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1 10 Offshore Center Danmark Newsletter ON/OFF 9 May 2007 Editor: Peter Blach Subscription: Berit Christensen Graphic production: Jan C Design & Kommunikation Printing: 1000 Newsletter to the offshore industry in Denmark ON/OFF Wave Energy an Emerging Market? Harvesting energy from offshore is a Danish speciality. Since the first Danish, and also the first Northern Sea, production of oil was initiated in 1971 (the Dan field), and the first offshore wind farm in the World was constructed (Vindeby) in 1991, Denmark has proved itself a key player on the global offshore market. Currently, a new segment to the offshore energy sector is on the rise with Denmark taking the lead wave energy. The potential for wave energy is vast. Studies have shown that the global energy demand can be covered from extraction of 0.1% of the total energy available in the Earths oceans. The map on the next page shows the energy content at different locations. As seen, North Western Europe has quite a high energy content. Cont. page 2 Wave Energy an Emerging Market?... 1 Converting Wave Energy is a Challenge... 3 Wave Energy is an emerging renewable Energy Source with a big Potential... 6 Offshore Wave Energy... 8 Poseidon s organ...10 Energy on Demand...12 Design of Access Platforms for Offshore Windturbines...13 Short News...14 EU Funding of Research within Wave Tidal and Wind Energy...16

2 Welcome Welcome to the 10th issue of ON/OFF, the newsletter from Offshore Center Danmark to the Danish offshore companies, institutions and international partners. In addition to the traditional offshore activities within offshore oil & gas and offshore wind, a new segment of the offshore sector is currently on the rise wave energy. Being the central organization for Danish offshore knowledge and competences, it is only natural for Offshore Center Danmark also to include wave energy in our activities, although it is still a very small market, compared to the oil & gas and offshore wind markets. Offshore Center Danmark believes that a link could be established from offshore oil & gas and offshore wind technologies towards the wave energy field. It is one of our prime goals to stimulate such synergies between related offshore fields. Cont. from page 1 Over the years several ideas for devices to extraction of wave energy have been designed. Countries like Japan, the United Kingdom and Norway have been conducting research in wave energy since the 70 s. In Denmark similar activities were undertaken, but were followed by a large state supported research programme carried out from This spawned about 50 ideas for new devices, making Denmark the most active region within development of wave energy, and stimulated entrepreneurial developments in the years to follow. So far only a few instances of commercial devices have been installed around the World. These include the Pelamis device off the coast of Portugal and Oscillating Water Column devices in Scotland, India and at the Azores. However, several promising new devices are now aiming for commercialisation within the near future. These most notable include amongst others, the unique Danish devices Wave Star (scale 1:2 to be installed at Horns Rev in 2009) and Wave Dragon (to be installed in Wales in 2008)..n In the current issue of ON/OFF we have chosen to focus on wave energy. You will find a series of articles from Danish inventers of wave energy converters explaining some of the ideas and work being carried out within this area. In addition to wave energy this newsletter features an article about energy extraction from sea current as well as an article about the design of access platforms for offshore wind turbines. Please enjoy the articles which are accompanied with a list of short news from Offshore Center Danmark. Also please take time to visit our English-language website OffshoreBase.dk, where the Danish offshore companies and institutions present themselves to international partners. Also you may find information about what is written in the media which conferences are being held and you may get an insight into some of the many technologically challenging offshore development projects undertaken by members. Future issue of ON/OFF will at times select a main offshore topic for closer investigation and will at other times be of a more general news-related nature. Please feel free to download previous issues of ON/OFF from our web-site. AquaBuOY Overtopping devices work by the overtopping principle where water is lead to a plateau above the natural sea level from where it will be lead through turbines. Wave Star Pelamis, Portugal Float based devices work by the absorber principle where floats help extracting the energy We hope you will find our newsletter of inte-rest. Wave Plane Wave Dragon Kind regards, Peter Blach Oscillating Water Column devices contains a chamber where the water level changes as waves goes in and out. When the water level changes so does the pressure. This causes air to flow through the turbine generating electricity. Oscillating Water Column, Islay, Scotland 2 Offshore Center Denmark

3 The map shows the potential for wave energy. Numbers indicate kw / m of crest length. Converting Wave Energy is a Challenge SeaGen SeaFlow, North Devon, UK Closely related to wave energy is energy from sea and tidal currents. Examples of devices within this category include the SeaFlow and SeaGen from British company Marine Current Turbines. These works by blades being rotated by sea/tidal current. Additionally, Danish company Modus 2 is currently looking into the potential of energy from sea currents. By Povl-Otto Nissen, Povlonis Innovation, Ribe, Denmark, There is plenty of energy in ocean waves, but of rather low quality. Therefore it is a challenge to find ways to concentrate and convert it into more useful forms of energy, such as electricity. One of the challenges in producing electricity from waves is that, in spite of strong forces in action where waves are hitting, the movements in the wave crests are rather slow. Bigger wave heights also give longer wave lengths and periods of time between the energy bursts. Approximately with a factor of 20, but it is not quite linear. It means that the power in watt is rather low and not much to go for, unless you build a plant covering a big area and try to accelerate the movements by some sort of gearing or temporary storing. Also, it is necessary to find ways to smoothen out the irregularity of natural waves, and collect as much as possible to run a turbine and a generator. The state of art in wave energy converters can be summarized to quite a few different types: Oscillating water Columns (OWC), overtopping systems, float based plants with different kinds of power take off and both vertical and horizontal wave rotors, not to mention tidal and sea-drift plants. The principle of the OWCs is to use the water surface as a piston for making changes in air pressure in a closed but downward open chamber, and then put an air turbine in the chamber wall. This type has not been attractive to Danish inventors, although some of them work with air pressure caused by the waves. Countries with shore lines of cliffs have a better potential for that type. Two types of converters using overtopping to collect the energy have been developed by Danish inventors, and are now being tested in open sea. They are the WavePlane (Bølgehøvl) and the Wave Dragon. Both are floating for anchor. Both have power input from grasping the wave crests and are converting the energy, when the water by gravity goes back to sea level. WavePlane is cutting the waves into layers, which causes a whirling flow in a horizontal channel in the plant. Wave Dragon collects the water from the wave crests over a ramp to a temporary storing basin on the plant. This water seeks Testsite at Nissum Bredning back to sea level through vertical cylinders with turbines and generators. The Dragon has parabolic arms to optimise the wave heights just in front of the ramp. The float-based types can be categorised in different types of converting process and power take off: The first Danish big scale plant of this type was the Point Absorber, In the first version the float was driving pumps and a turbine in a chamber on the sea bed. The power conversion is now changed to take place in the float itself with the piston fastened to the sea bed. AquaBuOY looks very much like Point Absorber but have apparently a different converting system. Other float-based Danish converters can be seen. One type is pumping water or hydraulic oil through tubes and cylinders with valves and with a turbine somewhere Offshore Center Denmark 3

4 in the circuit. The hydraulic liquid can only be looked on as a part of the transmission, because liquid cannot be compressed and used for storing of energy. Some have the pumping system beneath the surface and some over the surface. A converter of the latest type is WaveStar. Currently it is being tested in the Limfjord. Two parallel rows of nearly half spherical floats on arms are transmitting the movements from the waves by hydraulic pumps to a hydraulic turbine. This converter shows that it is possible to have many floats close to each other, without loosing much to the shadow affect. Behind a single float the waves are recovering very quickly by attraction of energy from the surroundings. It is a function according to the principle of Huyghens. An interesting combination of wind power and float-based wave converter is the Poseidons Organ. The floats are placed on a row like keys on an organ. This plant is floating by itself and has ordinary wind turbines on the top. Poseidons Organ is probably the next to be tested in a bigger scale. Another special type of float-based converter is the Wave Plunger, where the waves cause the float to run up and down on a slant tower. A group of float-based converters consist of chains of pontoons, formed as plane flaps or cylindrical containers. The power take off is most commonly by hydraulic pumps on the top or inside the pontoons, when the limbs in the chain are shifting angular position to each other, caused by the waves. The last type of float-based converters to be mentioned this time is the WaveSpinner, an invention of Povlonis Innovation. The transmission from the float is mechanical and causes directly rotation of a couple of flywheels and a generator. The principle has been tested and shown to work in a small scale and is now waiting for investments to be built in a bigger scale. Another promising type of converters is the Wave Rotors. The first Dane, who got his wave energy converter patented, was the engineer Tage Basse. He invented a rotor with fish fin like blades, which surprisingly rotated horizontally in the water Offshore Wind Power Basic Course The course will provide insight into the common occurring technologies encountered in the offshore wind industry. Topics include: Turbine technology, foundations, environment, service and maintenance etc. May in Herning Read more and register at: surface. Later was shown that a Darrieus rotor, known from wind technology, also works in water waves. A combination has now been built and is going to be tested in open sea. Povl-Otto Nissen concludes: As you see there are a lot of possibilities for exploiting wave energy. None of the ongoing experiments have so far shown to be the ultimate answer to how to do it best. The special Danish grass-root method of improving new ideas worked well for the wind power section. We are trying to do it in this area too. But experimenting with wave energy is much more demanding and expensive compared to putting up some wings and a generator on a pole in your backyard. It is not easy without some sort of financial support right from the beginning. But it is of great fun. WaveSpinner Povl-Otto Nissen explains the ideas behind his own wave energy converter, the WaveSpinner: At first the possibility of collecting energy from waves had to be demonstrated more convincing. It was done by inventing a wave hoist and making a model out of every day things. The float was two joined beer cans. The transmission system was an asymmetric rocker arm on a tower, all made of construction iron band. When the movements of the float caused the rocker arm to tilt, a piece of bent fence wire turned a tooth wheel, which was connected to horizontal barrel. A weight on a string was then winded up on the barrel step by step. The barrel was prevented to run backward by another piece of bent fence wire. It worked. The construction can be used as a wave hoist on oil rigs, if they have the patience to wait for it. Next step was to organise the power take off. In stead of the string a bicycle chain was used. The weight to be lifted was tied to 4 Offshore Center Denmark

5 the chain and lifted wave by wave to the top and over it. When falling down on the other side it turned two bicycle generators, just fast enough to get a small flash of light in a couple of bulbs. Next step again was to overcome the time gaps between the incoming wave crests to get a continued rotation. What about the principle of an old time foot driven sewing machine? Yes, but it has a fixed crank system, which is not suited for power input from a great variety of wave heights and different wave periods. How could that be solved? So far a module in scale 1 to 20 has been built and tested with promising results. Next step is to build a bigger model in non corrosive materials to demonstrate survival in the very tough environments. After that it should be easy to combine many modules to a big wave electric power plant. The WaveSpinner could be placed on its own legs or in the combination with breakwaters. It could be hanging under bridges or on oil platforms. The modules could also be placed on submerged pontoons, connected with a horizontal plate to give stability and resistance. Povl-Otto Nissen concludes: We are convinced that wave power plants, contrary to what you often see, should consist of small relatively light weight but strong units, and then connected and combined to bigger plants. We are heading to demonstrate the feasibility of one module at first, somewhere in the North Sea, where 90% of the energy is available up to 3.5 meter wave heights and wave periods between 2 and 7 seconds. If someone in charge would find that interesting, let us talk about it. n Take a look at the pictures and guess. The up and down movements of the float are transformed to a continued rotation of at couple of flywheels. It is double working. The volume and weight of the float can be optimised to deliver energy to the flywheel system twice every wave period. According to the law of Archemedes it is a question of interaction between gravity and the lift on the float. A PM-generator will be integrated in the flywheel system. (pat.nr. DK , publ.date: ) Povlonis Innovation is quite a young company dealing with research, development and mediation The manager, Povl-Otto Nissen, has been experimenting with wave energy since He is a physicist of education, has been headmaster of a Danish Folk High School, associate professor at Ribe College of Education, since year 2000 engaged in establishing the Poul la Cour Museum in Askov, Denmark. He is also the author of the biography of two scientists: Poul la Cour og vindmøllerne and Röntgen og de mystiske stråler, published by Polyteknisk Forlag. Offshore Center Denmark 5

6 Wave Energy is an emerging renewable Energy Source with a big Potential By Per Resen Steenstrup, Wave energy is an old story. People have tried to harness the power in waves for more than 100 years, without much luck, even though more than 500 million EUR have been spent worldwide on demonstrators. However over the last 3 to 5 years new ways of doing things have led to new technical solutions, which look so promising that commercialisation is now within reach. Wave energy is interesting, because it is an unlimited fairly stable energy source, which is placed at sea, 5 to 15 km offshore, in areas away from shipping lanes and fishing areas. At sea it does not take up much space, has practically no visual impact and no known negative environmental impact on the habitants of the sea. On the contrary, it seems to attract life as a sanctuary. Wave Star in normal operation. The converter is normally oriented towards the dominant wave direction. When the wave passes it produces an even energy output. The major technical break through has become a reality, mainly because of new simple storm protection schemes, simple basic designs for reliability which can deal with the harsh environment and system costs per MW, which in turn can be cost engineered to compete with wind turbines. The electricity production cost per MW is expected to be comparable to offshore wind turbines or even smaller, depending on the location. It is expected in the future, that offshore wind turbine farms can be combined with wave energy systems on a big scale, mainly due to utilization of a common high voltage line ashore, bringing down costs. Also wave energy devices dampen the waves inside an offshore wind farm, making the wind turbines more accessible with boats for more days per year. Wave Star in storm protection mode When will commercialisation take off on a big scale? There are different opinions about the above question. Some state beyond 2030, bot others including the author, believe it will happen much earlier, maybe 7 to 10 years from know, due to several facts. Wave energy does not have to pave the same long route for political acceptance as wind power has been through. There is a very strong technical synergy between wind power and wave energy. They both use the same skills and manufacturing technologies, except for minor differences. The world market is more than ripe for new renewable energy sources, due to global warming and soaring energy demand. 6 Offshore Center Denmark

7 The story about Wave Star Energy Wave Star Energy was established in October 2003 with the purpose of commercialising wave energy based on the Wave Star concept. Since then extensive wave tank testing in scale 1:40 was carried out during 2004, to optimize the basic configuration of the wave energy device and verify hydrodynamic modelling. In 2005 a scale 1:10 converter was designed and built with a hydraulic transmission system and built to the same standard as a full scale converter with the same instrumentation, electronic control system and grid connection. It was installed 6th of April 2006 in the sea at Nissum Bredning, close to Thyborøn in the North Western part of Jutland, in a wave climate, which is approximately 1/10 of the North Sea. After extensive testing of all control systems, the system was put into daily operation on the 24th of July Since then the system has logged almost working hours by the end of December 2006, without any major problems. The intention is to optimize the power output and gather information on reliability over the next two years. The site can be visited by appointment only and is connected to land with a pier. Funding Wave Star Energy is mainly privately founded. The family Clausen, behind Danfoss, is among the main investors in Wave Star Energy. In addition Wave Star Energy has received substantial PSO (Private Service Obligation) funding for renewable energy. How does the wave energy device work? The converter consists of two rows of each twenty floats. Forty floats in all. The floats are attached to a structure, which sits on piles. All moving parts are above water. The converter is normally installed so it is oriented towards the dominant wave direction. When the wave passes, the floats pump hydraulic energy into a common transmission system. Because the converter is oriented towards the dominant wave direction the floats pump energy into the transmission system distributed over time, which produces an even output to a hydraulic motor which drives a generator directly. A frequency converter locks the generator onto the grid. In a specific water depth, the highest possible wave, before it breaks, is 75% of the water depth. The lower part of the structure is at least the water depth above the water line. The wind load even in very high winds is negligible compared to the wave loads on the floats in normal operation. Practical tests have shown the Wave Star can accept waves from all directions. Crossing waves only produces a more uneven output to the grid, which is not a problem. Scaling of the Wave Star concept The ability to scale, in size and power, is very important to meet commercial kwh prices in the future. The current scale 1:10 device installed in the sea is 24 m long with Ø 1 m floats. In 0,5 m waves it produces Watts. The scale 1:10 installation in the sea in Nissum Bredning in the North West of Jutland. The next scale 1:2 device for 10 m water depth in the North Sea is 120 m long and with Ø 5 m floats. In 2,5 m waves it will produce 500 kw. Full scale 1:1 device for 20 m water depth in the North Sea / Atlantic Ocean is 240 m long and with Ø 10 m floats. In 5,0 m waves it will produce 6 MW. Every time the Wave Star is doubled in size and the waves are doubled, the power goes up with a factor of 11! The Wave Star gets more cost efficient with greater depth and size. For the Wave Star an optimal water depth is between 10 to 40 m, as the converters are gradually scaled up in size. When organised in wave farms, the Wave Star is space efficient because it sits on piles and does not sway around in moorings. It is expected that 16 to 24 MW power capacity can be installed per km2, which is 2 to 3 times more space efficient than wind turbines. What are the future plans? In parallel with the testing over the next two years of the scale 1:10 converter, the design of the scale 1:2 500 kw device for the North Sea is already in progress. Main components like arms, floats and sections of the structure will be tested in the North Sea during A test site is currently under construction and will be ready by March In 2008 the scale 1:2 500 kw device will be built and dry tested. In 2009 it will be installed at Horns Rev 15 km West of Esbjerg and grid connected to the 160 MW offshore wind turbine site. After a test period of 1 year the first 500 kw series production device will be released for sales and commercialisation begins. Offshore Center Denmark 7

8 Offshore Wave Energy By Lars Christensen, Wave Dragon ApS An international race to develop and commercialise technologies that can utilise the abundant wave energy has accelerated within the last couple of years. Wave energy is a highly concentrated energy source, an order of magnitude more powerful than wind. About 10-50% of Europe s electricity demand is ready to be supplied from technically available wave energy resources. Following two decades of mainly academic interests, wave energy has now also entered the focus of governments and investors, and this powerful combination of interests has speeded-up commercialisation and created a firm belief amongst producers, that a wave industry comparable with the wind power industry will emerge. That is, if appropriate wave energy converting technologies can be made commercially available. Fundamental challenges Wave power faces some fundamental challenges: efficiently converting wave motion into electricity... generally speaking, wave power is available in low-speed (average wave frequency approximately one wave every 10 seconds), high forces (more than 1MW per meter wave front in storms) and motion is not in a single direction (like in wind). constructing devices that can survive storm damage and salt-water corrosion. low total cost of electricity public acceptance, i.e. low visual impact and minimal impact on coastal processes An overwhelming variety of different technologies are developed these years around the world. Investors, developers and governments worldwide can agree on two things only: Large wave energy power plants will be offshore and floating technologies; as that is where the wave energy is, and it causes less visual and coastal process impacts. The Dragon One of the widely recognised leading wave energy technologies in the world is the Wave Dragon. Unlike most other devices it does not oscillate with the waves, it gathers the wave energy passively by utilising the Overtopping principle. The front face of the device is a curved ramp, oncoming waves surge up it, as if it were a beach. Behind the crest of this ramp lies a reservoir where the water overtopping the ramp which now has higher potential energy than the surrounding water. The effect of Wave Dragon is amplified by long reflector wings. Mounted to the reservoir, they channel the waves towards the ramp. The energy is extracted as the water drains back to the sea through low head hydro turbines within the reservoir. The Wave Dragon is designed as a floating offshore device to be placed in water depths above 20 m. Big is beautiful Wave Dragon is by far the largest envisaged wave energy converter today states Lars Christensen. Each unit will have a rated power of 4-15 MW depending on how energetic the wave climate is at the deployment site. The large size brings many advantages Lars Christensen continues. The device will respond minimally to waves, reducing fatigue problems. Also as the device is large and stable, it will be possible to work on board it most of the year, 8 Offshore Center Denmark

9 which will dramatically reduce maintenance costs and downtime. An overtopping device brings also many advantages to robustness of the design, in particular there are no endstop problems as in larger seas the waves will wash over the platform harmlessly. Prototype testing in Denmark Wave Dragon has deployed and run a successful prototype wave energy power plant in Nissum Bredning in Northern Denmark. A 237 tonne all-steel built structure was constructed and deployed March The purpose of this test was to verify the overtopping principle, and how much water would overtop the structure in different sea states, and how much of this water we could manage to get through the turbines and thus converted into electricity. Although the power take off equipment is well known from river hydro and wind turbines, a full power train was installed to demonstrate the principle and to get hands-on experience operating these systems in a salt water environment. Our first test series ran 16,000 hours, and we reached a 87% availability on the system, and the power conversion was larger than predicted from the wave tank tests and numerical simulations. As other offshore grid connected systems have been deployed for less than 1,000 hours only if ever, this was a very positive result, indeed concludes Lars Christensen. Based on the experience from this 20 months testing a number of the systems were improved and tested since April Future developments Next step is to demonstrate the system in a full size, i.e. a 7 MW device. This will be done just off South West Wales where at the moment a large number of surveys are carried out in order to hand in a formal application to the DTI. The plan is to deploy the device in This one device is the first in a 70 MW farm being developed in the Celtic Sea. The development is favoured by the UK Government commitment to develop a wave energy industry. The Wave Dragon project receives substantial support from the Welsh Government and the EU R&D framework programmes. Wave Energy Wave energy is generated by wind that passes over the open sea. The result is an energy concentration: The initial solar power level of about 1 kw/m2 is concentrated to an average wave power level of 70 kw/m of crest length. This figure rises to an average of 170 kw/m of crest length during the winter and to more than 1 MW/m during storms. Wave energy is distributed un-evenly around the globe. In Europe wave energy origins from the North Atlantics mainly and are highest at freely exposed Atlantic coast lines from Norway in the north over the British island through to Portugal, with an annual average energy flux of 24 kw/m and upwards. In the North Sea the energy flux is from 5 to 24 kw/m. Wave energy decreases rapidly in shallow water. At Horns Rev a level of approximately 5 kw/m is found, according to Wave Dragon ApS. Following the Welsh project a 50 MW project is developed in Portugal where a high feed-in tariff system for wave energy is in place. Further general info: Wave Dragon specifications for a 7 MW device: Mooring: A catenary anchor multi-leg mooring bouy system. Type of anchor will depend on seabed conditions. 6-8 anchors. Structure: A mainly re-inforced concrete structure. The central floating platform is a 131 x 97 m barge with open bottom compartments and hosts all power equipments etc. The floating level of this platform can be changed to meet the changing sea states by adjusting the air-pressure in the compartments. The two reflectors are 144 m long. Total height 17.5 m. Max draught: 14 m. Total weight 33,000 tonnes. Power Train: 18 low-head axial propeller turbines. Variable speed form 0 to 250 rpm. Direct-coupled Permanent Magnet Generators 390 kw Inverter control Step-up transformer on-board. Step-up voltage will depend on local conditions. O&M: All maintenance will be carried out offshore. Offshore Center Denmark 9

10 Poseidon s Organ By Chief Executive Officer Partner Claus H. Sivager and Project Manager Torben Holm, Birch & Krogboe A/S Introduction Poseidon s Organ is an invention, an ambition and a specific plan to develop and construct sustainable energy power plants in scale, output and economy surmounting all previous attempts to transform the oceans infinite resources into electricity. One single power plant unit is able to supply 12,500 households with electricity from its position in rough waters. The approximately 230 metres wide triangular power plant unit is capable of resisting conditions 10 kilometres off Portuguese and Irish coasts. Here wind conditions and energy rich waves create perfect conditions for a wave power plant, the first of its kind, conceptualised and designed for industrial energy production. Model tests and measurements clearly indicate Poseidon s Organ will pull the wave energy out of the experimental research laboratory and put it among future sustainable energy sources. At present, a demonstration plant placed off the Portuguese coast is to verify the fine output and operation stability calculations and model tests already show, thus proving Poseidon s Organ a very serious investment case both in terms of future environment and in terms of economic return for a professional investor. Scientific and Technological Aims of the Project Effective Wave Energy Production Poseidon s Organ is based on two patents and 12 inventions in total. Prototypes in scale 1:25 and 1:50 have through the support of the Danish Energy Board been tested and have shown very promising results in off-shore tanks and wave basins. The project is now ready for a test and demonstration plant at large scale. The idea is to build demonstration plants to identify and surmount possible technical barriers operating a plant at large scale and simultaneously demonstrating potential advantages and cost efficiency in energy production based on wave power. The project aims to transfer experience and technology from patents and model tests to the development of a prototype plant. The plant is to be located in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portuguese coast. Portugal is chosen due to favourable wave conditions, and because Portugal is a leading European nation within wave power technology. Furthermore Portugal has competent partners with close relations to the European energy market. The output of the demonstration plant is based on key figures, model calculations and mean data deriving from tests carried out. The plant must first and foremost confirm the following: - the ability to utilize at least 35 percent of the inherent energy in waves and transform it into electricity - the ability to produce a total output of 30,000 kw on the demonstration plant including three windmills - the ability to achieve an output on wave power energy equivalent to 28GWh a year when the demonstration plant is located in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portuguese west coast - the ability to achieve an output from three windmills reaching in total 22GWh a year How does it work? Figure 1 illustrates how waves always hit the front of the plant. The explanation is to be found in the patented anchoring system. The front of the wave power plant is 230 metres wide and consists of 10 floats. The float absorbs the energy inherent in the waves. A double functioning pump then transforms the wave energy into water flow driving a turbine or generator producing electricity. It is the uniqueness of the float that ensures optimal absorption of the energy inherent in the waves. The design of the floats is a result of model calculations and numerous tests. Cost effectiveness/efficiency It is a project goal to develop a cost efficient technology improving competitiveness and acceptance of wave energy in the market for sustainable energy. The construction costs of Poseidon s Organ are estimated at 41.5 million EUR. Figure 1 10 Offshore Center Denmark

11 precisely because they are not designed to withstand weather conditions in areas with high flux. The expected lifetime of the demonstration plant is 30 years. Seen over this period of time the electricity production costs deriving from Poseidon s Organ are calculated at 0.04 EUR/kWh*. It is not possible to compare this figure with other similar systems since information on development and construction costs, lifetime and maintenance concerning other systems is not accessible. Poseidon s Organ lifts wave power to new levels Poseidon s Organ is founded on the principle of swinging water columns and is designed for a location at open sea where wave energy intensity is largest. Regarding other wave energy systems, Poseidon s Organ has a significantly higher total output, efficiency and energy production. The main explanation for this is a number of unique developments all contributing to significant improvement in wave power utilization. Poseidon s Organ especially distinguishes itself by the following: Figure 2 Location at sea The plant is designed for location at open sea with high wave intensity and dimensioned to withstand a so called 100 year wave. The construction is able to resist extreme weather conditions often occurring at open sea. Poseidon s Organ is equipped with eight large pontoons that in collaboration with the plant floats prevent the construction from sinking. The location of the plant has a significant influence on the total output from the plant. The wave power plant can either be placed close to the coast or far offshore. There is no doubt most energy within the waves at open sea, whereas the energy level diminishes the closer the coast. The explanation lies in the waves so called flux or energy intensity which diminishes by interaction with the sea bed. The shallower the waters the lower flux. Energy intensity no doubt varies depending on the specific location, as figure 2 shows. If a wave power plant is to be an efficient and competitive alternative to other types of sustainable energy plants, it must be placed at open sea, but at the same time closest possible to the stabile land based consumption net. On the other hand a location at sea demands the plant is designed to resist salt water and the special weather occurring at open sea, including heavy storms. Most wave plant systems presently under development are placed where wave intensity is low Ye a r l y m e e t i n g Offshore Center Danmark s yearly meeting will take place at Skarrildhus on September 14, 2007 Members of OCD are encouraged to mark their calendar and meet up for an interesting day. Activities include status from OCD, possibilities to influence OCD s future activities, presentations from relevant offshore personalities and not least a possibility to network with co-workers in the beautiful surroundings of Skarrildhus. Offshore Center Denmark 11

12 Energy on Demand By Bjarne Schou, CEO, Modus 2 Could sea currents be turned into a new renewable source of energy? Modus 2, a Danish enterprise, invites companies, institutions, investment groups and individuals to form a European network for a closer look at the potentials According to Bjarne Schou in % of all energy needed in Europe will be imported. This represents a clear threat to our future and independency Bjarne Schou continues. The priority of energy within the EU Framework Program 7 could boost development of more renewable energy sources, lead to a major reduction of imported energy, as well as a boost for the offshore industry and more jobs. Wind, waves and tide are presently the best candidates as reliable renewable offshore sources of power. But how about sea currents? Sea currents are to be found all over, though sea currents are generally considered a modest source of energy. ago, even though sea currents might have the same energy potential as offshore wind. At that time wind power was dominated by enthusiasts. Since then wind technology has developed into a reliable and efficient energy source. The same development could happen to sea currents over the next decades. The goal is to form a network of interested institutions, companies and individuals and from that platform set up projects under EU Framework Program 7 that can develop sea currents into another renewable and reliable energy source, enhancing a successful offshore industry boosting new companies and new job opportunities. Companies and institutions, investment groups and individuals with interest in sea currents are more than welcome to contact the author for more information about the network or the activities we intend to launch. Modus 2 is a Danish enterprise, transforming knowledge and innovation into development, employment and new possibilities for businesses and societies. Modus 2 is currently involved in projects and activities with focus on development of European network for a more efficient use of resources within the EU. Contact Information Modus 2 Axeltorv 12E DK 1609 København V. / Results from American and South Korean offshore test projects reveal that 1) sea currents as modest as 0.6 m/sec can be used for energy production and 2) around 40% of the kinetic energy stored in the sea currents can by present technology be transformed into power. Modus 2, a Danish research- and development enterprise, has taken the initiative to form a European network in order to unfold the potential in sea currents as a new source of energy. The research done on sea currents so far is quite limited. The attitude towards sea currents is comparable to wind 30 years Photo: Tine Juel 12 Offshore Center Denmark

13 Design of Access Platforms for Offshore Windturbines By Thomas Lykke Andersen & Peter Frigaard, Aalborg University A large number of offshore windfarms have been constructed, more are currently under construction and many more are planned. Therefore, a lot of research is going on within the design of offshore windfarms and their foundation. Aalborg University has lately investigated the wave run-up on a circular cylinder and the forces that the run-up generates on a horizontal platform and a conical platform using model tests. The tests have been carried out for DONG Energy as a part of the design of the foundations for the planned Horns Rev II windmill farm. Measurement of waverun-up on pile. The background for the study is the observations from the Horns Rev I windmill farm, where the wave run-up height has been shown to be significantly larger than accounted for in the design. This has led to damage to some of the access platforms and boatlanding facilities. The logical approach might seem to be to place the platforms significantly higher, but for safety reasons this is not possible. Fig. 2: Measurement of impact pressures for horizontal platform. The objective for the model tests was to establish a design procedure to determine the impact pressures on the platforms, in the following three step procedure: 1) Calculate the expected maximum wave run-up height with no platform. 2) Use this run-up height to calculate the velocity at the level of the platform. 3) Use a slamming force model to get the maximum pressures. Fig. 3: Measurement of impact pressures for conical platform. Wave run-up has been measured in a small scale model using five water level gauges attached to the surface of the pile, cf. Fig. 1. The gauges were placed 2 mm from the surface of the pile and catch the green water run-up, but not spray which is mainly generated by breaking waves. These tests have been performed to calibrate step 1 and 2 in the design procedure. Access platforms are typically horizontal, but the client comes up with a conical platform solution, as they expected significantly smaller slamming forces for this structure. Therefore, both a horizontal platform and a conical platform were considered in step 3 of the design procedure. The slamming forces generated were measured by pressure cells as shown in Fig. 2 & 3. Offshore Center Denmark 13

14 Short News Short News Short News S Short News Short News News Short N Short News Short News News Short Ne Offshore Center Danmark and Bølgekraftforeningen cooporate Offshore Center Danmark and the Danish organization for wave energy, Bølgekraftforeningen (www.waveenergy.dk), have recently set up the frames for collaborating certain activities. The aim is to bring the wave energy sector and the traditional offshore sector closer together. Planned activities include a new ERFA group focusing on wave energy, a conference presenting possibilities within wave energy and more. DK/UK offshore wind network event February 28th and March 1st Offshore Center Danmark laid out the framework for a trans-national network event directed towards companies, institutions and authorities active within offshore wind. The world-leading region within the offshore wind market, Denmark and the fast-emerging region United Kingdom, were represented by 40 participants (approximately half from Denmark and half from the East of England) for the 2 day network event in Esbjerg. The first day introduced the market in the 2 regions and then featured a 2 hour one2one meeting session, where companies from the 2 countries had the opportunity to meet each other. 50 meetings took place during the session and several companies achieved good contacts to potential new cooperation partners - some even laid the ground for concrete business contracts. The second day of the event featured presentation from key players on the Danish market including DONG Energy, Siemens Wind Power, Esbjerg Safety Consult and Survival Training Maritime Safety. The event was established as part of the POWER project (more info on and organized by Offshore Center Denmark in cooperation with our English partners. Details about the activities in the two countries (and the rest of the world) can be found on IT for the Offshore Industry May 10th OCD and IT Forum Vest will put focus on IT in the offshore industry. Speakers from MultiPlus Solutions AS, Vestplan and Vestconsult will present IT solutions within areas of financial management, project management, planning & control and document management. The event takes place from in Esbjerg at Aalborg University Esbjerg. IT Forum Vest will host a light meal after the presentations. LNG LNG LNG LNG Maritime Development Center of Europe Tuesday June 12th 2007, LNG Conference Comwell Middelfart LNG Conference On June 12th Offshore Center Danmark and Maritime Development Center of Europe will set focus on the market for LNG (Liquid Natural Gas). Results from OCD coordinated development project of small scale LNG transportation will be presented at a conference in Middelfart. In addition, the conference will feature presentations from key speakers of the LNG market. Sub-soil Technology and Services Conference Sub-soil conference, held on 6th February 2007, attracted a big interest of participants at Aalborg University Esbjerg. 14 Offshore Center Denmark

15 hort News ews Short ws Short Members of Offshore Center Denmark Nearly 70 participants attended this technical conference arranged by OCD and showed a great interest in technology behind oil and gas recovery from underground, and in this billion market. The sub-soil conference had a focus on seismic, drilling technology, well services, seabed surveys, well stimulation etc. Several suppliers were present at the conference to tell about the challenges and possibilities they face working down under surface. The conference was completed with presentations from the technical research institutions, who introduced the results from their projects within sub-soil. The presentations from the conference can be found on A/S Oil Power A2SEA A/S ABB A/S Alslev Rustfri Montage A/S Altinex Oil Denmark A/S AMU-Vest AN Group Atcom ApS Atkins Danmark A/S Betech Seals A/S Blue Water Shipping Brdr. Jensen Maskinfabrik A/S Brüel & Kjær Vibro A/S BTM Consult ApS Carl Bro A/S Chevron Denmark Inc. COWI CT Offshore ApS Damcos A/S Dan-Equip A/S DAN-EX Electric A/S Danfoss Ventures Danish Air Transport Danish Marine & Offshore Group Danish Offshore Industry Dansk Gasteknisk Center a/s Dansk Industri Dansk Metal Dansk Svejse Teknik A/S Deloitte Statsautoriseret Revisionsaktieselskab Den Danske Vedligeholdsforening Det Norske Veritas DHI - Water & Environment DONG Energy DTU, Department of Mechanical Engineering Endress+Hauser Energistyrelsen EP TOOLS Erhvervs Akademi Vest Esbjerg Erhvervsudvikling Esbjerg Havn Esbjerg Kommune Esbjerg Offshore Base K/S Esbjerg Oiltool A/S Esbjerg Safety Consult A/S Esvagt A/S EUC Vest Europas Maritime Udviklingscenter Falck Nutec Fanø Kommune FH Montage Fiberline Composites as Fire-Protect A/S Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet Foga Aps FORCE Technology, Esbjerg Forskningsenheden for Maritim Medicin Fredericia Maskinmesterskole FURUNO Danmark AS Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S Gammelgaards Svejse Service GSS Gardit A/S Germanischer Lloyd Denmark A/S GEUS,Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Gimsing & Madsen A/S Gulf Offshore Leasing Denmark ApS H. J. Hansen Recycling Industry Ltd. Hempel A/S Hess Denmark HH-Consult Hydropower A/S Hytor IFU/IØ - The Industrialization Fund for Developing Countries JEVI A/S Jobcenter Esbjerg JobInVest ApS Jutlandia Terminal A/S Jørgen Kynde Isoleringsfirma Kirk Larsen & Ascanius Laybourn Trading & Technology, L.T. & T. LHJ Consult A/S LICengineering A/S Lindpro LINE-X Denmark A/S MacArtney A/S Underwater Technology Madsens Maskinfabrik ApS Maersk Contractors Masava Kemi ApS Maskinmestrenes Forening Metal Supply Ministeriet for Videnskab, Teknologi og Udvikling Minus 10dB MT Højgaard a/s MultiPlus Solutions AS Mærsk Olie og Gas AS Niels Winther & Co. NIRAS A/S Nordsø Elektronik A/S NV Engineering Ocean Team Scandinavia Odfjell Well Services A/S Olesen & Jensen Orbicon A/S Persolit A/S Peter Harbo A/S Phoenix International A/S PNE Teknik A/S Pon Power A/S Procurator Safety Denmark Promecon QA Consulting A/S Ramboll Oil & Gas Reson A/S ResQ A/S Ribe Maskinfabrik Rope Access Denmark Rovsing Dynamics A/S Roxtec ApS Sanistål A/S Score Danmark A/S Selco A/S Semco Maritime SGS Danmark A/S Siemens A/S Siemens Wind Power A/S Solar Offshore Stena Jern & Metal A/S STMS - Survival Training Maritime Safety Sturnus Engineering ApS SubCPartner ApS SubWind Syddansk Universitet Sydvestjysk Udviklingsforum Uniscrap, Åbenrå Valtor Offshore A/S Varde Kommune Vestas Offshore A/S Vestjysk Hydraulik A/S Vetco Gray Denmark Viking Life-Saving Equipment A/S Vindmølleindustrien VSB Industri- og Stålmontage A/S Welcon A/S Xperion ACE A/S YIT A/S Ødegaard & Danneskiold-Samsøe A/S Aalborg Universitet Esbjerg 15 Offshore Center Denmark 15 Newsletter ON/OFF 8 - May 2007

16 EU Funding of Research within Wave, Tidal and Wind Energy The board of Offshore Center Danmark: Rambøll A/S, FORCE Technology A/S, Pon Power A/S, Aalborg Universitet Esbjerg and Esbjerg Kommune. Offshore Center Danmark was created through corporation between the Danish offshore industry, universities, municipalities, Ribe County (now part of the Region of Southern Denmark) and the Danish ministry for Research, Technology and Development. EU Funding of Research within Wave, Tidal and Wind Energy On 6th April 2007 the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new EU programme for Research. The proposal accordingly provides new impetus to increase Europe s growth and competitiveness, recognising that knowledge is Europe s greatest resource. The programme places greater emphasis than in the past on research that is relevant to the needs of European industry, to help it compete internationally, and develop its role as a world leader in certain sectors. Hydrogen and fuel cells Renewable electricity generation Renewable fuel production Renewables for heating and cooling CO2 capture and storage technologies for zero emission power generation Clean coal technologies Smart energy networks Energy efficiency and savings Knowledge for energy policy making Within Renewable electricity generation, some consideration has been given to both wind, waves and tidal energy. The following work programs are supported by the FP7 under the main header Cooperation Work Programs by themes: Health Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies - NMP Energy Environment (including Climate Change) Transport (including Aeronautics) Socio-Economic Sciences and the Humanities Space Security The objective of the FP 7 Energy is accordingly to look into a portfolio of energy sources, to address the pressing challenges of security of supply and climate change, whilst increasing the competitiveness of Europe s energy industries. The EU Member States have earmarked a total of 2.3 billion for funding the Energy theme over the duration of FP7. The objective here is accordingly to provide research into, development and demonstration of integrated technologies for electricity production from renewables, suited to different regional conditions where sufficient economic and technical potential can be identified, in order to provide the means to raise substantially the share of renewable electricity production in the EU. Research should increase overall conversion efficiency, cost efficiency, significantly drive down the cost of electricity production from indigenous renewable energy resources including biodegradable fraction of waste, enhance process reliability and further reduce the environmental impact and eliminate existing obstacles. Emphasis will be on photovoltaics, wind and biomass including CHP. Furthermore, research will aim at realising the full potential of other renewable energy sources: geothermal, thermal solar, ocean (e.g. wave, tidal power) and hydropower. It is also possible to receive financing for oil & gas related research projects, but here you have to be a little more creative, as the theme has not been included directly in the energy program. Other collaboration projects can however be used, e.g. CO2 capture and storage is relevant for offshore oil & gas activities. Offshore Center Denmark Niels Bohrs Vej Esbjerg Tlf FP 7 Energy is divided into a number of subgroups with the following activities: For further information on energy projects and the other programs please visit: europa.eu/fp7/cooperation/energy_en.html

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