The Bittorrent P2P File-sharing System: Measurements And Analysis J.A. Pouwelse, P. Garbacki, D.H.J. Epema, H.J. Sips Department of Computer Science,

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1 The Bittorrent P2P File-sharing System: Measurements And Analysis J.A. Pouwelse, P. Garbacki, D.H.J. Epema, H.J. Sips Department of Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands

2 BitTorrent Makes Up Of Global Internet Traffic

3 In April 2001 American programmer Bram Cohen designed the BitTorrent protocol as he was frustrated with how long it took to download large files using existing Peer-to-Peer services.

4 In other P2P applications, when user downloads a file, they are downloading that file from one person only, and the speed is limited by that person's connection.

5 Instead BitTorrent took a file, split it in chunks, and made each users contribute whatever they can!

6 At Present BitTorrent Have Active Users A Month

7 High Availability Key Features of A Good P2P System High Download Speed Good Version Handle Flash-crowd

8 Introduction The Popular BitTorrent & Purpose of This Paper The Most Popular 53% of all p2p traffic, July 2014 The Right Features Attracted millions of users Measurement Study availability, integrity, flashcrowd handling, and download performance Aid in Understanding What it takes to build a p2p system that attracts millions of users

9 Partner In Crime supernova.org Alternatives: youceff.com, piratebay.org As BitTorrent is only a file-download protocol, it relies on other (global) components, such as web sites, for finding files. The most popular web site for this purpose at the time we performed our measurements was suprnova.org.

10 The BitTorrent System Only a file transfer protocol Downloading peer finds suitable peer Files split into chunks, thousands per file High upload rates = High download speed Downloader barters for chunks After download, a peer may share without bartering This avoids parasitic behaviour User must find the torrents!

11 Supernova.org Uses mirroring to balance user requests Trackers keeps global registry of all downloads and seeds User clicks link pointing to.torrent metadata User requests the tracker for barter These files are distributed on.torrent servers Tracker responds with a list of users.torrent files points to a tracker One tracker can supervise downloads of multiple files

12 Strong Moderation Manual Filter Moderators filter for fake and low quality files Review For Moderated Submitter Direct Upload For Unmoderated submitter Community Moderated submitter and Unmoderated submitter

13 BitTorrent + Supernova.org An Unique Infrastructure for File Sharing

14 Detailed Traces Gathered June 03 to March 04 more than two thousand global components In a period of two weeks we measured the bandwidth of 54,845 peers downloading over a hundred newly injected files

15 Mirror Script HTML Script Tracker Script Measures availability and response time of supernova Downloads all new.torrent files Parses torrent for tracker update Supernova.org mirrors 2 1 3

16 1 3 2 BitTorrent Hunt Script Getpeer Script Peerping Script Selects a Contacts Contacts file to follow and initiates measuring tracker and gets IP address of peers peers in parallel to measure them

17 Overall System Activity Daily cycle; the minimum and maximum (at around 23:00 GMT) number of downloads occur at roughly the same time each day. The lowest and highest number of downloads in Figure 1 are 237,500 (on Christmas day) and 576,500 (on January 9). The number of active users in the system is strongly influenced by the availability of the global components in BitTorrent/Suprnova What: How: Target: Take basic measurements of the overall system, i.e. user activities, downloads, activity pattern Monitoring activity during Christmas 2003 Show the popularity and system dynamics of BitTorrent/ Supernova

18 large variance in the number of downloads due to several BitTorrent/ Suprnova failures Figure: The number of users downloading or seeding on BitTorrent/Suprnova for one month (Dec 03-Jan 04) 1

19 Architecture Vulnerability! IP Switch Supernova.org switched IP and it was down several hours Trackers Trackers are frequent targets of denial-of-service attacks and are costly to operate. Weak Mirrors Because of high demands (high demands of over 1,200,000 daily visitors) No Torrent! Occasionally.torrent servers were down, so no new downloads!

20 Availability - Mirrors Only half of the Suprnova mirrors had an average uptime of over 2.1 days, which is a good indication of their (un)availability. Only 39 mirrors had a continuous uptime period longer than two weeks. We can conclude that reliable webhosting of Suprnova pages is a problem. What: How: Target: Measurements of the availability of both the global Suprnova components and the BitTorrent peers Availability measurements of 234 Suprnova mirrors Harness availability related statistics of the mirrors

21 Availability Torrents & Trackers As shown in the figure, the.torrent file servers are even less reliable. Only 39 mirrors had a continuous uptime period longer than two weeks, with one tracker even showing a continuous uptime period of over 100 days. Half of the trackers had an average uptime of 1.5 day or more, and the 100 top ranking trackers had an average uptime of more than 15.7 days. What: How: Target: Measurements of the availability of both the global Suprnova components and the BitTorrent peers Availability measurements of 95.torrent file servers, and 1,941 BitTorrent trackers Harness availability related statistics of the torrents and trackers

22 (ranked according to decreasing uptime) Figure: The uptime ranking of three types of BitTorrent/Suprnova global components 1

23 Availability Content Lifetime On December 10, 2003 the popular PC game Beyond Good and Evil from Ubisoft was injected into BitTorrent/ Suprnova and on March 11, 2004 it died. To increase the availability of the whole system, the functionality of the global components would have to be distributed, possibly across the ordinary peers. However, as peers with a high uptime are currently very rare, then peers should be given incentives to lengthen their uptimes. What: How: Target: Measurements of the availability of both the global Suprnova components and the BitTorrent peers By following the the popular PC game Beyond Good and Evil Gain insight of content lifetime

24 (after they have finished downloading) Figure: The uptime distribution of the 53,833 peers downloading Beyond Good and Evil. 1

25 (ranked according to decreasing uptime) Figure : The activity of the different content submitters on Suprnova to prevent pollution. 1

26 Integrity - Metadata By installing spyware in the HTML code, we have registered each.torrent download and could have easily corrupt the meta-data. We conclude that using donated resources for hosting meta-data entails substantial integrity and privacy risks. What: How: Target: integrity of both the content itself and of the associated meta-data donated to Suprnova an account for hosting a mirror. Deteriorate the integrity of the meta-data

27 Integrity - Metadata As to the integrity of the content, P2P message boards and other sources strongly indicate that BitTorrent/ Suprnova is virtually pollution free. Created several accounts on different computers to insert files that were obviously fake. We failed; the moderators filtered out our fake files. We are surprised that a mere 20 moderators were able to effectively manage the numerous daily content injections with such a simple system. What: How: Target: integrity of both the content itself and of the associated meta-data Actively tried to pollute the system Deteriorate the integrity of the content

28 Figure: The activity of the different content submitters on Suprnova to prevent pollution. 1

29 Flash-crowd During the first five days, no peer finished downloading the file, and the injector was continuously online. This long period provides clear opportunity to catch the copyright violator. From the measurements, we can conclude that BitTorrent/ Supernova is capable of handling very large flashcrowd. What: How: Target: System s Reaction To A Sudden Popularity of a Single New File. They followed the Lord of The Rings III movie with size 1.87 GB, with tracker script Is BitTorrent/ Supernova callable of handling flashcrowd?

30 Figure: Flashcrowd effect of Lord of the Rings III 1

31 Download Performance - Speed 90% of the peers had a download speed below 520 kbps. the average download speed of 240 kbps allowed peers to fetch even large files in one day. power-law relation between the average download speed and the number of downloads at that speed. What: How: Target: Study the download speed and effectiveness (number of files available for downloading) two-week experiment in which the average download bandwidth of 54,845 peers was measured Download and file life time related satistics

32 Download Performance - Lifetime Availability of content is unpredictable. When the popularity drops and the last peer/seed with certain content goes offline, the content dies. Important observations are that the number of seeds after 10 days is not an accurate predictor for the content lifetime. What: How: Target: Study the download speed and effectiveness (number of files available for downloading) two-week experiment in which the average download bandwidth of 54,845 peers was measured Download and file life time related satistics

33 Figure: The average download speed of peers. 1

34 Figure : The content lifetime versus the number of seeds after 10 days for over 14,000 files. 1

35 Conclusion Detailed result of the experiment is posted on peer-2-peer.org, to aid ongoing researches. High integrity of content and metadata due to its global component, at the cost of availability. Decentralisation would increase availability, i.e. KaZaa, but it would make metadata more vulnerable and also decrease content integrity. Future design challenge: reward peers that seed files by giving preference for barter.

36 That s All!

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