the major participants and the important roles that each plays. In addition, it will help you better understand
Queensland WHISTLEBLOWERS PROTECTION ACT 1994 Act No. 68 of 1994 Queensland WHISTLEBLOWERS PROTECTION ACT 1994 Section PART 1 PRELIMINARY TABLE OF PROVISIONS Division 1 Title and commencement Page 1 Short
107 THE DECISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CASES AGAINST CROATIA REGARDING THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO A LAWYER IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS Lovorka Kušan * INTRODUCTION By 27 November 2016 Croatia
Community Rehabilitation and Disability Studies CORE 573 Half (3-0) Disability and the Law Calendar Description Foundations of Canadian legal principles and practice as they affect community rehabilitation.
Courts & Our Legal System 2012 (Version 1.0) This booklet has been prepared, published and distributed by the Public Legal Education Association of Saskatchewan (PLEA). The purpose of PLEA and this booklet
Criminal Justice (Scotland) Bill [AS INTRODUCED] CONTENTS Section PART 1 ARREST AND CUSTODY CHAPTER 1 ARREST BY POLICE 1 Power of a constable 2 Exercise of the power Arrest without warrant Procedure following
Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act R.S.C., 1985, c. C-23 An Act to establish the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Short title SHORT TITLE This Act may be cited as the Canadian Security Intelligence
MEXICO Fernando PEREZ CORREA CAMARENA SCGPC Abogados Mexico City : Torre Mural, Av. Insurgentes sur # 1605 Piso Suite 3 Col. San José Insurgentes. C.P. 03900 MEXICO D.F. Phone: + (52) (55) 5062-0050 Fax
Volume 22, No. 1 September 2012 Criminal Justice Section Digital Evidence meets the Charter: Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File-Sharing Networks A case comment on R. v. Spencer and R. v. Trapp Brock Jones 1 A. Peer-to-Peer
SAINT LUCIA IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN SUPREME COURT IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE SLUHCV 2012/0123 BETWEEN RON WILLIAMS AND THE DIRECTOR OF BORDELAIS PRISON The ATTORNEY GENERAL OF SAINT LUCIA.. 2013: October
ORDER MO-2206 Appeal MA06-386-2 City of Ottawa Tribunal Services Department Services de tribunal administratif 2 Bloor Street East 2, rue Bloor Est Suite 1400 Bureau 1400 Toronto, Ontario Toronto (Ontario)
UNIFORM COLLABORATIVE LAW ACT S.B. 714: ANALYSIS AS ENACTED Senate Bill 714 (as enacted) PUBLIC ACT 159 of 2014 Sponsor: Senator Tonya Schuitmaker Senate Committee: Judiciary House Committee: Judiciary
LSTariffs GeneralTerms andconditions General Terms and Conditions Introduction Welcome to LSS Tariffs, the guide to how the Legal Services Society compensates lawyers for their work on legal aid referrals.
Chapter 9 Duties of Counsel in Criminal Trials General Duties 138 The Prosecutor s Duties 138 Disclosure 138 Impartiality 139 Not to overstate the evidence 139 Dealing with witnesses 140 Dealing with the
NOVA SCOTIA COURT OF APPEAL Citation: R. v. Ross, 2012 NSCA 8 Between: Bradley Roderick Ross Date: 20120123 Docket: CAC 356611 Registry: Halifax Appellant v. Her Majesty the Queen Respondent Restriction
Tribunals b Judiciary PRACTICE DIRECTIONS IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM CHAMBERS OF THE FIRST- TIER TRIBUNAL AND THE UPPER TRIBUNAL Contents PART 1 PRELIMINARY 1 Interpretation, etc. PART 2 PRACTICE DIRECTIONS
LAWS OF MALAYSIA ONLINE VERSION OF UPDATED TEXT OF REPRINT Act 696 WITNESS PROTECTION ACT 2009 As at 1 May 2013 2 WITNESS PROTECTION ACT 2009 Date of Royal Assent............... 18 April 2009 Date of publication
New South Wales Crimes (Serious Sex Offenders) Act 2006 No 7 Contents Part 1 Part 2 Preliminary Page 1 Name of Act 2 2 Commencement 2 3 Objects of Act 2 4 Definitions 2 5 Definitions of serious sex offence
Sexual Offences (Procedure and Evidence) (Scotland) Bill [AS INTRODUCED] Section CONTENTS Prohibition of personal conduct of defence by alleged sex offender 1 Prohibition of personal conduct of defence
Case: Doorson v Netherlands WITNESSES AT TRIAL ECHR Article: Article 6 The Right to a Fair Trial Project group: University of Glasgow A LANDMARK DECISION A.0 RATIONALE: WHY THIS ARTICLE? WHY THIS JUDGMENT?
Canada Labour Code: statutory provisions on tenure and removal Division II Canada Industrial Relations Board Establishment and Organization Establishment of Board 9. (1) A board is established, to be known
Federal Public Defender W.D. Michigan The Federal Criminal Process INTRODUCTION The following summary of the federal criminal process is intended to provide you with a general overview of how your case
A Working Protocol between ACPO, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), Her Majesty s Court & Tribunals Service (HMCTS), the Witness Service and the Senior Presiding Judge for England and Wales on Reading
Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner Province of British Columbia Order No. 16-1994 July 8, 1994 INQUIRY RE: A Request for Access to Records of the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia
The Canadian Bill of Rights: An Emerging Tool in Constitutional Cases? David Stratas Strictly speaking, the Canadian Bill of Rights 1 is a federal statute passed in 1960. However, under its provisions,
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this handbook is to provide answers to some very basic questions that inmates or inmates families might have regarding the processes of the criminal justice system. In no way
YOUTH DRUG DETOXIFICATION 1 The Youth Drug Detoxification and Stabilization Act being Chapter Y-1.1* of The Statutes of Saskatchewan, 2005 (effective April 1, 2006) as amended by The Statutes of Saskatchewan,
Chapter 6B STATE ELIGIBILITY GUIDELINES Last Amended: 1 July 2006 Manual of Legal Aid TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 6B - STATE ELIGIBILITY GUIDELINES GENERAL...3 PROVISION OF LEGAL ASSISTANCE...3 GENERAL GUIDELINES
PLEASE NOTE: Legislative Information cannot perform research, provide legal advice, or interpret Maine law. For legal assistance, please contact a qualified attorney. Be it enacted by the People of the
Going to Court as a Witness - July 2010 Going to Court as a Witness 1 Introduction Going to court can be stressful for many victims and witnesses. If you need to give evidence in a criminal trial, we hope
WESTERN AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT SERVICES (WAFSAS) FORUM 4 October 2005, Perth Criminal Injuries Compensation By Helen Porter, Office of Criminal Injuries Compensation. INTRODUCTION In this
Universal Market Integrity Rules Rules & Policies 10.8 Practice and Procedure The practice and procedure governing hearings pursuant to this Part shall be made by a Policy. POLICY 10.8 - PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE
OP 21 Appeals Updates to chapter... 2 1. What this chapter is about... 3 2. Program objectives... 3 3. The Act and Regulations... 3 3.1. Forms... 4 4. Instruments and delegations... 4 5. Departmental policy...
A Federal Criminal Case Timeline The following timeline is a very broad overview of the progress of a federal felony case. Many variables can change the speed or course of the case, including settlement
TORONTO BAIL PROGRAM Cameron Brown The Toronto Bail Program is a private, non-profit, charitable organization which provides Bail Verification and Supervision services under contract to the Ministry of
SPECIAL ADVOCATES PROGRAM EVALUATION Final Report February 2015 Division Corporate Services Branch Information contained in this publication or product may be reproduced, in part or in whole, and by any
Reprint as at 1 July 2013 New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 Public Act 1990 No 109 Date of assent 28 August 1990 Commencement see section 1(2) Contents Page Title 2 1 Short Title and commencement 3 Part
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE CONDUCT OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS BY THE PROSECUTION AND THE DEFENCE A. INTRODUCTION 1. This document lays down the Code of Practice ( Code ) for the conduct of criminal proceedings
PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS DEVELOPED BY THE FEDERATION OF INDEPENDENT SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONS IN CONSULTATION WITH THE INSPECTOR OF INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS I. PREAMBLE
A Citizen s Guide to the Criminal Justice System: From Arraignment to Appeal Presented by the Office of the Richmond County District Attorney Acting District Attorney Daniel L. Master, Jr. 130 Stuyvesant
TAIWAN Edgar Y. CHEN Tsar & Tsai Law Firm G 8 th Fl., 245 DunHua S. Rd., Sec. 1. Taipei 106 TAIWAN Phone: G 88-2-27814111 or 66386999 Fax : G 886-2-27213834 or 27315581 Email: G email@example.com 1 1
AN ACT IN THE COUNCIL OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA To amend the District of Columbia Procurement Practices Act of 1985 to make the District s false claims act consistent with federal law and thereby qualify
NEW HAMPSHIRE BAR ASSOCIATION Ethics Committee Formal Opinion 1993-94/7 Candor to Tribunal: Use of Questionable Evidence In Criminal Defense January 27, 1994 RULE REFERENCES: *Rule 1.2 *Rule 1.2(a) *Rule
GUIDANCE FOR EMPLOYED BARRISTERS Part 1. General 1.1 This guidance has been issued by the Professional Standards Committee, the Professional Conduct and Complaints Committee and the Employed Barristers
2015 Legal Counsel Communications with Expert Witnesses 1 Legal Counsel Communications with Expert Witnesses 2 The role of the expert witness continues to be a hot topic of discussion. Two recent decisions
ch3600a00a 02-12-00 01:13:30 ACTA Unit: PAGA Rev RA Proof, 29.11.2000 Freedom of Information Act 2000 CHAPTER 36 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Part I Access to information held by public authorities Right to
ATTORNEY GENERAL S GUIDELINES ON PLEA DISCUSSIONS IN CASES OF SERIOUS OR COMPLEX FRAUD A FOREWORD A1. These Guidelines set out a process by which a prosecutor may discuss an allegation of serious or complex
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CROWN ATTORNEYS AND THE POLICE 1 Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Introduction - Martin Luther King Jr. (1929 1968) In many ways law enforcement can be seen as
The Scottish Human Rights Commission THE REGULATION OF INVESTIGATORY POWERS (SCOTLAND) ACT 2000: REVISED CODES OF PRACTICE FOR COVERT SURVEILLANCE AND COVERT HUMAN INTELLIGENCE SOURCES. Response to Scottish
CRIMINAL JUSTICE BRANCH, MINISTRY OF ATTORNEY GENERAL CROWN COUNSEL POLICY MANUAL ARCS/ORCS FILE NUMBER: 58100-00 EFFECTIVE DATE: February 3, 2012 POLICY CODE: DAN 1 SUBJECT: Dangerous Offender and Long
Guide to Municipal Court What Types of Cases Are Heard in Municipal Court? Cases heard in municipal court are divided into four general categories: Violations of motor vehicle and traffic laws Violations
Immigration Consequences at Sentencing 1 Peter Edelmann The severity of deportation "the equivalent of banishment or exile," [...] only underscores how critical it is for counsel to inform her noncitizen
Community Legal Information Association of Prince Edward Island, Inc. Defending Yourself in Criminal Court If you are charged with a criminal offence, certain federal offences, or a provincial offence,
SUBCHAPTER IX. PRETRIAL PROCEDURE. Article 48. Discovery in the Superior Court. 15A-901. Application of Article. This Article applies to cases within the original jurisdiction of the superior court. (1973,
1 2 3 The enacting of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, SC, 2001, C27 ( IRPA ) and the Faster Removal of Foreign Criminals Act, SC 2013, c. 16 ( FRFCA ) brought in many changes to the way non-citizens
Date: 20090127 Docket: IMM-2758-08 Citation: 2009 FC 80 Ottawa, Ontario, January 27, 2009 PRESENT: The Honourable Mr. Justice Kelen BETWEEN: CHUKS NWAWULOR EBONKA Applicant and THE MINISTER OF CITIZENSHIP
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.