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1 HISTORY Macedonia in 20 th and 21 st century RELIGION, CULTURE, LANGUAGE LAW, POLITICS :03:24

2 Sustaining institutions: Ministry of Science and Higher Education (de minimis programme) and Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University. POLITEJA. The Journal of the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University ul. Piłsudskiego 13, room Krakow tel.: , fax: Księgarnia Akademicka Sp. z o.o. ul. św. Anny 6, Kraków tel./fax: www. ISSN Editor: Justyna Wójcik Front cover: Łukasz Fyderek Typesetting and layout: Published in the e-book form plus 150 paper copies. Reviewers Saad Abudayeh ( Jordan University) Roman Bäcker (Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń) Marek Bankowicz ( Jagiellonian University) Włodzimierz Bernacki ( Jagiellonian University) Maksim Bulachtin (Perm University) Adam Chmielewski (University of Wrocław) Joachim Diec ( Jagiellonian University) Artur Demchuk (Lomonosov Moscow State University) Andrzej Dudek ( Jagiellonian University) Wojciech Kaute (University of Silesia in Katowice) Wawrzyniec Konarski ( Jagiellonian University) Leszek Korporowicz ( Jagiellonian University) Krzysztof Kościelniak ( Jagiellonian University) Barbara Krauz-Mozer ( Jagiellonian University) Paulina Kewes (University of Oxford) Ewa Bujwid-Kurek ( Jagiellonian University) Marek Maciejewski (University of Wrocław) Gerhard Meiser (Universität Halle) Włodzimierz Mich (Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin) Jan Rychlik (Charles University in Prague) Andrea Schmidt (Pecs University) Mieczysław Smoleń ( Jagiellonian University) Barbara Stoczewska ( Jagiellonian University) Lucjan Suchanek (State Higher Vocational School in Oświęcim) Krzysztof Szczerski ( Jagiellonian University) Dariusz Szpoper (University of Gdańsk) Katerina Todoroska (Institute of National History in Skopje) Janusz J. Węc ( Jagiellonian University) Howard Williams (Aberystwyth University) Ryszard Zięba (University of Warsaw) Polit Studie field o invite submi same t final d proces discip Fo

3 The Journal of the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University POLITEJA No. 4 (30) Kraków 2014 MACEDONIA IN 20 TH AND 21 ST CENTURY Edited by Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska EDITORIAL BOARD Prof. Jerzy Axer (University of Warsaw) Prof. Andrea Ciampani (LUMSA, Roma) Prof. Břetislav Dančak (Masaryk University, Brno) Prof. Rahul Peter Das (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg) Prof. Taras Finikov (KROK University, Kyiv) Prof. Saleh K. Hamarneh ( Jordan University) Prof. Ferenc Hörcher (Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest) Prof. Alvydas Jokubaitis (Vilnius University) Prof. Wiesław Kozub-Ciembroniewicz (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU) Prof. Zdzisław Mach (Institute of European Studies JU) Prof. Andrzej Mania (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU) Prof. Tadeusz Paleczny (Institute of Regional Studies JU) Prof. Dorota Praszałowicz (Institute of American Studies and Polish Diaspora JU) Prof. Anna Raźny (Institute of Russian and East European Studies JU) Prof. John Robertson (Cambridge University) Prof. Irena Stawowy-Kawka (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU) Prof. Noël O Sullivan (University of Hull) Prof. Adam Walaszek (Institute of American Studies and Polish Diaspora JU) Prof. Andrey Yuriyevich Shutov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) Prof. Andrzej Zięba (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU) CHIEF EDITOR Prof. Bogdan Szlachta (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU) MANAGING EDITORS Dr Dorota Pietrzyk-Reeves (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU) Dr Arkadiusz Górnisiewicz (Institute of Political Science and International Relations JU)

4 TABLE OF CONTENT ARTICLES 5 Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska, Introduction History 7 Mirosław Dymarski, The Macedonian Question in the Light of Documents of the Serbian Diplomacy Jędrzej Paszkiewicz, The Macedonian Issue in the Geopolitics of the Balkans in the 20s of the Twentieth Century in the Light of British Diplomatic Relations 33 Elżbieta Znamierowska-Rakk, Great Britain and the Bulgarian-Yugoslavian Rapprochement (Fall 1944-Winter 1945) 45 Vera Goševa, Conflict of Different Visions: Macedonian Emigration in Bulgaria in the Period Between the Two World Wars 55 Katarzyna Kropiak, Integration Concepts of the Lands Inhabited by Albanians. The Process of Shaping of the Albanian State Borders 71 Ljubica Jančeva, The Principles of ASNOM and the Constitutional Historic Legacy for the Framework Republic of Macedonia 79 Katerina Mirčevska, The Children Evacuated from Greece in 1948: to the Eastern-European Countries and Yugoslavia Religion, culture, language 89 Stojan Kiselinovski, The Linguistic Duality in the Macedonian Vernacular Language ( ) 97 Silvana Sidorovska-Čupovska, Nationalism in the Balkan Countries and Education of Macedonians ( ) 105 Snežana Venovska-Antevska, The Metaphor in the Public (Political) Discourse in the Macedonian Language at the Time of Elections

5 115 Biljana Malenko, The Characteristics of the Lexis in the Public Addresses of Some Prominent Figures in the Republic of Macedonia 123 Naoum Kaytchev, Being Macedonian: Different types of ethnic identifications in the contemporary Republic of Macedonia 133 Lilla Moroz-Grzelak, The Real and Imagined Enemy in the Process of Shaping the Macedonian National Identity 145 Magdalena Rekść, The Political and Historical Myths and Their Role in the Ideological Struggles over the Republic of Macedonia at the Beginning of the 20 th Century 163 Magdalena Ickiewicz-Sawicka, UNESCO Architectural Objects on the Territory of the Republic of Macedonia Law, politics 175 Inga Kawka, Approximating Macedonian Legislation to the EU s Acquis 191 Vera Katz, A Platform on the Future Yugoslav Community (Izetbegovic-Gligorov Plan). A View from the Perspective of Bosnia and Herzegovina 211 Danuta Gibas-Krzak, Geopolitical Determinants of Macedonia as Part of the Balkan Instability. Outline of the Problem 227 Sławomir Lucjan Szczesio, The Policy of the George H.W. Bush s Administration Toward Macedonia 255 Paweł Płaneta, Evaluation of the Macedonian Transformation in the International Reports in the 2000s 281 Irena Stawowy-Kawka, The Outbreak of the Albanian-Macedonian Armed Conflict in 2001 the Economic Situation 295 Andrzej Krzak, Asymmetry of the Albanian-Macedonian Military Conflict in Military Characteristics of the Fight in the Regions of Tetovo, Kumanovo, Aračinovo and Vaksince 317 Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska, International Military and Police Missions to the Republic of Macedonia and Their Role in Stabilizing Macedonian-Albanian Relations

6 333 Daniel Wilk, The Role of Stabilisation Missions in the Process of Police Reform in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 347 Wojciech Szczepański, Serbia an Opponent or an Ally of Independent Macedonia ( )? 363 Zoran Vučković, An Outline of Serbian-Macedonian Relations in the First Decade of the 21 st Century 373 Karol Bieniek, Turkish Foreign Policy towards Macedonia after the Cold War 387 Marko Babić, Muslims and Islamic Fundamentalism in Macedonia 399 Rafał Woźnica, Policy to Combat Human Trafficking in Macedonia Legislation, Specialised Bodies and Procedures

7 DOI: /Politeja INTRODUCTION Macedonia is located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. At the end of the 19 th and in the 20 th and 21 st centuries this territory, characterised by ethnic and religious diversity, was the location of fierce fights involving nations, states and empires aspiring to rule this area. Due to its central location within the Balkans (at the meeting point of key transport and trade routes between Europe and the Middle East), whoever ruled Macedonia enjoyed a decisive political position in South -Eastern Europe. However, the lands in middle and lower Vardar in Macedonia created favourable conditions for the development of Macedonian linguistic, cultural and political separatism. Despite propaganda coupled with cultural activities and settlements following the division of Macedonia in 1913, these actions failed to eradicate separatist ambitions, while the idea to unify and create a greater Macedonia gathering all Macedonian Slavs in one state remained alive. The cultural and national autonomy of Macedonians found its expression in 1944 within Yugoslavia (with respect to its one part, Vardar Macedonia only), while political autonomy came in 1991, when the Republic of Macedonia left the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. However, questions about the future of this state, one of the youngest in the Balkans, and its path to stability and peace still remain open. This monograph is devoted to explaining issues related to the area of Macedonia, both of the earlier history as well and the latest events. Special words of thanks are directed to the Dean Professor PhD Bogdan Szlachta, thanks to whom this special volume of Politeja could be released. Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska

8

9 ARTICLES History DOI: /Politeja Mirosław Dymarski University of Wrocław The Macedonian Question in the Light of the Documents of the Serbian Diplomacy Abstract In the early 20 th century Macedonia became the focus of the political activity of the Balkan states, interested in partitioning this Turkish territory. From the Serbian perspective, Bulgaria emerged as the main rival of Serbia, its aspirations to the Macedonian territory rooted in Bulgarian national mythology. Hence the Bulgarian government s actions and activities were closely watched by Serbian diplomats. They viewed Bulgarian politics as a complex, ambiguous game. The Bulgarians simultaneously made preparations for a war with Turkey and tried to keep the appearances of friendly relations with Turkey and Bulgaria s neighbors: Serbia and Greece. Initially, Bulgaria intended to incorporate the whole of Macedonia but soon realized its own weakness and the determination of its neighbors. Thus, the Bulgarian prime minister made an offer to Serbia, proposing an alliance and participation in the partition of Macedonia of whose territory Bulgaria would get a bigger share. Serbia did not want to accept this offer but at the same time it was afraid of the hostile reaction of Austro -Hungary to its own aspirations, involving even Austro -Hungary entering into some secret alliance with Bulgaria. Consequently, Serbian politicians decided to seek a compromise. An analysis of Serbian diplomatic documents has shown that from 1911 a slow process continued of Bulgaria and Serbia coming to the conclusion that a consent concerning the future of Macedonia had to be reached but there was no agreement as how to divide up the Macedonian territory between the two sides. Arguments continued on how to define the Serbian and Bulgarian zones, the demarcation line, etc. Each side formulated its boundary conditions and there was little progress in negotiations. In the end, the prospective Serbian and Bulgarian zones were defined and also the so -called disputed territory whose

10 8 Mirosław Dymarski Politeja 4(30)/2014 status would be decided through arbitration by the Tsar of Russia. However, Bulgaria and Serbia remained deeply distrustful of one another and the course of the first Balkan War in 1912 would soon demonstrate that Bulgaria, Serbia, and also Greece had each an intention to incorporate the largest possible part of Macedonian territory with no regard for any earlier treaties. Key-words: Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria, diplomacy, international relations, conflict The 1903 coup in Serbia effected major political changes which understandably influenced the country s foreign policy. The treaty with Austro -Hungary concluded by King Milan in 1881 had already focused Serbia s attention on Macedonia as one of the principal areas of its potential territorial expansion. Of course, Kosovo, that is the so -called Old Serbia, remained the primary focus of Serbia s interest but from there further expansion was envisioned towards Macedonia and then the Aegean Sea and the port of Thessaloniki. The tension in Macedonia continuing from the late 19 th c. concerned its neighbouring states: Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria, which were still in the process of establishing their own borders. Thus, the Mürzsteg reforms imposedin 1903 were presumably to help the Christian population in Macedonia but this was not the primary political objective of the aforementioned states. Rather, they saw the reforms in the context of their own potential expansion validated by their claimed historic and ethnic rights. While maintaining the appearance of disengagement, the governments of the neighbouring states tried to influence the situation in Macedonia. Documents produced by Serbian diplomats show their keen interest in the actions of Bulgaria and distrust of Bulgarian declarations denying any interference in the area. In the correspondence of 17 August 1903, Božko Čolak -Antić, the Serbian ambassador in Sophia, analyzes the policy statement of the Bulgarian prime minister which contained references to Macedonia. He asserts that the government s position does not reflect the actual situation in Macedonia because it does not mention the involvement of the Bulgarian government and military personnel in enticing insurgency. At the same time he notes that the insurgents and their supporters commit acts of extreme cruelty. There is no doubt he writes that the peacefully -minded Muslim population suffered a lot during St. Elias s insurgency. On the other hand, he insists, there is evidence that on many occasions peasants have been forced to help the partisans (komites). 1 The document clearly shows that the Serbian ambassador does not believe in the declarations of the Bulgarian authorities. This distrust will also accompany Serbo -Bulgarian negotiations in the years to come. 1 Документи о спољној политици Краљевине Србије , Vol. 1, P. 1: 29 maj/11 jun /27 februar 1904, Београд 1991, pp

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