Załącznik 7. Lista wybranych dobrych praktyk w języku angielskim

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1 Załącznik 7. Lista wybranych dobrych praktyk w języku angielskim Best practice 1. Peñalolén crece verde (Peñalolén Grows Green) Category and - Regulating (air pollution, extreme temperature); subcategory of - Cultural (aesthetics) ecosystem services to What element of nature Trees in the street Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile Year Started in October 2010 but it was postponed to the beginning of May 2011 (Fall) because high temperatures (December-February) are not good for young trees. Peñalolén Municipality The project aims to raise local community s awareness about the environment and also educate and train them in the correct tree care techniques. The project promotes an active participation and community and municipality shared responsibility of the greenery of the streets. The government has found that survival of new or younger trees in the streets after the second or third years was around only 40-60%. It was caused by the fact that the community did not care for the trees, and the lack of capacity of the municipality to monitor the trees condition. Moreover, trees were pruning by some residents without any technical knowledg e (how and when to trim). This project is an expert-led initiative, in turn, by the Environmental Unit and the Responsibility Business and International Relations Management of the Municipality of Peñalolén as a part of its Environmental Management Plan. The project is a joint partnership with Dimacofi, Chilean private company, which will provide 1,000 trees (specially selected for streets), the virtual platform, and publicity materials. The local people were not involved in the planning process, but they are the key actors in the planting and monitoring of the development of the tree. Each family has to take a training course and pass an exam. The task for the family will be to plant a tree and to put it on a virtual map of the community. The family has the responsibility to monitor the tree and inform the municipality and the community about the tree s condition. The goal of the project is to reach 80% of survival of the new trees in the streets. In May 2011, there were 58 highly motivated persons on training and 46 trees were planted. $18,500,000 Chilean peso (ca USD 39,000) Has this best practice No been replicated elsewhere? Ricardo Cofré Meza, Environmental Coordinator, Peñalolén Municiplaity First name and surname Jorge Ueyonahara Affiliation (university, Uppsala University 112

2 Best practice 2. Eco-Roof Incentive Program Category and subcategory of ecosystem services to which the example refers What element of nature - Supporting (air purification); - Regulating (climate regulation, reduction of urban heat, stormwater runoff management); - Provisioning (solar energy); - Cultural (aesthetic quality of roof gardens) Trees, biodiversity, climate, air quality Toronto, Canada Year The City of Toronto City Council Toronto s Eco-Roof Incentive Program is designed to promote the use of green and cool roofs on Toronto s commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. The project was design to fulfill the City s Climate Change Action Plan. The goal of the Action Plan is to reduce Toronto s greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by The City of Toronto has had an interest in encouraging green roofs for some time, starting with its participation in the construction of two demonstration green roofs on the podium of City Hall and the roof of the Eastview Community Centre. In 2004, the City commissioned a team from the Ryerson University to prepare a study on the potential environmental benefits of widespread implementation of green roofs to the City of Toronto. The City held a set of consultation workshops with green roof stakeholders to receive input on its proposed strategies to encourage green roofs. Following these consultations, the City prepared a discussion paper, called Making Green Roofs Happen, which proposed options for encouraging implementation of green roofs. On February 1 st 2006, Toronto City Council approved a set of recommendations to encourage green roofs that for over 3 years effectively comprised Toronto's green roof strategy. The initiatives in this strategy fell into four main categories: installation of green roofs on City buildings; a pilot grant program; use of the development approval process to encourage green roofs; publicity and education. Toronto is the first city in the North America to have a bylaw to require and govern the construction of green roofs on new developments. Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? Eligible green roof projects receive $50 / square meter up to a maximum of $100,000. Eligible cool roof projects receive $2-5 / square meter up to $50,000. Green Roofs Phone: , First name and surname Agata Golec Affiliation (university, InE 113

3 Best practice 3. The Kfar-Sava Biofilter Category and - Regulating (regeneration cycling and filtration processes); subcategory of - Cultural (quality of life aesthetic beauty, social) ecosystem services to What element of nature Water Kfar-Sava, Israel Year The construction , realization present Yaron Zinger, Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael (KKL) Jewish National Fund (JNF) The Kfar-Sava bio-filter is the first engineered 'green' water treatment system in Israel, which Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? harvests stormwater and treats polluted groundwater. About 200 million cubic meters (3 million of Kfar-Sava) of polluted runoff water are absorbed by the sewage system and channeled to the sea, which is a waste of huge amounts of precious water that can be reused, and also pollutes natural water reservoirs. The bio-filter was developed by a research group from the Monash University in Australia, with the participation of Israeli Yaron Zinger, who became one of the initiators of the Kfar- Sava project. It was supported, also financially, by JNF, the Kfar-Sava municipality and KKL- JNF and approved by the Health, Environment Protection and National Infrastructure Ministries. The bio-filter system is a method of storing urban runoff water and treating it by means of a filtering system, plants and bacteria. The purified water is reintroduced into the aquifer for urban use. This project is an example of sustainable usage and compilation of different ecosystem services. It uses purification abilities provided by plants and living organisms. At the same time it increases efficiency of water usage and reduce necessity in pumping more water. It also supports cultural ecosystem services since it requires planting of additional trees that will provide services to local community. Information is unavailable, but many specialists agree that technology itself is relatively inexpensive. Yaron Zinger PhD Candidate Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University About the project: Project brochure: Brochure.pdf First name and surname Marina Kovaleva Affiliation (university, American University of Central Asia 114

4 Best practice 4. Hammarby Sjöstad Category and - Provisioning (water, fuel); subcategory of - Regulating (flood regulation); ecosystem services to - Cultural (educational, recreational) What element of nature Water, soil, trees Stockholm, Sweden Year Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? The City of Stockholm Development Office in cooperation with the City Planning Department The urban development project is located in the south-east of Stockholm covering 145 ha including a lake. The project goal is to create a closed-circuit system that allows reduction of energy and water use within the Hammarby Sjöstad by 50% comparing with other housing areas in Stockholm. In the beginning of 1990-s the land in Hammarby Sjöstad belonged to private owners and was built up with industrial squatters. Due to lack of regulations the area soon reached a point close to collapse of the local ecosystem. The city authorities decided to buy out the land and construct a new city district with a special focus on use of ecosystem services, environment protection and sustainable development. The project was initiated by Stockholm City Council and has involved spatial planners, public sector stakeholders and inhabitants of the city. The local eco-cycle has been established in order to support and protect existing ecosystem services. For instance, solar energy is used for production of electrical energy, combustible waste is used as biomass for district heating and biogas is extracted from the digestion process of sewage. The sludge remained after extraction is used for soil fertilizing. Roofs o f the buildings are planted with sedum in order to collect rainwater, delay it and evaporate it. Furthermore, it helps to create green city milieu. The City of Stockholm invested about 500 million in the project. About 3 billion of private investment was generated within the project. On the basis of the project a model of the sustainable city Symbiocity was developed by the Swedish Trade Council (www.symbiocity.org). Hammarby Sjöstad was used as a case study for consideration of the Scottish government Phone: Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Mariya Dedova Affiliation (university, University of Gothenburg, Sweden 115

5 Best practice 5. Garden for a Living London Campaign Category and - Supporting (habitat for animal and bird species, terrain providing network for wildlife subcategory of ecosystem migration); services to which the - Regulating (absorbing carbon, soaking up flood water, retain water, cooling the city, example refers balancing the local climate) What element of nature Plants (trees, grasses, shrubs, flowers), animals, birds, biodiversity, water, climate London, Great Britain Year From 2009 ongoing London WildLife Trust The Program aims to transform the London's 3 million gardens into a network of nature reserves that make a city more resilient to climate change and better for wildlife, engaging open access, self-initiated participation of local inhabitants. Climate change is predicted to make summers hotter and drier and winters warmer and wetter. As a result, we are likely to experience overheating, droughts and flash-flooding, with an increased demand on water resources. The impact will be probably greatest in cities, where hard surfaces prevent water absorption into the ground. An influx of new species attracted by the warmer climate can cause a shift in the balance of predators, pests and disease. Some native species will need help to adapt to these changes. The London Wildlife Trust s Garden for a Living London campaign aims to highlight the importance of the capital s gardens to wildlife and to people. The organization wants London's private gardeners to pledge to do one of seven things to make their garden more wildlife and climate friendly. These are: planting drought resistant plants, planting mixed hedgerows, planting broad leaved trees, making a pond, using mulch, roof greening and wilding up dockings. The campaign has attracted attention of the Mayor of London and is supported by Thames Water private utility company responsible for the public water supply and waste water treatment. The idea of the program is to rely on self-initiative of London inhabitants. Everybody who has a garden can apply. The London Wildlife Trust supports participants with online accessible information in form of How to guides on each of seven above-mentioned topics and Wildlife Gardening Pack guidebook with lots of tips and advices on wildlife and climate friendly gardening. Gardeners are also welcomed to visit mini "Future Gardens" placed in London area. The Wildlife Trust spent 2,303,490 on charitable activities and 233,076 on fundraising and Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? publicity in financial year. Similar campaigns can be find in Holland (Amsterdam), USA ( New York, Chicago), Denmark (Copenhagen). London Wildlife Trust General enquiries: First name and surname Mariusz Boćkowski Affiliation (university, Jagiellonian University, Cracow 116

6 Best practice 6. Ørestad Urban Gardens Category and - Provisioning (food); subcategory of - Cultural (green areas) ecosystem services to What element of nature Garden City Copenhagen, Denmark Year 2005 Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? The Association Ørestad Urban Gardens The project offers gardens of approximately 16 m², in which the members of the Association can grow organic food. There are about 60 small gardens. In addition to the individual plots, the Association's members also have the opportunity to help cultivate a large shared garden. The project was started by the Association Ørestad Urban Gardens, which used empty building sites to bring life and establish green areas in a district characterized by construction machinery and bare fields. The individual gardens consisted of raised beds in Euro-pallet boxes. The members were entitled to two 'plant boxes' in which they could cultivate flowers, herbs and vegetables. The gardens had no sheds or permanent installations. In collaboration with Agendacenter Amager, local residents established the Association Ørestad Urban Gardens (2005). The land for the gardens is made available by the Area Development Company that supports the district's local initiatives. At the beginning, the Association experimented with small, mobile gardens. In 2009, the common area has tables, benches and a barbecue facility for everyone to use. An old site hut functions as a tool shed. The Association is responsible for the purchase of tools, tables and benches, as well as measuring up and allocation of plots. The practical work of laying out the gardens, etc. is carried out by the members on special work days. From time to time, the Association holds social and gardening-related events during which the district's residents can get together to work in their gardens, enjoy each other s company or to attend theme days which focus on gardening, ecology and the environment. Membership costs DKK 200 year ( 37 USD), project budget not given There are some examples of urban gardens not exactly in building sites but also in cities called "urban agriculture", Pomona Valley, California, 2008 Ørestad Urbane Haver, Asger Jorns Allé, 2300 København S Phone: Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Maruta Jankēvica Affiliation (university, University of Latvia Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences 117

7 Best practice 7. Neighborhood Gardens and Creepers for Cracow Competition Category and - Regulating (natural air filter); subcategory of ecosystem - Supporting (oxygen production); services to which the - Cultural (aesthetic and spiritual) example refers What element of nature Trees, plants like creepers Cracow, Poland Year Ecological Animation Workshop Each year (last in 2010) most valuable gardens and creepers rising in the city are selected. Selection of winners is based on strictly specified conditions. The initiators are trying to encourage more and more of Cracow inhabitants to joint responsibility for greenery in the city. Competition encourages citizens to invite nature into places from which it was removed for instance because of urbanization. Acco rding to the initiators there is a need to popularize gardening knowledge which helps to create plant Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? landscapes and knowledge about value of green areas in the city. In 1995, an educational program called Garden City Project was started. One of the program s components was a contest. From the beginning, the project was opened to everyone: community activists, representatives of housing cooperatives, administrators of b locks and private tenements and residents of Cracow. Nowadays, also consultations, lectures, inspections, educational meetings and trips are carried out. Elżbieta Urbańska Kłapa Pracownia Animacji Ekologicznej Ośrodka Kultury im. C. K. Norwida os. Górali 5, Kraków Phone: w

8 Best practice 8. Green Stormwater Infrastructure Programs Green City, Clean Waters Category and subcategory of ecosystem services to What element of nature Year Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? - Cultural (recreation and tourism); - Regulating (water and air quality regulation, habitats, water regulation, erosion regulation, water cycling); - Provisioning (fresh and clean water) Trees, water management, water protection, rain garden Philadelphia, PA (USA) Green Stormwater Infrastructure Program is a part of general Water Protection Program and it was implemented in Philadelphia Water Department The program aims to reduce local flooding, reduce combined sewer overflows and improve water quality while also improving the quality of life of residents. The problem of stormwater management in the cities is very common. If rain is not properly managed and flows over impervious surfaces (streets, rooftops, pavements) into the nearest storm drain, it can have a detrimental effect on water quality in river and stream corridors and provide flooding and on the other hand faster water fall and consequently lead to drought. The air quality in the cities is also worse because of lack of large green areas. This results in deterioration of health condition and quality of residents life. The most important outcomes of the project include: - design of a Backyard Buffer Program for a property owner situated along the Poquessing Creek, the Pennypack Creek to enhance the habitat surrounding water sources, stabilize creeks to protect against erosion and improve the water quality of the creeks; - study of integrated green stormwater infrastructure; - selection of tools including stormwater planters, rain gardens and green roofs and gradual implementation of them; - waterways restoration (to more natural ecosystems) involves the re-design of streams, enhancement and creation of wetlands; - the Energy Coordinating Agency and the Philadelphia Water Department were distributing rain barrels to people located within the watersheds of Philadelphia. The residents are also involved in different activities. No data available 10,000 Rain Gardens in Kansas City (http://www.rainkc.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/home.home/index.htm) Phone: (215) , Rita Montague Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Katarzyna Szrama Affiliation (university, Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Plant Ecology and Environmental Protection 119

9 Best practice 9. The Creation of Lublinek Forest Park in Lodz Category and subcategory - Provisioning (gene bank); of ecosystem services to - Regulating (climate regulation); - Supporting (soil formation, oxygen production); - Cultural (recreation, restoration) What element of nature Trees, biodiversity, water, air Lodz, Poland Year Aeris Futuro Fundation, Urban Forestry Lodz, Dell Creation of the park consisted of two phases implemented in In , native trees and shrubs were planted. In , green collar insulation around the municipal waste sorting Lublinek was created. Recreational and environmental potential of uncultivated lands in the vicinity of Forest Lublinek was untapped. Large housing estates in the area, the nearby airport and the municipal waste sorting posed a serious environmental burden. The main problems were the high concentration of CO 2, low air humidity and pollutants in the air and soil. During the first phase of the project, works was conducted on the area of about 37 ha. The work was carried out based on the concept of a park in English style, which sought revitalization of the natural rural character of these areas (establishing meadows, grasslands and pastures). The total area arranged in the second phase was ha. DELL s employees as volunteers participated in planting trees and shrubs. According to the estimations made by the Aeris Futuro Foundation before the tree reaches maturity calculated at 100 years, they can accumulate 1,250 tonnes of CO 2. The project also had its spontaneous stage in 2008, the Art of Living Foundation encouraged local residents to visit the park and planted another 200 plants there. Total investment cost amounted to 362,018 PLN ( ). Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? Similar initiatives based on cooperation between NGOs, city administrations, business and local community were carried out in several places throughout the country. Joanna Mieszkowicz, Executive Director First name and surname Renata Putkowska Affiliation (university, 120

10 Best practice 10. Bristol's Parks and Green Space Strategy (P&GSS) Category and - Cultural (recreational, aesthetic) subcategory of ecosystem services to which the example refers What element of nature Trees Bristol, United Kingdom Year 2008 Bristol City Councils Cabinet The Bristol s parks are considered to be the main destination (seasonal and fixed) for UK citizens. Twenty-five million of Bristol s citizens are visiting the parks annually. The strategy was designed in order to protect and improve ecosystem services in Bristol s Parks to ensure citizens with facilities for recreation and leisure. The Bristol s parks tend to be the enjoyable spaces for citizens to amend their well-being and healthy life-styles. However, parks were threatened to be reduced. A constant decrease in the investments for parks improvements led to the decision made by the UK government for selling some of the green land. Thus there was a need to find new investments and to prevent the reduction. Moreover, it was essential to safeguard the old trees growing in the historical green areas, as well as to plan more trees, to develop and grade up the quality of parks. Trees deficit has been overcome by changes in the planning systems for a higher quantity of green space. The tree planning has been improved in 450 parks in Bristol, where approx. 4,000 trees were planted (2009). Moreover, progress report indicated that in the year 2009 a number of investments came from external funds and contributions, less from the City Council s budget, and that helped in the implementation of the Bristol's Parks and Green Space Strategy. The biggest outcomes of the project ware the increased citizen s satisfaction and a clear growth of time spent in the parks for leisure activities. Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? In total 34 organizations took part in the strategy development process. Moreover, 5,500 Bristol inhabitants have signed several petitions calling to improve and save trees in the Bristol s parks. Local people were also involved in the following processes: public consultation to express their ideas concerning the parks preservation; development of the community groups (the Bris tol Parks Forum); learning programs for children and youth; events and open space festivals million per year Rob Acton-Campbell The Bristol Parks Forum: Bristol City Council: First name and surname Natalia Stepanova Affiliation (university, University of Gothenburg, Sweden 121

11 Best practice 11. Green Poznan Category and subcategory - Supportive (production of oxygen); of ecosystem services to - Cultural (aesthetic values) What element of nature Trees, greenery Poznan, Poland Year Since 1994 Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? City Council Since 1994, the President of Poznan announces the competition for the most beautiful green area. The competitors can take part in the contest in one of the following categories: gardens; terrace, loggias and balconies, allotments at the area of Family Allotment Gardens; green belts; greenery nearby housing estates, offices, schools. Poznan is one of the biggest cities in Poland and is important centre of trade, industry and education. Like every big agglomeration, Poznan suffered from atmosphere pollution, biodiversity loose and small quantity of green areas. This influenced quality of life in the city. Moreover, Poznan s citizens were exposed to urban stress and health problems connected with air and water pollution and noise. Green areas in the city contribute to the quality of life. They play crucial role in CO 2 reduction and oxygen production, thus city carbon footprint is reduced and air quality is improved. It also provide habitat for native plants, animals and wildlife. Each of participants contributes to urban scenery creating picturesque green area that is beautiful and provides aesthetic values. Moreover, every year the greater number of various species is planted thus biodiversity in urban area is increasing. The City Council was initiator of the contest and the idea behind it was to involve as many citizens as possible. It has engaged many citizens since the beginning around participants has already taken part in the competition. This practice has been replicated in many towns and cities: e.g. in Ciechocinek (2010) Contest Office: ul.libelta 16/20; Poznan Phone: pl First name and surname Dominika Dzwonkowska Affiliation (university, Cardinal Stephan Wyszynski University Institute of Ecology and Bioethics 122

12 Best practice 12. Urban Tree Program: Re-Green Atlanta Category and subcategory - Regulating (trees) of ecosystem services to What element of nature Trees Atlanta, GA (USA) Year Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? Trees Atlanta organization in collaboration with the City of Atlanta The goal of the project is to restore Atlanta s urban forest by planting and maintaining thousands of trees. This should help the City cope with such environmental problems as: urban heat island, air pollution and flooding while at the same time educate the citizens about the importance of trees. The population of Atlanta is continuously growing. Because of that, there is an increased demand for land to build houses, commercial centers or industrial sites. During the 30 years before the implementation of the project, Atlanta lost around 65% of its trees. Planting trees is very well organized it involves using GIS mapping to identify the areas in need of trees. Then, the organization asks for appropriate permissions for planting trees and arranges the land. Planting trees, itself, takes place during events which are usually organized every weekend and rely on volunteers. The volunteers receive training at the beginning of each tree-planting event. Once, new trees are in the ground, Trees Atlanta staff is responsible for caring for the trees for the first three years of their life. After that, residents of Atlanta take charge of them. Most of the trees planted are indigenous, which means that the organization wishes to restore native tree species. Planting trees helped to overcome the problems mentioned earlier as well as integrate the residents of Atlanta in a common effort to take care of the environment they live in. Tree planting events still take place and the next thing the Trees Atlanta plans to do is create an enormous park around the city. The budget for was $2.3 million. Marcia Bansley Executive Director Phone: (404) Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Justyna Dziankowska Affiliation (university, 123

13 Best practice 13. Cork South Docklands Category and subcategory - Provisioning (water and energy); of ecosystem services to - Regulating (cycling and filtration processes); - Stabilization (coastal and river channel stability) What element of nature Water (River Lee, Atlantic Coast), Land, Oil Cork, Ireland Year Strategy - October 2004 to April 2008; Implementation starting in 2008 Has this best practice been Howards Holdings Ltd. The entire project for the docks in Cork is very ambitious, identified as a priority in more national strategic plans, and is reflecting Ireland s ambition to take its place as a leading knowledge economy. The Cork South Docklands project is a first part of the Cork Docklands project that gives sustainability a high importance. The Cork South Docklands to the east of Cork city was reclaimed from the marsh which was a floodplain covered by the River Lee at high tide back centuries ago. Due to the nature of historical manufacture and industrial activity at South Docklands, it was presumed that there is a legacy of contaminants in the soil and groundwater (including hydro -carbons, chlorinated solvents and various metals). The area is low-lying and prone to flooding, problem that seemed to be exacerbated by climate change. Quay walls needed to be strengthened and upgraded and the ground levels within the area needed to be raised. There was an integrated and multidisciplinary approach with focus on environmental factors in an urban context. New system solutions provide scope for synergies between sewage, waste and energy production and enable coordination with efficient land use, landscape planning and transport systems. 600 million Euro The concept of SymbioCity has been an inspiration for urban development projects around the world, e.g. Buffallo City in South Africa, Toronto Waterfront in Canada (2005), Pune in India, and also in Europe Narbonne in France, London Olympic Village in the UK. Cork Harbour Integrated Management Strategy, May Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Affiliation (university, Urban Planner, Bucharest, Romania Aura Istrate University of Architecture and Urban Design Ion Mincu Bucharest 124

14 Best practice 14. McGill University Edible Campus Category and subcategory - Provisioning (food); of ecosystem services to - Cultural (aesthetic and educational) What element of nature Edible plants Montreal, Canada Year 2007 Has this best practice been replicated elsewhere? Alternatives, Santropol Roulant, Minimum Cost Housing Group The creation of the Edible Campus is the result of a partnership between the McGill University s School of Architecture and two local non-governmental organizations: Alternatives, dedicated to the greening of cities through community participation, and Santropol Roulant, which focuses its efforts on food security. This innovative urban agriculture project has been honored with a National Urban Design Award from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and Canadian municipalities. 1. Food trasportation 2. Wastes by generating packaging 3. Organic wastes 4. Heat island The Edible Campus project demonstrates that underutilized concrete spaces can become green and provide food with little effort and low cost. Productive growing in the cities will help to reduce their global ecological footprint made especially by transporting and storing food. This would help reduce food transportation and in consequence CO 2 emission. Food from the Edible Campus along with other food from registered suppliers is processed in Santropol Roulant s kitchen. Forty percent of the kitchen's organic wastes are turned into natural fertilizer through vermin-composting. The Edible Campus uses two wooden compost bins to recycle garden s organic wastes. The garden s vegetation contributes to microclimatic cooling by evapo-transpiration and thus reducing the heat island effect. The total number of the volunteers who worked for the garden amounts 266. This includes the McGill University community, volunteers children and students, NGO actors and visitors. Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Mariam Qalebashvili Affiliation (university, Tbilisi State University 125

15 Best practice 15. Philadelphia GreenPlan Category and subcategory - Cultural (aesthetic); of ecosystem services to - Supporting (carbon sequestration); - Regulating (increase of air quality maintenance) What element of nature Trees Philadelphia, PA (USA) Year Since 2001 Has this best practice been City of Philadelphia (Mayor s Office of Sustainability) Efforts to increase green coverage was proposed and supported by the City Council and the Mayor. Actions were supported by association Next Great City. The main goal of this project is to transform Philadelphia into green city. The main problem is lack of trees in some Philadelphia s districts. From 1976 to 2004 Philadelphia lost ca. 200,000 trees (about one half). It has a several negative consequences, e.g. lower air quality maintenance, unattractive appearance of city and so on. The second problem is still big number of dead, ill or potentially dangerous trees near the streets. It entails worse level of ecosystem services. In response to above mentioned problems, the Mayor s Office of Sustainability designed a project (GreenPlan) to increase tree coverage toward 30% in all neighborhoods by But firstly city promised to remove old trees, and this part was done (since 2001 ca. 23,000 dead or dangerous trees were removed). This part was a necessary, preparatory phase for second part of the project: planting new trees. The main citywide goal is to plant trees by The City Council Department, several partnership communities, individuals and businesses are involved in this project. Another movement involved in this process is TreeVitalize a public-private partnership to restore tree cover in Pennsylvania communities. Since 2004, this organization has already planted 20,000 trees in Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Also local people can make the city greener thanks to Plant!Philadelphia fund (created by administration); it directly helps to plant new or remove old trees in City Centre District. Achievements: replacing about 8% of old trees City Center District annually. The contributions to the fund are tax-deductible and everyone can decide where new trees will be planted. $1 million for tree planting, with an additional $2,5 million for the Department of Parks and Recreation Katherine Gajewski, Director In Mayor s Office of Sustainability Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Michał Jarzyna Affiliation (university, Jagiellonian University 126

16 Best practice 16. Warsaw University Library Category and subcategory - Provisioning (fresh air); of ecosystem services to - Regulating (climate regulation, neutralize the heat island effect, elimination of CO 2, water reusage); - Cultural (aesthetic, recreational, educational) What element of nature Trees, bushes, biodiversity, water, air, Warsaw, Poland Year 2002 University authorities Not only this investment is supporting the idea of sustainable usage of ecosystem services and its natural growth, but also is non-commercial and innovative idea in Warsaw (and also Poland). It s connecting cultural, technological and protecting environment functions as well as modernity and nature. The problem was to create a cultural-nature area which allows drawing from investment s utility as well as improvement of the local nature balance. The goal was to create a new quality, eliminate a detrimental influence of the huge concrete investment in the centre of the town. The main goal was to larger the green area in the town, neutralize the heat island effect without using too much space. The investment consists of cultural, ecological and aesthetical elements and 3 parts: upper, bottom and the entrance and covers the area of 1 hectare, 5111 m 2 of which is covered by the greenery. This investment was implemented by the University authorities with a great support from the town s authorities. It was an expert-led process. The library is open to everyone and fulfills recreational, educational and economical functions. $80 million Has this best practice The Copernicus Science Centre in Warsaw (2002) been replicated elsewhere? First name and surname Beata Młynarska Affiliation (university, 127

17 Best practice 17. The Forest of Belfast Category and subcategory - Cultural (green areas as space where people meet) of ecosystem services to What element of nature Trees, green areas in the urban public space Belfast, Northern Ireland Year Since 1992 Partnership of more than 20 organizations A public-private partnership program that aims on protecting and managing city trees, especially by promoting them, tree planting, providing research in this area, taking care of trees, connecting the nature with arts and citizens, with involvement of stakeholders and local people. How to strengthen people awareness of how important and valuable urban forests ecosystems are? The Belfast Forest implemented few initiatives: - Belfast s trees survey over trees were examined between 1993 and 1995 to understand species composition, ownership, tree condition and age and provided the basis of a strategy for the future of the urban forest. - Encouraging public involvement every year new projects were implemented to enable local community to actively take part in creating public areas in urban forests. - Nearly trees were provide in a three year program. - Environmental arts one or two timber wood sculptures were created and placed in various areas of city forests in Belfast every year. They were pres ented to the citizens and visitors to show importance of the city forests trees and that the nature is a real kind of art. - Tree care there was an educational program that explained how to take care of trees. - Citizens could participate in seminars that involved representative of central government, NGO s etc. Has this best practice been Similar program Forrest of Cardiff (started in 1998) Dr Ben Simon Forrest Officer Forrest of Belfast 4-10 Linenhall Street Belfast BT2 8BP Phone: (028) Information on the person who described this best practice First name and surname Marcin Walków Affiliation (university, Wroclaw Medical University, Faculty of Health Sciences Wroclaw University of Economics, Faculty of Management, Informatics and Finance 128

18 Best practice 18. Emscher Park Restoration in Ruhr Category and subcategory - Regulating; of ecosystem services to - Supporting; - Cultural What element of nature Trees Federal Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Year 1989 Authorities of the federal land The Ruhr area has been dominated by coal mining and heavy industry for more than a century. It was left with ecological problems after the industrial decline of the 1980s. To change this situation and restore the ecosystems, the region authorities came up with a comprehensive restoration plan for the Emscher Park. Over the past 30 years, the heavy industries in Ruhr district have been massively restructured, causing the abandonment and dereliction of many steel works and coal mining operations throughout the region. The project focuses on: - using ecology as a central organizing focus for the regeneration of the region s economy as well as its environment; - turning industrial wastelands into a regional network of open space, recreation, and cultural resources; - being the largest re-naturalization project in Europe, and one which is rare in the world for undertaking brown fields restoration on a regional, rather than site- specific, basis. A central aim of the project was to clean up the river and to integrate and develop existing open spaces to create a regional park system that would include seven green corridors running north south and east west through the region. Between 1991 and 2000 (first decade) the government of North Rhine Westphalia and the EU (Aim 2) has financed over 270 projects with a volume of nearly 200 million Has this best practice been 129

19 Best practice 19. High Line Innovative Park in New York Category and subcategory - Regulating; of ecosystem services to - Cultural (recreational) What element of nature Trees, plants New York, NY (USA) Year 2009 Has this best practice been Friends of the High Line and New York city Department of Parks and Recreation The High Line is a park built on an elevated former freight rail trestle on the West Side of Manhattan. It runs from Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District, through Chelsea, to 34 th Street. The main function of this park is purifying the air in the city centre, recreational functions for citizens, plantings local vegetables. The main problem in big cities like New York is to keep air in a good condition. Friends of the High Line and New York City Department of Parks and Recreation were the main initiators of the project. The park features an integrated landscape, designed by James Corner Field Operations. In the park, there are bike and run paths, as well as an area for planting vegetables. Additionally, cultural events like concerts, exhibitions are hosted in the park. The main function of this park is the purification of urban air. Marine biologist First name and surname Kamila Janiak Affiliation (university, Gdańsk University 130

20 Best practice 20. Rotterdam Green Roofs Category and subcategory of ecosystem services to What element of nature Year Approximately 900,000 Has this best practice been - Regulating (regulation of floods); - Provisioning (water); - Cultural (spiritual and nonmaterial benefits, relaxation) Air, water, biodiversity, natural flora and fauna Rotterdam, Netherlands January 2007 present Rotterdam City Council, Port Authority, employers organizations and the Environmental Protection Agency Rotterdam participates in the international climate program for metropolis Clinton Climate Initiative. Part of the collective initiative is the creation of green roofs, which aims to achieve a 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions. Rotterdam had high emissions of CO 2. Thus the goal is to improve the climate for the benefit of people, the environment and the economy. The project Green roofs aims to achieve a 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions and help city being 100% climate proof. Rotterdam municipality has received so far applications for over 30,000 square meters of green roofs. Their aim is to have a total of 800,000 square meters of green roofs by the year Albert Jan Kerssen, Product Manager, Roofgardens & Living/Green Walls ISS Landscaping Services in the Netherlands (adaptation program) 131

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