Solar-DC and Electric Vehicles An Opportunity for India. Ashok Jhunjhunwala, IITM

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1 Solar-DC and Electric Vehicles An Opportunity for India Ashok Jhunjhunwala, IITM

2 In first week of December 2015 When whole of IITM had no power for 75 hours Even 1 MW solar plant at IITM failed to provide any power There was one home which continued to have lights and fans and cell-phone / lap-top charger 125W solar panel + 1 kwh battery (50% can be used) Two tube-lights were used regularly + bulb and fan occasionally + laptop charged / discharged fully 15 times + cell phone charging Fails to add up Solar DC Inverterless Full DC wiring, all Loads DC, solar and battery connected on DC line, input grid power converted to DC 2

3 Decentralised Solar Power at Homes Solar DC Solar PV gives DC Power But load is AC Needs a DC-AC convertor Grid DC-AC AC Load Now if we add a battery Battery stores only DC Require a AC-DC convertor for charging Require a DC-AC convertor during discharging AC-DC Battery DC-AC For low power, each convertor can have 10 to 15% loss Solar with battery may have up to 45% loss + battery loss 3

4 And it gets Worse As one realises that home-load is moving towards DC Fans AC fan BLDC fan At full Speed 72W 30W At speed 1 60W 9W Lighting CFL Tube light LED tube At Max. Intensity 36W 15W At Lowest Intensity NA 4W All Electronics devices work on low-voltage DC TV (LED/LCD), laptops. Cell-phones, speaker-phones, tablets, speakers AC to DC conversion has losses from 20% to 50% in each device Even the refrigerators, air-conditioners, washing machine in future will be BLDC motors Use of DC-powered and energy-efficient devices Consumption down by 50% Volume prices similar for fans LED tube life much longer (DC powering enhances reliability) 4

5 Move to Solar-DC at Home Premises grid AC-DC battery Solar 48VDC 48VDC 48VDC Load Home Micro-grid connecting Solar Panel Battery DC Appliances Highly efficient usage of Power Low-power from grid alone converted from AC-DC (Designed to have minimal losses) 48V DC chosen due to Safety considerations Lower cable losses compared to 12V/24V DC systems But design non-trivial Solar MPPT voltage varies Battery needs independent charge voltage Load is at some fixed voltage DC-DC converters will add similar losses 5

6 Solar-DC Inverterless 125W panels Upto 500W possible Designed as an expandable product, still keeping losses low 125W to 500W 48V DC (and possibly 150W uninterrupted AC) Power with BLE prepaid recharge 230V AC Monitored using Bluetooth Special 1 kwh VRLA battery with 1600 cycles for 50% DoD Up to 5 kwh possible 6

7 Appliances LED Bulb 5W instead of 30W bulb Cell phone Charger/Socket DC charger with USB port BLDC Fan 30W instead of 72W AC fan 9W at lowest speed Cost: for 125W SP + 1 kwh Battery LED Tube light 15W - dimmable to 4W, instead of 36W fluorescent tube Remote Control for Fan & Tube light ON/OFF and for dimming 7

8 Products in pipeline DC-powered 19 Colour TV Consumes 30W along with set-top box at 48V DC Solar Water-stove Still experimental Will require at least 500W solar power Pilot to be carried out DC Desert Cooler Consumes 60W instead of 180W AC cooler DC 100L Refrigerator In design 8

9 Deployment in Rajasthan Electrifying 4000 off-grid homes with support from Ministry of Power (Government of India), Rural Electrification Corporation (REC), and Jodhpur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Ltd (JDVVNL) Deployment started with Bhoom Ji ka Gaon, December 2015: tough terrain, no road connectivity, sandstorms, lack of local resources 9

10 A home at Bap, Rajasthan Monitoring performance through Blue-tooth Paramount in design tuning 10

11 Users Response Apne Vidyarthiyon ko ghar ka kaam dene laga hu. Khush hu ki is baar garmiyon mein bhi bachhe mann laga kar padhai karenge. - Masterji Sab ko utshah se apne ghar ka Solar system dikhata hu ji, hamare ghar mein bhi pankha, light aur remote hai - Dunga Ram feedback: 11

12 Motivation for going Solar Inverterless It is a Solar + power back-up, but far more efficient as 100 Watts DC Can support 3 lights + 2 fans + cell-phone charging Or 3 lights + 1 fan + TV (24 LED/LCD) + cell-phone charging Solar Panel and Batteries have to be appropriately sized Devices can be added as required 12

13 Small AC / DC Home Power Costs Device Numbers deployed Operation hrs/ day Tubelights 2 6 Fans 2 12 Bulbs 2 10 Air coolers - - Small Home AC Home DC Home Energy/ Cost Battery solar Energy Cost Battery solar day per Size panel / day per Size panel kwh day kwh Wp kwh day kwh Wp AC Grid + 0 LS AC Grid + Battery + 4h LS off-grid + Battery + Solar AC +Battery + Solar + 4h LS Phones 1 4 Laptops - - TV 1 10 Cost / day includes depreciation and interest for solar panel and battery assuming grid costs of 5 per unit Off-grid home costs with solar-dc ( per day) becomes comparable to costs of on-grid AC homes with no power-cuts ( per day). If one uses AC wiring with DC appliances, costs for off-grid home shoots up to per day. 13

14 Even for grid-connected home Solar-DC Inverterless + DC power line at home + DC appliances can be huge savings Further, 500W solar power with DC appliances can take care of most essential loads in middle class homes Except washing machines, mixers / grinders, air-conditioners Small power drawn from grid: reduces power-bill 240M homes: average 500W solar (50 sqft), will produce nearly 240M x 0.5 kw x 1600 solar hours a year = 190,000 GWh per year Close to total Domestic consumption in a year India can become the most green nation 14

15 UDC Innovation Issues Acceptance among people for technology and DC Lack of standardization and availability of Home appliances What it Needs? Instead of Push create a Market PULL UDC Innovation aimed to create such a market PULL by Providing a limited Power DC line at each home from existing AC distribution grid in addition to existing AC line During Load shedding, AC line is cut-off, but DC line is kept ON Making the DC line free of Load-shedding 15

16 TRANSFORMER Addition of a DC Power line at each Home Unlimited Pow er existing 230Vac line 33KV 11 KV DT Normal: 230V M New Limited Power DC line at 48V Substation UDPM Home Substation charges feeders with 11kV Distribution Line Distribution transformer steps down voltage to 230V in each of the three phases UDPM at home allows using present AC line and a limited power DC line 11 16

17 TRANSFORMER Load shedding: 90% power cut Brown-out Brown-out Control 230Vac line: cut-off during Brow n-out 33KV 11 KV Some 10% of pow er Brown-out DT Normal: 230V Brown-out: 90V UDPM Limited Pow er DC supply at 48V: Uninterrupted Substation Tap or Step-down transformer (0.4) 4.4 KV Home No change in DT or distribution lines Brown-out: continue feeding 10% power to Distribution Line Substation feeds 11kV in normal and with 4.4kV in brown-out condition (only 10%) on DL Distribution transformer steps down voltage to 230V in normal / 90V in brown-out condition UDPM detects voltage drop to 90V: cuts off AC line but continues feeding 48V DC 10% BO Power small enough to be made available even during worst power-shortage 17

18 A free of Load Shedding line at homes Will now induce customers to use DC power line and appliances As DC appliances become acceptable and customers see power-savings and reliability Will add more and more appliances When Limited power provided by UDC gets exhausted, will be willing to add solar-dc 18

19 When Indian cities are talking about overcoming air-pollution ELECTRIC VEHICLES 19

20 Rational for going Electric India does not have much oil Our oil imports are rising continuously and hurting Indian economy very badly No solution in sight in short, medium or long-term Our cities and towns are highly congested As middle class increases, vehicle population continuously grow Highly polluting urban India 20

21 How ready are we with EV? cost Recent IC-engine Drive-train Electrical Drive-train Year For any vehicle, compare the cost of mechanical (IC Engine) drive-train (MDT) with electrical drive-train without batteries (EDT) Along with associated subsystems MDT cost goes up year after year (inflation) EDT cost goes down year after year (R&D, Moore s law and SW) Sometime in recent times it crosses each other Gap is to only increase year after year Battery should be treated as fuel 21

22 Cost of Fuel Petrol cost per Km increases year after year (at least till last year) Though enhanced fuel-efficiency through R&D helps slow this Total cost of battery per Km (lifetime depreciation, interest, maintenance and charging of battery) keeps coming down Battery R&D enhancing chargedischarge cycles and reducing costs continuously Likely to only accelerate Crossover took place sometime back cost Li-Ion Battery costs are falling 8% per annum Petrol cost per Km Battery plus charging cost per Km Year 22

23 The nay-sayers But do we not have shortage of electricity? No significant off-peak hour shortage of electricity Electricity generation continuously increasing Need to discourage EV charging during peak hours India has huge solar potential to charge EV in day time Do electric-generation plants not pollute? Power generator pollutes much less than a vehicle for every Km even today Much easier to manage reduced pollution in large electric plants as compared to in every vehicle Technology can be further improved to reduce emissions Power pollution is not in most congested areas Disposal of battery Technologies fast evolving for battery-reuse and end of life safe disposal 23

24 Benefits Power Industry Introduce Time of day Metering for Vehicles Can enable significant offtake of power during night time and off-peak hours Helps in Load Balancing and reduce peaking Tariff for day time charging at commercial rates Use Solar Chargers during day time or pay high day time costs Slow-chargers at home AC chargers: typically from 15A single phase Takes 7 hours for full battery life Fast Chargers at Public Places Charge in 45 minutes Need High Voltage DC Chargers 24

25 What is Ready in India Use of Li-Ion Advanced battery 3000 charge-discharge cycles 2-wheelers / 3-wheelers (several players) Make in India Push 2 / 4-door e-rewa: small car e-verito: 110 kms per charge About 10 kms range for 1 kw e-maximo: 8-seater sharedtaxi / goods vehicle Need push for Small buses Large Buses (may have to be hybrid to begin with) 25

26 R&D Required Development of Motors: BLDC, SR-motors Drive for motors Can enhance 10 to 15% efficiency Batteries Battery Cell: Chemistry Cell to Pack Design: Physics, Mechanics, Electronics Innovative Cell-packaging: Plate Thickness, interconnections, thermal management BMS and Charging / discharging Partial charge discharge, precise SOC and SOH monitoring Second Use of Battery Light-weight Materials, Integration 26

27 Why did all this become possible today? Cost Point: But why did the cost point become comparable to AC now? Clues Power Electronics Integrated Circuits Digitisation of signal processing in power Coupling / transformers break the bound of 50 Hz Can now operate at 5000 Hz as easily Potential to impact all kinds of Industries tomorrow? 27

28 What Can we Achieve 50% of Power produced using Solar by 2030 Decentralised solar and DC micro-grids to play important role Most Transport using Electric Power by 2030 Climate Change debate will be turned up-side down Huge opportunity for Make in India 28

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