Research Brief. Nearly six decades of multi-disciplinary social. How Non-Minority Students Also Benefit from Racially Diverse Schools. Brief No.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Research Brief. Nearly six decades of multi-disciplinary social. How Non-Minority Students Also Benefit from Racially Diverse Schools. Brief No."

Transcription

1 Brief No. 8 October, 2012 How Non-Minority Students Also Benefit from Racially Diverse Schools By Genevieve Siegel-Hawley Nearly six decades of multi-disciplinary social science evidence points to important academic, social and civic benefits for low income students of color who attend high quality, diverse schools. Research briefs highlighting key studies that document these beneficial outcomes are summarized in prior s in this series (see Some of this research has also pointed to benefits accruing to students of all races and ethnicities attending integrated schools. Less direct attention has been paid to the ways in which white students 1 are advantaged by racially diverse school settings. As described below, diverse schools benefit white students by providing far better learning outcomes. Enrollment in racially integrated schools is also associated with important social and psychological advantages that improve productivity in an increasingly diverse workplace. Recognizing that sustained support for school diversity on the part of white families is central to the creation of stable, integrated schools, this research brief outlines the best evidence to date on the benefits of racially diverse K-12 experiences for white students. Context: The Demographic Transformation of Schools and a Changing Economy Last year, for the first time in history, white infants accounted for less than half of all births, according to the Census. 2 That momentous shift in the very youngest Americans is one of many concrete indicators of profound demographic transformation. School enrollments reflect these broader population trends. In 1970, white students made up roughly 80% of the national public school enrollment a figure that has fallen to less than 54% today. 3 Enrollments in the country s two largest regions, the South and the West, are majorityminority and multiracial. 4 Schools are public institutions consistently attended by 9 out of 10 school-aged children in the country 5 and, as such, should serve as training grounds for the world that rising generations of students will experience. Yet in spite of our growing diversity, high levels of school segregation persist. 6 The typical white student in the U.S., for example, goes to a school where roughly three-quarters of his or her peers are also white, even though whites now account for just more than half the national school enrollment. 7 As the research summarized below suggests, racially and ethnically homogeneous school settings do not adequately prepare either white students or their nonwhite peers for life and work in a multiracial society. 8 As the global economy continues to transition from the industrial age to an era based on knowledge production, flexibility, innovation and risk; 9 today s students should be educated in learning environments that foster such characteristics. Racially and ethnically diverse schools are optimal settings in which to do so, for a variety of reasons further explored in the following sections. Better Learning Outcomes for Non-Minority Students in Diverse Schools Diverse schools are linked to a host of positive learning outcomes for white students. These

2 No. 8 National Coalition on School Diversity include more robust classroom discussions, the promotion of critical thinking and problem-solving skills and higher academic achievement. The presence of different racial and ethnic backgrounds in a classroom is closely connected to heightened dialogue and debate. 10 As Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell wrote, the nation s future depends upon leaders trained through wide exposure to that robust exchange of ideas which discovers truth out of a multitude of tongues. 11 In other words, diverse perspectives provide multiple lenses through which to view and understand problems and events. The complex, more flexible thinking that white students develop from these exchanges is an essential academic benefit flowing from diverse classrooms. 12 Another related advantage is that the wide-ranging and probing discussions that occur in diverse classrooms help generate creative, high-quality solutions to problems. Rigorous research has shown that, when it comes to problem-solving, diverse groups consistently outperform groups made up of experts in a particular field. 13 As one researcher put it, Scholars from a variety of disciplines have studied how people and groups make breakthroughs. The common answer: diverse perspectives. 14 Such outcomes produce clear benefits for multiple arenas, including schools and universities, workplaces and democratic societies. Surveys of white high school students experiencing racially diverse classrooms shed light on how the students themselves view their settings. For example, more than three-fourths of white high school juniors in Jefferson County (Louisville), Kentucky reported that discussions in diverse classrooms had at least some impact on their understanding of different points of view. 15 Nearly two-thirds of white students in the district said they felt very prepared for a diverse workplace, with another one-third saying they felt at least somewhat prepared. 16 When classrooms are structured around cooperative group learning which helps to maximize the benefits of diversity 17 white students show improved academic achievement. 18 With regard to test scores, the narrowest measure of academic achievement, evidence related to white students in diverse schools is somewhat more mixed. 19 Some of the uncertainty is likely due to methodological issues; for instance, many earlier studies of achievement were cross-sectional (looking at student achievement at only one point in time) versus longitudinal (tracking student achievement over time). 20 What is clear, however, is that racially diverse schools are not linked to negative academic outcomes for white students. 21 And in a number of subjects, like math and science, diverse educational settings are consistently linked to higher test scores for whites. One analysis of 59 social science articles related to school composition effects on mathematics outcomes found, for instance, that math outcomes were higher at every grade level for students from all racial and SES backgrounds who attended racially and socioeconomically integrated schools. 22 Attending Diverse Schools is Linked to Social and Psychological Advantages for Non-Minority Students Compared to racially isolated educational settings, racially integrated schools are associated with reduced prejudice among students of different racial and ethnic backgrounds, a diminished likelihood of stereotyping, more friendships across racial lines and higher levels of cultural competence. Each of these outcomes are crucial components of white students indeed, all students preparation for an increasingly diverse society. U.S. employers spend roughly $200 to $300 million 23 dollars each year providing diversity training because too few of their employees are prepared to work with people who come from different racial, economic or cultural backgrounds. 2

3 National Coalition on School Diversity No. 8 A 2003 meta-analysis of 515 social science studies, spanning 6 decades and 36 countries, found overwhelming evidence to indicate that contact between different groups such as having classmates of different racial backgrounds lowers intergroup prejudice. 24 The research showed that exposure to students of other racial and ethnic backgrounds produces more knowledge and awareness of those backgrounds, which in turn lowers anxiety and heightens feelings of empathy. 25 Studies also show that the timing of the contact is important elementary school age children are both aware of race and most likely to display flexible thinking around what racial differences may or may not signify. 26 Importantly, research has found that students of all races experiencing high levels of intergroup contact were more likely to feel that positive steps should be taken to mitigate exclusion based on race. 27 One study of the Maryland and Virginia suburbs of D.C. that classified districts as either heterogeneous or homogeneous found that students in more diverse settings were much more likely to use moral reasoning to evaluate racial exclusion. So, for example, students in the heterogeneous district that had experienced high levels of contact with students of other races were much more likely to say that not dating someone on the basis of race was unfair and discriminatory than students with lower levels of contact in the more homogenous district. 28 These findings are particularly important because they suggests that contact with other racial groups not only reduces prejudice, but that it also can help spur white students towards proactive resistance to discrimination. One of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice is through friendships with members of other races. 29 Meaningful friendships across racial lines go beyond superficial contact with other group members and thus help counter deep-seated prejudices. Schools are, of course, ideal institutions for fostering interracial friendships at an early age. Research has shown that diverse schools are linked to more cross-racial friendships 30 and that white students who have experienced racially diverse classrooms are more likely to view students of other races as potential friends. 31 Diverse classrooms also foster stable friendships between white and black students, with white students experiencing the strongest effects. 32 Beyond the social-psychological benefits that white students can accrue in diverse schools, the development of cultural competency offers a critical advantage in the multiracial workplace and society of the future. Cross-cultural competency refers to the ability to effectively work with and relate to others across racial and ethnic lines. 33 This requires the low levels of prejudice and disinclination towards stereotyping discussed above, and too, an understanding and empathy that can be gained from cross-racial friendships and participation in discussions with diverse perspectives. Non-Minority Students Experience Long-Term Benefits From School Diversity White graduates of diverse elementary and secondary schools experience long-lasting benefits that can extend across multiple generations and contribute to healthy functioning of a democratic society. One of the most important benefits for white students attending diverse K-12 educational settings is that such experiences tend to have perpetuating effects later in life. 34 In other words, white graduates of diverse schools often seek out diverse colleges, work environments and neighborhoods. 35 This cycle can also span generations, since living in a diverse neighborhood often means that the children of these white graduates will attend a diverse school setting. 36 White graduates of integrated schools are more likely to report an increased sense of civic engagement. 37 This is in part related to the fact that students attending diverse schools feel they have 3

4 No. 8 National Coalition on School Diversity more opportunities to learn about civic and political issues, in addition to thinking that their teachers used techniques that promoted citizenship. 38 White students who attend well-designed diverse high schools are also more likely to have a concrete understanding of racial and social injustices, which in turn can help contribute to constructive civic engagement. Organizing Schools to Promote the Benefits of Diversity Many of the benefits that diverse schools help produce for white students also flow to students of other races. Because we still live in a society in which racial discrimination is built into many of our educational, 39 economic 40 and judicial institutions, 41 preventing the replication of similar patterns within diverse schools is imperative. Otherwise, research suggests that the potential benefits of diversity could be diluted or undermined. 42 In the nearly six decades since Brown v. Board of Education was decided, researchers have produced a large body of evidence related to best practices for designing integrated schools so that they equally benefit for students of all races and ethnicities. Much of this social psychology research is based on a seminal 1954 study by Harvard social psychologist Gordon Allport, who theorized that four critical elements needed to be present in order to foster optimal contact across different groups. 43 Specifically, he suggested that all group members needed to be given equal status, that clear guidelines for cooperatively working towards common goals should be present, and that strong leadership visibly supportive of intergroup relationships was necessary. In diverse schools, those four fundamentals can play out in multiple ways. Efforts to de-track students (e.g., remove racialized barriers to honors and AP courses, monitor and disrupt the overidentification of black students as students with special needs, and guard against placing English Learners in separate, full-day English as a Second Language classes) and integrate them together at the classroom level are vital to the provision of equal status. 44 Cooperative, heterogonous grouping in classrooms, along with abundant interracial extra-curricular opportunities like sports teams, can help actualize the process of working towards common goals across racial lines. 45 And finally, highly visible, positive modeling from teachers and administrators around issues of fairness and diversity is critical to the development of strong, equitable leadership. 46 Concluding Thoughts Given the history of white resistance to school desegregation 47 and ongoing patterns of segregation and resegregation, 48 it is important to specifically highlight the ways in which white students gain from their experiences in diverse educational settings. Even as white public opinion on the issue of school integration has shifted markedly polling shows that 33% of whites thought that black and white children should attend the same schools in 1942, compared to 95% today support for specific voluntary desegregation policies remains tenuous. 49 This brief presents clear evidence that diverse schools do benefit white school children, that those advantages accrue along multiple important dimensions, and that the skills gained in diverse settings are becoming ever more important in a rapidly changing society. White families wishing to maximize the academic and social benefits of education for their children can actively seek out diverse schools, assured that their own children will be strongly advantaged by the experience. Genevieve Siegel-Hawley is Assistant Professor at the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Education, and a member of the National Coalition on School Diversity s Research Advisory Panel. 4

5 National Coalition on School Diversity No. 8 1 In this, we are using the term white to denote non-hispanic white students. We use the term non-minority in its traditional sense, interchangeably with white, even though whites do not have majority status in public schools in some parts of the country. 2 Tavernise, S. (17 May 2012). Whites account for under half of births in U.S. New York Times. Available at: wanted=all 3 Orfield, G., Kuscera, J. & Siegel-Hawley, G. (2012). E Pluribus...Separation: Deepening Double Segregation for More Students. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Civil Rights Project. 4 Siegel-Hawley, G. & Frankenberg, E. (2012). Southern slippage: Growing school segregation in the most desegregated region of the country. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Civil Rights Project. Kuscera, J. (2012). The western states: Profound diversity but severe segregation for Latino students. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Civil Rights Project. 5 Reardon, S.F., & Yun, J.T. (2003). Private school racial enrollments and segregation. In R. D. Kahlenberg (Ed.), Public School Choice vs. Private School Vouchers. New York, NY: Century Foundation Press. 6 Clotfelter, C. (2004). After Brown: The rise and retreat of school desegregation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. McArdle, N. Osypuk, T. & Acevedo- Garcia, D. (September 2010). Segregation and Exposure to High-Poverty Schools in Large Metropolitan Areas: DiversityData Briefs: A report from diversitydata.org. Publications/school_segregation_report.pdf. 7 Orfield et al., Jayakumar, U.M. (2008). Can Higher Education Meet the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse and Global Society? Campus Diversity and Cross-Cultural Workforce Competencies, Harvard Educational Review, 78, See also, Brief of American Social Scientists (6 August 2012). Fisher v. University of Texas. Available at: Documents/ACR%20American%20Social%20Science %20Researchers.pdf. 9 Carnoy, M., Castells, M., Cohen, S., Cardoso, F. (1993). The New Global Economy in the Information Age: Reflections on Our Changing World. State College, PA: PSU Press. 10 Chang, M. (2006). The Educational Benefits of Sustaining Cross-Racial Interaction among Undergraduates. Journal of Higher Education, 430. Gurin, P., Nagda, B.A., Zúñiga, X. (forthcoming). Engaging Race and Gender: Intergroup Dialogues in Higher Education. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. In recent years, much of what we know about the benefits of classroom-level diversity comes from studies of higher education settings. This is part due to the legal challenges to affirmative action, which have spurred research in this area. 11 Regents of University of California v. Bakke, , p Marin, P. (2000). The Educational Possibility of Multi- Racial/Multi-Ethnic College Classrooms, in Does Diversity Make a Difference? Three Research Studies on Diversity in College Classrooms. Washington, DC: American Council on Education & American Association of University Professors, Duncan et al. (2003). Empathy or Antipathy? The Consequences of Racially and Socially Diverse Peers on Attitudes and Behaviors, Working paper, Joint Center for Policy Research, Northwestern University. Antonio et al. (2004). Effects of Racial Diversity on Complex Thinking in College Students. Psychological Science 15( 8), See also, Brief of 553 Social Scientists. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. School District No. 1, (2007). 13 Page, S. (2008). The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools and Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 14 Ibid, p Orfield, G. & Frankenberg, E. (2011). Experiencing integration in Louisville: How parents and students see the gains and challenges. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Civil Rights Project. 16 Ibid. See also Kurlaender, M. and Yun, J. (2005). Fifty Years after Brown: New Evidence of the Impact of School Racial Composition on Student Outcomes. 5

6 No. 8 National Coalition on School Diversity 6 International Journal of Educational Policy, Research and Practice, 6(1): Cohen, E. and R. Lotan, (1995) Producing equal status interaction in the heterogeneous classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 32, (1), Hawley, W. D. (2007). Designing schools that use student diversity to enhance learning of all students. In E. Frankenberg & G. Orfield (Eds.), Lessons in integration: Realizing the promise of racial diversity in American schools (pp ). Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. 18 Slavin, R. (2001). Cooperative Learning and Intergroup Relations. In Banks, J. and McGee, C. (Eds). Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 19 Garda, R. (2011). White Interest in School Integration. Florida Law Review, 63, 605. Brief of 553, Clayton, J. (2011). Changing Diversity in Schools: The Impact on Elementary Student Performance and Achievement. Education and Urban Society. 43(6), Linn, R. & Welner, K. (2007). Race Conscious Policies for Assigning Students to Schools: Social Science Research and Supreme Court Cases. National ; Mickelson, R.A. (2008). Twenty-first Century Social Science Research on School Diversity and Educational Outcomes. Ohio State Law Journal 69: Kurlaender, M. (2006). The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. 21 Ibid. See also Mickelson, R.A. & Nkomo, M. (2012) Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies. Review of Research in Education 36(1), Mickelson, R. & Bottia, M. (2010). Integrated education and mathematics outcomes: A synthesis of social science research. North Carolina Law Review, 88, Vendantam, S. (20 January 2008). Most diversity training ineffective, study finds. The Washington Post. Available at: content/story/2008/01/19/st html. See also Dobbin, F., Kalev, A. & Kelly, E. (2007). Diversity Management in Corporate America. Contexts, 6(4), Aboud, F. E., Mendelson, M. J., & Purdy, K. T. (2003). Cross-race peer relations and friendship quality. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2011). When groups meet: The dynamics of intergroup contact. New York: Psychology Press. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, Rosenthal, R. (1991). Metaanalytic procedures for social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 25 Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, Brief for the American Psychological Association and the Washington State Psychological Association as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents, Parents Involved and Meredith, 127 S. Ct (2006). Killen, M., Crystal, D. & Ruck, M (2007). The social developmental benefits of intergroup contact among children and adolescents. In E. Frankenberg & G. Orfield (Eds.), Lessons in integration: Realizing the promise of racial diversity in American schools (pp ). Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. 27 Killen et al., Ibid. 29 Ibid. See also Davies, K., Tropp, L. R., Aron, A., Pettigrew, T. F., & Wright, S. C. (2011). Cross-group friendships and intergroup attitudes: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, Quillian, L., & Campbell, M. E. (2003). Beyond black and white: The present and future of multiracial friendship segregation. American Sociological Review, 68, Wright, S. C., Aron, A., McLaughlin-Volpe, T., & Ropp, S. A. (1997). The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73,

7 National Coalition on School Diversity No Hallihan, M. & Smith, S. (1985). The effect of classroom racial composition on students interracial friendliness. Social Pyschology Quarterly, 48(1): Garda, 2011, p Mickelson, R. (2011). Exploring the school-housing nexus: A synthesis of social science evidence. In P. Tegeler (Ed.). Finding common ground: Coordinating housing and education policy to promote integration (pp. 5-8). Washington, DC: Poverty and Race Research Action Council; Wells, A.S., & Crain, R. L. (1994). Perpetuation theory and the long-term effects of school desegregation. Review of Educational Research, 6, Ibid. Perry, P. (2002). Shades of White: White Kids and Racial Identities in High School. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. More recent evidence also suggests that, when it comes to their own children, white graduates of diverse schools may be struggling to reconcile competitive, test-score driven education reform with their own values of diversity and democratic schooling. Wells, A.S., Duran, J. & White, T. (2011). Southern graduates of school desegregation: A double consciousness of resegregation yet hope. In E. Frankenberg & E. DeBray (Eds.). Integrating schools in a changing society: New policies and legal options for a multiracial generation (pp ). Chapel Hill, NC: UNC Press. 36 Mickelson, Kurlaender & Yun, Jacobsen, R., Frankenberg, E., & Lenhoff, S. (2011). Diverse schools in a democractic society: New ways of understanding how school demographics affect civic and political learning. American Education Research Journal. 39 Anyon, J. (2005). Radical possibilities: Public policy, urban education and a new social movement. New York, NY: Routledge. Lipman, P. (2004). High Stakes Education: Inequality, Globalization, and Urban School Reform. New York, NY: RoutledgFarmer. Oakes, J. (2010). Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press. 40 Oliver, M. & Shapiro, T. (2006). Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York, NY: Routledge. Kau, James B., Keenan, Donald C. and Munneke, Henry J., Racial Discrimination and Mortgage Lending (August 22, 2012). Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Vol. 45, No. 2, Available at SSRN: 41 Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, NY: The New Press. 42 Perry, Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley. 44 Oakes, 2005; Hawley, Perry, Ibid. See also Slavin, Hawley, W. (2006). The Keys to Effective Schools: Educational Reform as Continuous Improvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 47 Lassiter, M. (2007). The Silent Majority. Princeton, NY: Princeton University Press. Orfield, G. (1969). Reconstruction of Southern Education. New York, NY: John Wiley. 48 Orfield et al., Frankenberg & Jacobsen,

8 This research augments an already extensive body of work in this area, which has reached similar conclusions. However, the work published this year in TCR is particularly rigorous. It draws from several strong data bases and employs cuttingedge statistical methods. This comprehensive collection of studies pays meticulous attention to separating the discrete contributions that schools, teachers, families and students themselves make to a variety of important educational outcomes, such as test scores and graduation rates. We urge courts, policymakers, education rights lawyers, educators and others to use this new work as a guide in decisions and advocacy related to diversity, schooling and equal opportunity. 1 The results of the literature survey presented here are archived in a searchable database at: rmickelson/ spivackframeset.html. This research is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the American Sociological Association, and the Poverty and Race Research Action Council. 2 The evidence of academic benefits is weakest for Asian and Latino immigrant students who appear to benefit from attending school with their coethnics, most likely because of language issues. No. 8 National Coalition on School Diversity Other research briefs from the National Coalition on School Diversity Brief No. 1 T School Racial and Economic Composition & Math and Science Achievement By Susan Eaton Why This Research is Important This research augments an already extensive body of work in this area, which has reached similar conclusions. However, the work published this year in TCR is particularly rigorous. It draws from several strong data bases and employs cuttingedge statistical methods. This comprehensive collection of studies pays meticulous attention to separating the discrete contributions that schools, teachers, families and students themselves make to a variety of important educational outcomes, such as test scores and graduation rates. We urge courts, policymakers, education rights lawyers, educators and others to use this new work as a guide in decisions and advocacy related to diversity, schooling and equal opportunity. Brief No. 2 his is the first in a series of three research briefs summarizing findings from the newest and most rigorous research related to racial and socioeconomic diversity in public schools. The studies on which this brief is based were published recently in three special issues of the peer-reviewed journal, Teachers College Record, edited by Professors Roslyn Arlin Mickelson of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Kathryn Borman of the University of South Florida. The weight of evidence from these studies demonstrates that racially isolated, high-poverty schools tend to negatively influence math and science course-taking patterns and achievement as measured by test scores. Meanwhile, under certain conditions, lower poverty schools and schools that do not enroll highly disproportionate shares of African American and/or Latino students tend to be positively associated with math and science achievement. What this research suggests about the relationship between racial and socioeconomic composition of schools/ classrooms and MATH achievement: A study of math test scores over more than 30 years finds that increases in school segregation correspond to significant increases in the blackwhite and Latino-white test score gaps. School segregation s negative influence on achievement outweigh[s] the positive influences that come from improvements in racial minority groups overall income and other family background characteristics. 1 Racially diverse schools vary in the extent to which their African American and Latino students have opportunities to take advanced placement courses in math. In a study of math course-taking patterns and grade point averages, researchers find that in schools where whites and Asians are overrepresented in high-level sophomore math classes, both the senior-year grade point averages of African American and Latino students and their 4-year college-going rates tend to be lower. 2 How the Racial and Socioeconomic Composition of Schools and Classrooms Contributes to Literacy, Behavioral Climate, Instructional Organization and High School Graduation Rates By Susan Eaton his is the second in a series of three briefs sum- findings from the newest and most rig- Tmarizing orous research related to racial and socioeconomic diversity in public schools. The studies on which this brief is based were published recently in three special issues of the peer-reviewed journal, Teachers College Record, edited by Professors Roslyn Arlin Mickelson of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Kathryn Borman of the University of South Florida. This brief considers the relationship between the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school and/or classroom and a variety of important educational measures. T Why This Research is Important Brief No. 3 What Does the Research Tell Us About the Relationship Between Racial and Socioeconomic Composition and... READING AND VERBAL ACHIEVEMENT? A study by Geoffrey Borman of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Maritza Dowling of the Wisconsin Center for Educational Research reanalyzes James Coleman s 1966 report, The Equality of Educational Opportunity. The Coleman Report is widely considered to be one of the most influential studies ever conducted on education. Its fundamental finding is that a student s own family background has far more influence upon student achievement than do school characteristics. However, Borman and Dowling s reanalysis shows something quite different. Borman and Dowling find that attending a high-poverty or highly segregated African American school has a profound negative effect on a student s verbal achievement, above and beyond the effects of a student s own poverty level or racial group. 1 More specifically, the racial/ethnic composition and social class composition of a student s school are 1¾ times more important than a student s social class or race in explaining verbal achievement in the 9th grade. School racial and The Impact of Racially Diverse Schools in a Democratic Society By Susan Eaton and Gina Chirichigno his is the third in a series of three briefs summarizing findings from the newest and most rigorous research related to racial and socioeconomic diversity in public schools. The studies on which this brief is based were published recently in three special issues of the peer-reviewed journal, Teachers College Record, edited by Professors Roslyn Arlin Mickelson of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Kathryn Borman of the University of South Florida. For more than two decades, the success of school desegregation has been judged mainly by the degree to which it benefits individuals, either through academic achievement or social mobility. Why This Research is Important This research augments an already extensive body of work in this area, which has reached similar conclusions. However, the work published this year in TCR is particularly rigorous. It draws from several strong data bases and employs cuttingedge statistical methods. This comprehensive collection of studies pays meticulous attention to separating the discrete contributions that schools, teachers, families and students themselves make to a variety of important educational outcomes, such as test scores and graduation rates. We urge courts, policymakers, education rights lawyers, educators and others to use this new work as a guide in decisions and advocacy related to diversity, schooling and equal opportunity. It goes without saying that these are important measures. However, civil rights leaders and educators have always pursued desegregation and diversity in large part because of its potential benefits to society at large. Their hope was, and still is, that diverse schooling experiences would contribute to development of a more cohesive, more equal society and build a stronger foundation for democracy. Similarly, desegregation s advocates hoped diversity would reduce racial and cultural prejudice by bringing young people from different racial or cultural backgrounds together. Generally, the research examined here confirms findings from earlier studies finding that racial diversity in schools does carry long-term social benefits. These include reduced neighborhood, college and workplace segregation, higher levels of social cohesion and a reduced likelihood for racial prejudice. It appears, too, that the particular nature of a school environment for example, whether the school is a model of inclusion and equal participation helps determine whether or not its graduates develop the skills to navigate and find comfort in racially diverse settings later in life. What is the Relationship Between Racial Composition of Schools or Childhood Neighborhoods and Adult Attitudes About Other Racial & Ethnic Groups? Jomills Braddock and his colleague, Amaryllis Del Carmen Gonzalez of the University of Miami, consider the effects of neighborhood and schoollevel segregation levels on people s preferences for No.1 School Racial and Economic Composition & Math and Science Achievement By Susan Eaton No. 2 How the Racial and Socioeconomic Composition of Schools and Classrooms Contributes to Literacy, Behavioral Climate, Instructional Organization and High School Graduation Rates By Susan Eaton No. 3 The Impact of Racially Diverse Schools in a Democratic Society By Susan Eaton and Gina Chirichigno No. 4 What we know about school integration, college attendance, and the reduction of poverty By Philip Tegeler, Roslyn Arlin Mickelson and Martha Bottia No. 5 School Integration and K-12 Educational Outcomes: A Quick Synthesis of Social Science Evidence By Roslyn Arlin Mickelson No. 6 Magnet School Student Outcomes: What the Research Says By Genevieve Siegel-Hawley and Erica Frankenberg No. 7 The Reciprocal Relationship Between Housing and School Integration By Roslyn Arlin Mickelson T Brief No. 4 he goals of promoting integration and avoiding racial isolation in K-12 education were recently reaffirmed as compelling government interests by five Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District #1 (2007). That decision did strike down specific elements of voluntary plans in Seattle and Louisville; however, a majority of the Court indicated support for a wide range of race-conscious measures to promote school integration that do not assign individual students based on their race. The importance of avoiding racial and economic segregation in schools is important not just for its own sake, but because of the documented benefits to students that flow from more racially integrated 1, lower poverty schools 2. The social science evidence on the benefits of integration continues to grow especially in the more comprehensive recent research (1990s to the present) that include data from nationally representative samples or state-wide populations, valid and reliable measures of key concepts, advanced statistical modeling used to analyze the data, and often, studies employing longitudinal data 3. These studies over the past twenty years have demonstrated that integrated education leads not only to achievement gains in math and reading for African American and Latino children 4, but also to increased occupational attainment 5, less involvement with the criminal justice system 6, and a greater tendency for graduates of integrated schools later in life to live in integrated neighborhoods, have friends from many races and ethnic groups, and to be employed in diverse workplaces 7. Brief No. 5 What we know about school integration, college attendance, and the reduction of poverty By Philip Tegeler, Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, & Martha Bottia What does this research tell us specifically about the effects of K-12 school integration on college attendance rates, college graduation, and intergenerational perpetuation of poverty? We recognize that additional research is still needed on these specific questions, but here are some things that we know: Attending integrated K-12 schools increases the likelihood of attending college 8, particularly for youth from underrepresented minority communities. Integrated education works to foster college attendance in several clear ways. The educational expectations and performance of students who attend integrated schools surpasses those of students from segregated settings 9. Students who attend integrated schools perform better on tests in math, science, language, social studies; they take higher-level math and science courses, and they hold higher educational aspirations than their otherwise comparable peers who attend racially isolated minority schools 10. Racially integrated schools have lower levels of violence and social disorder than segregated settings 11. They are more likely to have stable staffs composed of highly qualified teachers 12 the single most important resource for academic achievement, and to have better school climates 13 (academically oriented peers, lower drop out rates, more parents with higher expectations) than racially isolated schools 14. Attending desegregated K-12 schools increases the likelihood of graduating from college for many of the same reasons that integrated education better prepares students for entering college. Minority youth who attend integrated K-12 schools are less likely to be involved in the criminal justice system School Integration and K-12 Educational Outcomes: A Quick Synthesis of Social Science Evidence By Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Charlotte How do K-12 school diversity Achievement benefits accrue to students in all initiatives support school reform grades, but most markedly those in middle and and contribute to increasing high schools. student academic achievement? Students from all racial and SES backgrounds can benefit from diverse schools including Teachers, curricula, and pedagogy are essential components of opportunities to learn, but they are middle-class whites although low-income not the only important ones. The social organization of schools and classrooms also contributes to attending diverse schools. 2 disadvantaged youth benefit the most from the quality of educational experiences. Whether a Importantly, there is no evidence that integrated schooling harms any student group. school is racially and socioeconomically (SES) diverse or segregated makes a critical difference for K-12 achievement across the curriculum: Students Moreover, diverse K-12 schools foster other who attend racially and socioeconomically diverse positive outcomes that are integral links in the schools are more likely to achieve higher test scores adult life-course trajectory. In addition to and better grades, to graduate from high school, achievement, the positive short-term outcomes and to attend and graduate from college compared of K-12 schooling include: with their otherwise comparable counterparts who attend schools with high concentrations of lowincome and/or disadvantaged minority youth. increases in cross-racial trust and friendships. A reduction in prejudice and fears. The preponderance of high quality social science research published since the late 1980s is clear and enhanced capacity for multicultural navigation. consistent regarding Brief these effects No. of 6school racial These benefits foster highly desirable long-term and SES composition on K-12 educational outcomes. 1 outcomes for adults such as: Other specific findings include: greater educational and occupational Attending a diverse school promotes achievement in mathematics, science, language and Research attainment. Brief reading. workplace readiness for the global economy. Magnet School Student Outcomes: What the Research Says G his research brief outlines six major studies of Tmagnet school student outcomes. Magnet schools are programs with special themes or emphases designed to attract families from a variety of different backgrounds. They were originally established to promote voluntary racial integration in urban districts. The following studies are located within a much broader body of research that documents the benefits of attending racially and socioeconomically diverse schools. Some of what we know from the literature on the benefits of racial diversity indicates that students of all races who attend diverse schools have higher levels of critical thinking, an ability to adopt multiple perspectives; diminished likelihood for acceptance of stereotypes, higher academic achievement, more cross-racial friendships, willingness to attend diverse colleges and live in diverse neighborhoods, access to more privileged social networks, higher feelings of civic and communal responsibility, higher college-going rates, more prestigious jobs. 1 The research discussed here is relatively recent, but older studies suggest that magnet schools are associated with increased student achievement, higher levels of student motivation and satisfaction with school, higher levels of teacher motivation and morale, and higher levels of parent satisfaction with the school. 2 Brief No. 7 By Genevieve Siegel-Hawley and Erica Frankenberg A note about magnet school enrollment and segregation trends 3 Before delving into the research, however, we quickly review the current demographic breakdown of magnet schools. Enrollment data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics, a reliable and wide-ranging federal dataset, show that, in , more than 2.5 million students enrolled in magnet schools across the nation, up from just over two million students five years earlier. Magnet programs enrolled more than twice the number of students served by charter schools, making magnets the largest sector of choice schools. Compared to regular public schools, both charter and magnet programs enrolled a larger share of black and Latino students (mainly due to the concentration of magnet and charter schools in more urban locales). Magnet students were slightly less likely than charter school students to attend intensely segregated minority schools, where % of students were nonwhite, and also slightly less likely to enroll in intensely segregated white schools (0-10% nonwhite students). Beyond these two extreme ends of the spectrum of white student enrollment, large differences emerged in the shares of magnet and charter students attending majority nonwhite (more racially diverse) and majority white (less diverse) schools. Forty percent of magnet students attend majority nonwhite school settings, compared to just 23 percent of charter students. Conversely, almost 35 percent of charter students attended majority white settings, compared to 20 percent of magnet students. In terms of school The Reciprocal Relationship Between Housing and School Integration By Roslyn Arlin Mickelson iven the common practice of assigning students to neighborhood schools, any serious hope of integrating America s public education system requires us to consider not only educational policies and practices, but also the demography of neighborhoods and the housing policies that contribute to residential integration or segregation. Most American students live in communities that are dominated by families from one race and socioeconomic status. Public schools typically reflect their neighborhood demographics because most students are assigned to schools based on their residence. 1 These straightforward dynamics underlie the relationship between the integration or segregation of schools and their feeder neighborhoods. The links between integration or segregation of schools and neighborhoods are also reciprocal. This essay summarizes the social science evidence on the reciprocal relationship between integrated schooling and integrated housing. The synergistic nature of this relationship unfolds across the life course. The model in Figure 1 illustrates the connections between housing and school integration and the intergenerational and reciprocal nature of their relationship. Model of Dynamics of Integrated Housing, Integrated Education, and Short- and Long-term Outcomes in Multiethnic Democratic Societies Integrated Housing Greater achievement across the curriculum cross-racial fears and acceptance Reduction in prejudice and Increase in mutual trust, respect, Increase in cross-racial friendships Greater capacity for multicultural navigation Integrated Education Short-term Outcomes for K-12 Students Greater educational and occupational attainment for the global economy mutual trust, respect, and acceptance Workplace readiness Cross-racial friendships, Living in integrated neighborhoods and attitudes participation justice system Democratic values Greater civic Long-term Outcomes for Adults Avoidance of criminal Available at For more information on the National Coalition on School Diversity, go to

The National Coalition on School Diversity

The National Coalition on School Diversity Brief No. 2 October, 2010 Updated March, 2011 The National Coalition on School Diversity Research Brief How the Racial and Socioeconomic Composition of Schools and Classrooms Contributes to Literacy, Behavioral

More information

BOARD OF EDUCATION MEETING AGENDA. October 22, 2014 BOARD MEMBERS

BOARD OF EDUCATION MEETING AGENDA. October 22, 2014 BOARD MEMBERS BOARD OF EDUCATION MEETING AGENDA October 22, 2014 District A: District B: District C: District D: District E: District F: District G: BOARD MEMBERS Mrs. Tessa Kirchner Mrs. Kate Cocchiarella, Secretary/Treasurer

More information

The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of U.S. Public Schools

The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of U.S. Public Schools Report AUGUST 30, 2007 The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of U.S. Public Schools Richard Fry Senior Research Associate, Pew Hispanic Center The recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions on school desegregation

More information

Experiencing Integration in Louisville: How Parents and Students See the Gains and Challenges

Experiencing Integration in Louisville: How Parents and Students See the Gains and Challenges Experiencing Integration in Louisville: How Parents and Students See the Gains and Challenges A report to the Jefferson County Public Schools by Gary Orfield and Erica Frankenberg January 2011 1 Experiencing

More information

SORTING OUT DEEPENING CONFUSION ON SEGREGATION TRENDS 1. Gary Orfield, Genevieve Siegel-Hawley & John Kucsera

SORTING OUT DEEPENING CONFUSION ON SEGREGATION TRENDS 1. Gary Orfield, Genevieve Siegel-Hawley & John Kucsera 1 SORTING OUT DEEPENING CONFUSION ON SEGREGATION TRENDS 1 Gary Orfield, Genevieve Siegel-Hawley & John Kucsera The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles March 2014 Is the United States going backwards

More information

Federal Support for School Integration: A Status Report

Federal Support for School Integration: A Status Report The National Coalition on School Diversity Federal Support for School Integration: A Status Report June, 2012 updated April 2014 Issue Brief4 1. Review of school diversity language and incentives in key

More information

THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF BLACK STUDENTS

THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF BLACK STUDENTS NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS Findings from THE CONDITION OF EDUCATION 1994 NO. 2 THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF BLACK STUDENTS U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement

More information

Preparing Students to Succeed in a Diverse Society:

Preparing Students to Succeed in a Diverse Society: Preparing Students to Succeed in a Diverse Society: The Benefits of Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools by Brendan O Connor Introduction In recent years, a number of high-profile Supreme Court cases

More information

The Effects of Early Education on Children in Poverty

The Effects of Early Education on Children in Poverty The Effects of Early Education on Children in Poverty Anna D. Johnson Doctor of Education Student Developmental Psychology Department of Human Development Teachers College, Columbia University Introduction

More information

ETS s Addressing Achievement Gaps Symposium. Black Male Teens: Moving to Success in the High School Years. A Statistical Profile

ETS s Addressing Achievement Gaps Symposium. Black Male Teens: Moving to Success in the High School Years. A Statistical Profile ETS s Addressing Achievement Gaps Symposium Black Male Teens: Moving to Success in the High School Years A Statistical Profile ETS s Addressing Achievement Gaps Symposium Black Male Teens: Moving to Success

More information

Moving Beyond Tracking

Moving Beyond Tracking School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0249 Telephone: 802-383-0058 NEPC@colorado.edu http://nepc.colorado.edu RESEARCH-BASED OPTIONS FOR EDUCATION POLICYMAKING Moving Beyond

More information

Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School By Daniel J. Losen 1 and Jonathan Gillespie 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Does anybody know how many students were suspended from

More information

COMMENTARY Social Science, Equal Justice, and Public Health Policy: Lessons from Los Angeles

COMMENTARY Social Science, Equal Justice, and Public Health Policy: Lessons from Los Angeles COMMENTARY Social Science, Equal Justice, and Public Health Policy: Lessons from Los Angeles ROBERT GARCÍA 1 and CHAD FENWICK 2 1 The City Project, Los Angeles, CA, USA 2 Los Angeles Unified School District,

More information

PATH NOT FOUND: DISPARITIES IN ACCESS TO COMPUTER SCIENCE COURSES IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS

PATH NOT FOUND: DISPARITIES IN ACCESS TO COMPUTER SCIENCE COURSES IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS PATH NOT FOUND: DISPARITIES IN ACCESS TO COMPUTER SCIENCE COURSES IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS The Need for Computer Science Computing occupations are among the highestpaying & fastest-growing occupations.

More information

An Equity Assessment of the. St. Louis Region

An Equity Assessment of the. St. Louis Region An Equity Assessment of the A Snapshot of the Greater St. Louis 15 counties 2.8 million population 19th largest metropolitan region 1.1 million households 1.4 million workforce $132.07 billion economy

More information

America s Tomorrow: Equity is the Superior Growth Model

America s Tomorrow: Equity is the Superior Growth Model America s Tomorrow: Equity is the Superior Growth Model SUMMARY by Sarah Treuhaft, Angela Glover Blackwell, and Manuel Pastor As the country witnesses the emergence of a new racial and ethnic majority,

More information

Tamica Hasina Daniel, B.S. Washington, D.C. April 14, 2008

Tamica Hasina Daniel, B.S. Washington, D.C. April 14, 2008 SCHOOL ASSIGNMENT AFTER PARENTS INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS V. SEATTLE SCHOOL DISTRICT, NO. 1: HOW RACE AND INCOME DESEGREGATION RELATE TO MINORITY STUDENT EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN SEATTLE A Thesis

More information

An Equity Profile of the Kansas City Region. Summary. Overview. The Equity Indicators Framework. central to the region s economic success now and

An Equity Profile of the Kansas City Region. Summary. Overview. The Equity Indicators Framework. central to the region s economic success now and An Equity Profile of the Kansas City Region PolicyLink and PERE An Equity Profile of the Kansas City Region Summary Overview Across the country, regional planning organizations, community organizations

More information

TRISTIN K. GREEN CURRICULUM VITAE

TRISTIN K. GREEN CURRICULUM VITAE TRISTIN K. GREEN CURRICULUM VITAE Professor of Law and Dean s Circle Scholar University of San Francisco School of Law (415) 422-6583 tgreen4@usfca.edu ACADEMIC POSITIONS University of San Francisco School

More information

INTERDISCIPLINARY SOCIAL SCIENCES. San Jose State University. Multiple Subject Teacher Preparation Program

INTERDISCIPLINARY SOCIAL SCIENCES. San Jose State University. Multiple Subject Teacher Preparation Program INTERDISCIPLINARY SOCIAL SCIENCES San Jose State University Multiple Subject Teacher Preparation Program SOCIAL SCIENCES MULTIPLE SUBJECT TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM Student Handbook SJSU Department of

More information

The Condition of College & Career Readiness l 2011

The Condition of College & Career Readiness l 2011 The Condition of College & Career Readiness l 2011 ACT is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides assessment, research, information, and program management services in the broad areas

More information

Colorado Professional Teaching Standards

Colorado Professional Teaching Standards Colorado Professional Teaching Standards Standard I: Teachers demonstrate knowledge of the content they teach a. Teachers provide instruction that is aligned with the Colorado Academic Standards and their

More information

Closing the Achievement Gap

Closing the Achievement Gap Oregon Department of Education Office of Educational Improvement and Innovation Oregon s Plan for Success for All Students Volume I, No. 1 August 2005 255 Capitol St. NE Salem, OR 97310 Phone (503) 947-5600

More information

2015 Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act Grants Project Abstracts from the U.S. Department of Education

2015 Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act Grants Project Abstracts from the U.S. Department of Education 2015 Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act Grants Project Abstracts from the U.S. Department of Education Statewide Grants (8) The Arizona Department of Education, $410,202. The overarching

More information

A MIDDLE SCHOOL FAMILY INVOLVEMENT PROGRAM TO FOSTER THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS AND COLLEGE ATTAINMENT FOR LATINO STUDENTS: A GRANT PROPOSAL

A MIDDLE SCHOOL FAMILY INVOLVEMENT PROGRAM TO FOSTER THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS AND COLLEGE ATTAINMENT FOR LATINO STUDENTS: A GRANT PROPOSAL A MIDDLE SCHOOL FAMILY INVOLVEMENT PROGRAM TO FOSTER THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS AND COLLEGE ATTAINMENT FOR LATINO STUDENTS: A GRANT PROPOSAL By: Briana Guzman, MSW California State University, Long Beach May

More information

ERICA H. GREENBERG. Curriculum Vitae

ERICA H. GREENBERG. Curriculum Vitae ERICA H. GREENBERG Curriculum Vitae Stanford University Center for Education Policy Analysis 520 Galvez Mall, #406 Stanford, CA 94305 erica.greenberg@stanford.edu http://cepa.stanford.edu/people/erica-

More information

Higher Performing High Schools

Higher Performing High Schools COLLEGE READINESS A First Look at Higher Performing High Schools School Qualities that Educators Believe Contribute Most to College and Career Readiness 2012 by ACT, Inc. All rights reserved. A First Look

More information

The Core Practice Framework

The Core Practice Framework The Core Practice Framework A Guide to Sustained School Improvement identify inform improve Contents: 1 Introduction: The Need for a Coherent Approach to Improving Teaching & Learning 2 Symptoms Indicating

More information

2012 Assistant Professor, School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany, State University of New York

2012 Assistant Professor, School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany, State University of New York October 2013 HEATHER MARIE WASHINGTON CURRICULUM VITAE School of Criminal Justice Office: 518.591.8737 University at Albany Fax: 518.442.5380 135 Western Avenue, Draper 219 Albany, NY 12222 E-mail: hmwashington@albany.edu

More information

The Segregation of American Teachers

The Segregation of American Teachers The Segregation of American Teachers By Erica Frankenberg Foreword by Gary Orfield December 2006 Copyright 2006 by President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reserved. No part of this publication

More information

Executive Summary and Recommendations

Executive Summary and Recommendations Executive Summary and Recommendations To download a free copy of the complete report, go to www.aauw.org/learn/research/whysofew.cfm. Executive Summary Women have made tremendous progress in education

More information

Practices Worthy of Attention High Tech High San Diego Unified School District San Diego, California

Practices Worthy of Attention High Tech High San Diego Unified School District San Diego, California San Diego Unified School District San Diego, California Summary of the Practice. is a charter school set up with the mission of giving students an interdisciplinary and hands-on education so they can be

More information

SREB State College and Career Readiness Initiative

SREB State College and Career Readiness Initiative SREB State College and Career Readiness Initiative Teacher Development to Increase College and Career Readiness Guidelines and Promising Practices for States College and career readiness is an increasingly

More information

Principal Leadership in North Carolina Beating the Odds Schools Advocates for Social Justice and Equity

Principal Leadership in North Carolina Beating the Odds Schools Advocates for Social Justice and Equity 1 Principal Leadership in North Carolina Beating the Odds Schools Advocates for Social Justice and Equity Kathleen M. Brown University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill BrownK@email.unc.edu Despite conflicting

More information

Improving Developmental College Counseling Programs

Improving Developmental College Counseling Programs By Dr. Kevin L. Ensor Improving Developmental College Counseling Programs Utilizing the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) to Motivate At-Risk Students DR. KEviN L. ENsoR, has more than 20

More information

EDUC 469: Middle School Teaching Skills Lab

EDUC 469: Middle School Teaching Skills Lab EDUC 469: Middle School Teaching Skills Lab Description: Program Course Information: UNC-CH School of Education Conceptual Framework: EDUC 469 is a required course in the Middle Grades Program professional

More information

PRIVATE SCHOOL RACIAL ENROLLMENTS AND SEGREGATION

PRIVATE SCHOOL RACIAL ENROLLMENTS AND SEGREGATION PRIVATE SCHOOL RACIAL ENROLLMENTS AND SEGREGATION Sean F. Reardon Pennsylvania State University John T. Yun Harvard Graduate School of Education June 26, 2002 The Civil Rights Project Harvard University

More information

From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College

From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College Research Summary c c s r CONSORTIUM ON CHICAGO SCHOOL RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO March 2008 Executive Summary From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College Melissa Roderick,

More information

A National Call to Action: School Counselors Ensuring College and Career Readiness. College Board National Office for School Counselor Advocacy

A National Call to Action: School Counselors Ensuring College and Career Readiness. College Board National Office for School Counselor Advocacy A National Call to Action: School Counselors Ensuring College and Career Readiness College Board National Office for School Counselor Advocacy Presented By: Jennifer A. Reed, Director of Counselor Advocacy

More information

100-Day Plan. A Report for the Boston School Committee By Dr. Tommy Chang, Superintendent of Schools. July 15

100-Day Plan. A Report for the Boston School Committee By Dr. Tommy Chang, Superintendent of Schools. July 15 July 15 2015 100-Day Plan A Report for the Boston School Committee By Dr. Tommy Chang, Superintendent of Schools Boston Public Schools, 2300 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02119 About this plan Over the

More information

Affirmative Action Message Guidance: Discussing the Supreme Court s Ruling in Fisher v. UT

Affirmative Action Message Guidance: Discussing the Supreme Court s Ruling in Fisher v. UT Affirmative Action Message Guidance: Discussing the Supreme Court s Ruling in Fisher v. UT June 2013 On June 24 th, 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Fisher v. University of Texas at

More information

Keeping Kids in School: An LA s BEST Example A Study Examining the Long-Term Impact of LA s BEST on Students Dropout Rates

Keeping Kids in School: An LA s BEST Example A Study Examining the Long-Term Impact of LA s BEST on Students Dropout Rates Keeping Kids in School: An LA s BEST Example A Study Examining the Long-Term Impact of LA s BEST on Students Dropout Rates Final Deliverable December 2005 Denise Huang, Kyung Sung Kim, Anne Marshall, and

More information

Student Success Courses and Educational Outcomes at Virginia Community Colleges

Student Success Courses and Educational Outcomes at Virginia Community Colleges Student Success Courses and Educational Outcomes at Virginia Community Colleges Sung-Woo Cho and Melinda Mechur Karp February 2012 CCRC Working Paper No. 40 Address correspondence to: Sung-Woo Cho Quantitative

More information

Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework

Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework Shaping Tomorrow: Ideas to Action The Early Elementary Education program for prospective elementary education candidates

More information

Professional Development for General Education Teachers of English Language Learners

Professional Development for General Education Teachers of English Language Learners Professional Development for General Education Teachers of English Language Learners We have to give teachers strong, consistent support in the best strategies and methods to reach, inspire, and teach

More information

STEM Smart Brief STEM Smart: Lessons Learned From Successful Schools

STEM Smart Brief STEM Smart: Lessons Learned From Successful Schools Specialized STEM Secondary Schools THE PROBLEM STEM is not just for scientists anymore. In today s economy, almost any job with decent pay requires STEM skills, and many jobs require advanced STEM abilities.

More information

Asian Indian Students: Moving Beyond Myths and. Adopting Effective Practices. Sejal B. Parikh. University of North Florida

Asian Indian Students: Moving Beyond Myths and. Adopting Effective Practices. Sejal B. Parikh. University of North Florida 1 Asian Indian Students: Moving Beyond Myths and Adopting Effective Practices Sejal B. Parikh University of North Florida Asian Indian Students 2 Abstract This article describes the Asian Indian population

More information

Iowa Core Davenport Schools Priority Essential Concepts and Skills for Sociology, Psychology, or AP Psychology with Details and Examples

Iowa Core Davenport Schools Priority Essential Concepts and Skills for Sociology, Psychology, or AP Psychology with Details and Examples Iowa Core Davenport Schools Priority Essential Concepts and Skills for Sociology, Psychology, or AP Psychology with Details and Examples Introduction Social studies is the integrated study of the social

More information

Race Matters. Household Asset Poverty by Race in North Carolina. Child Poverty by County

Race Matters. Household Asset Poverty by Race in North Carolina. Child Poverty by County Race Matters Children of color are more likely to grow up in both income poverty and asset poverty. This double burden creates a difficult barrier for children to overcome. As adults, children of color

More information

Developing the STEM Education Pipeline

Developing the STEM Education Pipeline Developing the STEM Education Pipeline Developing the STEM Education Pipeline For almost 50 years, ACT has played a pivotal role in promoting student access into and success in science, technology, engineering,

More information

Economic inequality and educational attainment across a generation

Economic inequality and educational attainment across a generation Economic inequality and educational attainment across a generation Mary Campbell, Robert Haveman, Gary Sandefur, and Barbara Wolfe Mary Campbell is an assistant professor of sociology at the University

More information

AP Cambridge Capstone Pilot Program. Cathy Brigham, Ph.D.

AP Cambridge Capstone Pilot Program. Cathy Brigham, Ph.D. AP Cambridge Capstone Pilot Program Cathy Brigham, Ph.D. New Pilot Program: AP Cambridge Capstone Program Goals The AP Cambridge Capstone Program aims provide the opportunity to practice: Curriculum Structure

More information

DRAFT. Denver Plan 2014. Every Child Succeeds

DRAFT. Denver Plan 2014. Every Child Succeeds Denver Plan 2014 Every Child Succeeds 100 80 Introduction Every child takes that first step into their first day of school with butterflies and talent, potential and dreams. It s the day that the door

More information

The Any Given Child Fine Arts FAQ

The Any Given Child Fine Arts FAQ The Any Given Child Fine Arts FAQ What is the Any Given Child Creative Learning Initiative? The Any Given Child Creative Learning Initiative is a fresh approach to arts in education. The Any Given Child

More information

Choice Watch: Diversity and Access in Connecticut s School Choice Programs

Choice Watch: Diversity and Access in Connecticut s School Choice Programs Choice Watch: Diversity and Access in Connecticut s School Choice Programs Robert Cotto, Jr., Ed.M. Kenneth Feder April 2014 [Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You

More information

Oregon Education Investment Board: Equity Lens

Oregon Education Investment Board: Equity Lens Oregon Education Investment Board: Equity Lens OEIB Vision Statement To advise and support the building, implementation and investment in a unified public education system in Oregon that meets the diverse

More information

LICENSED SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2004 SUPPLEMENT. Chapter 2 of 5. Who Are Licensed Social Workers?

LICENSED SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2004 SUPPLEMENT. Chapter 2 of 5. Who Are Licensed Social Workers? LICENSED SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2004 SUPPLEMENT Chapter 2 of 5 Who Are Licensed Social Workers? Prepared by Center for Health Workforce Studies School of Public Health, University at Albany

More information

July 2009 Research Brief: Factors that support academic success

July 2009 Research Brief: Factors that support academic success July 2009 Research Brief: Factors that support academic success The single most important factor determining a student s academic success is the academic preparation a student receives and the rigor of

More information

Supporting the Implementation of NGSS through Research: Curriculum Materials

Supporting the Implementation of NGSS through Research: Curriculum Materials Supporting the Implementation of NGSS through Research: Curriculum Materials Janet Carlson, BSCS/Stanford University Elizabeth A. Davis, University of Michigan Cory Buxton, University of Georgia Curriculum

More information

Get Us To College Proven strategies for helping NYC students navigate the college process

Get Us To College Proven strategies for helping NYC students navigate the college process Get Us To College Proven strategies for helping NYC students navigate the college process A white paper researched by the Founded in 2004, the Urban Youth Collaborative (UYC) is a coalition of youth organizing

More information

INTERGROUP DIALOGUE FACILITATOR TRAINING Harrisburg Area Community College

INTERGROUP DIALOGUE FACILITATOR TRAINING Harrisburg Area Community College INTERGROUP DIALOGUE FACILITATOR TRAINING Harrisburg Area Community College Pyramid Consulting Services (PCS) would like to offer its diversity education training services to the Harrisburg Area Community

More information

Grand Valley State University School of Social Work

Grand Valley State University School of Social Work Grand Valley State University School of Social Work Grand Valley State University was chartered by the Michigan Legislature in 1960, in response to the need for a public, four-year institution of higher

More information

Discuss DIVERSITY AND PROFESSIONAL DISPOSITIONS 1 SECTION I CONTEXT

Discuss DIVERSITY AND PROFESSIONAL DISPOSITIONS 1 SECTION I CONTEXT Discuss DIVERSITY AND PROFESSIONAL DISPOSITIONS 1 SECTION I CONTEXT Provide the following contextual information: 1. Description of any state or institutional policies that may influence the application

More information

GREGORY SHARP Curriculum Vitae November 2015

GREGORY SHARP Curriculum Vitae November 2015 GREGORY SHARP Curriculum Vitae November 2015 Department of Sociology Email: gsharp@buffalo.edu University at Buffalo, SUNY Phone: (716) 645-8479 468 Park Hall Fax: (716) 645-3934 Buffalo, NY 14260 PROFESSIONAL

More information

Education and Training for Tomorrow s Jobs. The Benefit of a More Educated Workforce to Individuals and the Economy

Education and Training for Tomorrow s Jobs. The Benefit of a More Educated Workforce to Individuals and the Economy Education and Training for Tomorrow s Jobs The Benefit of a More Educated Workforce to Individuals and the Economy National Governors Association Chair s Initiative 2013-2014 1 THE NATIONAL GOVERNORS ASSOCIATION

More information

Classroom Climate. from the complex transaction of many immediate environmental factors (e.g., physical, material,

Classroom Climate. from the complex transaction of many immediate environmental factors (e.g., physical, material, Adelman, H. S. & Taylor, L. (in press). Classroom climate. In S. W. Lee, P. A. Lowe, & E Robinson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Classroom Climate Classroom climate

More information

The MetLife Survey of

The MetLife Survey of The MetLife Survey of Preparing Students for College and Careers Part 2: Teaching Diverse Learners The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Preparing Students for College and Careers The MetLife Survey

More information

Core Qualities For Successful Early Childhood Education Programs. Overview

Core Qualities For Successful Early Childhood Education Programs. Overview Core Qualities For Successful Early Childhood Education Programs Overview The National Council of La Raza (NCLR) the largest national Hispanic civil rights and advocacy organization in the United States

More information

Master of Science in Early Childhood Education Singapore, 2004 2005

Master of Science in Early Childhood Education Singapore, 2004 2005 Master of Science in Early Childhood Education Singapore, 2004 2005 Sponsored by Wheelock College s Center for International Education, Leadership, and Innovation and RTRC Asia in Singapore Background

More information

Building-Level Leadership

Building-Level Leadership Building-Level Leadership It doesn t matter if you supervise other school counselors or not. You still have the ability and imperative to be a school counselor leader. By Anita Young, Ph.D. What does it

More information

Research Brief: Master s Degrees and Teacher Effectiveness: New Evidence From State Assessments

Research Brief: Master s Degrees and Teacher Effectiveness: New Evidence From State Assessments Research Brief: Master s Degrees and Teacher Effectiveness: New Evidence From State Assessments February 2012 CREDITS Arroyo Research Services is an education professional services firm that helps education

More information

The Academic and Co-Curricular Experiences of UCSD Freshmen Students 2004-2005 Evidence from the Your First College Year Survey

The Academic and Co-Curricular Experiences of UCSD Freshmen Students 2004-2005 Evidence from the Your First College Year Survey The Academic and Co-Curricular Experiences of UCSD Freshmen Students 2004-2005 Evidence from the Your First College Year Survey The academic, cognitive, and psychosocial adjustment of freshmen students

More information

HOW THE LOCAL CONTROL FUNDING FORMULA (LCFF) CAN FIX SCHOOL DISCIPLINE

HOW THE LOCAL CONTROL FUNDING FORMULA (LCFF) CAN FIX SCHOOL DISCIPLINE HOW THE LOCAL CONTROL FUNDING FORMULA (LCFF) CAN FIX SCHOOL DISCIPLINE Summary: We need more solutions to help students struggling with behavior in California, not suspensions. Two decades of research

More information

Are Teachers Prepared for Racially Changing Schools? Teachers Describe their Preparation, Resources and Practices for Racially Diverse Schools

Are Teachers Prepared for Racially Changing Schools? Teachers Describe their Preparation, Resources and Practices for Racially Diverse Schools Are Teachers Prepared for Racially Changing Schools? Teachers Describe their Preparation, Resources and Practices for Racially Diverse Schools By Erica Frankenberg with Genevieve Siegel-Hawley January

More information

CALIFORNIA PRELIMINARY ADMINISTRATIVE CREDENTIAL EXAMINATION (CPACE)

CALIFORNIA PRELIMINARY ADMINISTRATIVE CREDENTIAL EXAMINATION (CPACE) Education Code section 44270.5 allows an examination alternative to the Administrative Services preparation program as long as the examination is aligned with the current Administrative Services Program

More information

Assessing the Enrollment Trends and Financial Impacts of Charter Schools on Rural and Non-Rural School Districts in Pennsylvania

Assessing the Enrollment Trends and Financial Impacts of Charter Schools on Rural and Non-Rural School Districts in Pennsylvania Assessing the Enrollment Trends and Financial Impacts of Charter Schools on Rural and Non-Rural School Districts in Pennsylvania By: Kai A. Schafft, Ph.D., Erica Frankenberg, Ed.D., Ed Fuller, Ph.D., William

More information

Overcoming Doubts About Online Learning

Overcoming Doubts About Online Learning Educational Technology Cooperative Overcoming Doubts About Online Learning November 2009 Southern Regional Education Board 592 10th St. N.W. Atlanta, GA 30318 (404) 875-9211 www.sreb.org This publication

More information

RUTGERS UNIVERSITY NEWARK. Sociology of Urban Education

RUTGERS UNIVERSITY NEWARK. Sociology of Urban Education RUTGERS UNIVERSITY NEWARK Sociology of Urban Education Spring 2013: 26-977-612-01 Tuesday 2:30-5:10 PM Office Hours: Tues 1-2 PM (Ph) 973-353-5130 Jamie Lew, Ph.D. Department of Sociology Office: Hill

More information

A School Board Vision for Public Education

A School Board Vision for Public Education A School Board Vision for Public Education Our nation s public schools will ensure that each child is prepared to reach his or her potential in life, contribute to society, and achieve a standard living

More information

Factors affecting bachelor s degree completion among Black males with prior attrition

Factors affecting bachelor s degree completion among Black males with prior attrition Factors affecting bachelor s degree completion among Black males with prior attrition ABSTRACT Rayna Matthews-Whetstone Richardson, Texas ISD Joyce A. Scott Texas A&M University-Commerce Black males lag

More information

Wealth Inequality and Racial Wealth Accumulation. Jessica Gordon Nembhard, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, African American Studies

Wealth Inequality and Racial Wealth Accumulation. Jessica Gordon Nembhard, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, African American Studies Wealth Inequality and Racial Wealth Accumulation Jessica Gordon Nembhard, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, African American Studies Wealth Inequality Increasing Media attention World wealth inequality (UNU-

More information

M D R w w w. s c h o o l d a t a. c o m 8 0 0-3 3 3-8 8 0 2

M D R w w w. s c h o o l d a t a. c o m 8 0 0-3 3 3-8 8 0 2 MDR s Guide to Federally Funded Education Programs Major federal programs in the Education Budget for Fiscal Year 2011 are listed below. Twenty-three programs were eliminated from the FY2011 budget, including

More information

Under the Start Your Search Now box, you may search by author, title and key words.

Under the Start Your Search Now box, you may search by author, title and key words. VISTAS Online VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for the American Counseling Association by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to

More information

SCHOOL CLIMATE AND ADULT LEARNING

SCHOOL CLIMATE AND ADULT LEARNING NATIONAL SCHOOL CLIMATE CENTER (NSCC) Educating minds and hearts, because the Three Rs are not enough www.schoolclimate.org SCHOOL CLIMATE AND ADULT LEARNING Schools can support and nurture effective adult

More information

E PLURIBUS SEPARATION

E PLURIBUS SEPARATION E PLURIBUS SEPARATION DEEPENING DOUBLE SEGREGATION FOR MORE STUDENTS By Gary Orfield, John Kucsera & Genevieve Siegel-Hawley September 2012 E PLURIBUS SEPARATION September 2012 (revised 10/18/12)) Civil

More information

National Center for Urban Education at the University of the District of Columbia Conceptual Overview

National Center for Urban Education at the University of the District of Columbia Conceptual Overview National Center for Urban Education at the University of the District of Columbia Conceptual Overview In far too many universities, education schools are the neglected stepchild. Too often they don't attract

More information

INEQUALITY MATTERS BACHELOR S DEGREE LOSSES AMONG LOW-INCOME BLACK AND HISPANIC HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES A POLICY BULLETIN FOR HEA REAUTHORIZATION

INEQUALITY MATTERS BACHELOR S DEGREE LOSSES AMONG LOW-INCOME BLACK AND HISPANIC HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES A POLICY BULLETIN FOR HEA REAUTHORIZATION INEQUALITY MATTERS BACHELOR S DEGREE LOSSES AMONG LOW-INCOME BLACK AND HISPANIC HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES A POLICY BULLETIN FOR HEA REAUTHORIZATION JUNE 2013 ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON STUDENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

More information

Secondary school physics availability in an urban setting: Issues related to academic achievement and course offerings

Secondary school physics availability in an urban setting: Issues related to academic achievement and course offerings Secondary school physics availability in an urban setting: Issues related to academic achievement and course offerings Angela M. Kelly Graduate Program in Science Education, Lehman College, City University

More information

Berkeley City College Student Equity Plan

Berkeley City College Student Equity Plan Berkeley City College Student Equity Plan January 1, 2015 2 Executive Summary Diversity and equity efforts are important because they are fundamental to quality and excellence. Moreover, diversity is more

More information

Russell Sage Foundation

Russell Sage Foundation EXeCUTIVe SUMMARY Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children s Life Chances Edited by Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane* This executive summary compiles research on the consequences

More information

Incorporating Life Course, Social Determinants, and Health Equity into California s MCAH Programs

Incorporating Life Course, Social Determinants, and Health Equity into California s MCAH Programs Incorporating Life Course, Social Determinants, and Health Equity into California s MCAH Programs Shabbir Ahmad, DVM, MS, PhD Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Program Center for Family Health California

More information

SOUTH LOS ANGELES YOUTH OFFENDER RE-ENTRY PROGRAM A GRANT PROPOSAL

SOUTH LOS ANGELES YOUTH OFFENDER RE-ENTRY PROGRAM A GRANT PROPOSAL SOUTH LOS ANGELES YOUTH OFFENDER RE-ENTRY PROGRAM A GRANT PROPOSAL www.campaignforyouthjustice.org Guadalupe Torres California State University, Long Beach May 2015 INTRODUCTION Arrest Rates In the City

More information

THE SECRET BEHIND COLLEGE COMPLETION GIRLS, BOYS, AND THE POWER OF EIGHTH GRADE GRADES

THE SECRET BEHIND COLLEGE COMPLETION GIRLS, BOYS, AND THE POWER OF EIGHTH GRADE GRADES THE SECRET BEHIND COLLEGE COMPLETION GIRLS, BOYS, AND THE POWER OF EIGHTH GRADE GRADES By Thomas A. DiPrete and Claudia Buchmann WHAT S NEXT? To see into the future, one needs only to look at eighth grade.

More information

Charter Schools Evaluation Synthesis

Charter Schools Evaluation Synthesis Charter Schools Evaluation Synthesis Report I: Report II: Selected Characteristics of Charter Schools, Programs, Students, and Teachers First Year's Impact of North Carolina Charter Schools on Location

More information

The Historic Opportunity to Get College Readiness Right: The Race to the Top Fund and Postsecondary Education

The Historic Opportunity to Get College Readiness Right: The Race to the Top Fund and Postsecondary Education The Historic Opportunity to Get College Readiness Right: The Race to the Top Fund and Postsecondary Education Passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the creation of the Race to

More information

Freire Charter School Wilmington Business Plan

Freire Charter School Wilmington Business Plan Freire Charter School Wilmington Business Plan Freire Charter School Philadelphia, which currently serves 1,000 students in grades 5 through 12, seeks to expand into Wilmington, Delaware. The Freire Charter

More information

First in My Family: Executive Summary

First in My Family: Executive Summary First in My Family: A Profile of First-Generation College Students at Four-Year Institutions Since 1971 Executive Summary April 2007 Victor B. Saenz Sylvia Hurtado Doug Barrera De Sha Wolf Fanny Yeung

More information

EXCHANGE. J. Luke Wood. Administration, Rehabilitation & Postsecondary Education, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

EXCHANGE. J. Luke Wood. Administration, Rehabilitation & Postsecondary Education, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 37: 333 338, 2013 Copyright# Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1066-8926 print=1521-0413 online DOI: 10.1080/10668926.2012.754733 EXCHANGE The Community

More information

AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY TO REDUCE DISPROPORTIONATE DISCIPLINE, SUSPENSIONS AND IMPROVE ACADEMIC OUTCOMES.

AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY TO REDUCE DISPROPORTIONATE DISCIPLINE, SUSPENSIONS AND IMPROVE ACADEMIC OUTCOMES. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN OAKLAND SCHOOLS IMPLEMENTATION AND IMPACTS 2014 AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY TO REDUCE DISPROPORTIONATE DISCIPLINE, SUSPENSIONS AND IMPROVE ACADEMIC OUTCOMES. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Need for

More information