A STUDY OF COMPUTER SIMUI,ATION SYSTEM FOR RECONSTRUCTING


 Willis Dorsey
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 237 STUDY OF COMPUTER SIMUI,TION SYSTEM FOR RECONSTRUCTING CR.TO.CR COLLISION CCIDENTS INVOLVING THE SECOND IMPCT Lang Wei, Dr. Egn. Vice Professor Faculty of utomobile Engineering Xi'an Highway UniversitY Xi'an, Shaanxi, china Fax: Yinsan Chen Professor Faculty of utomobile Engineering Xi'an Highway UniversitY Xi'an, Shaanxi, 7loo64 China Fax: Hirotoshi Ishikawa ChiefResearcher Japan utomobile Research Institute 305 Japan Fax: l 1 35 Rui Fu, Dr. Egn. Vice Professor Faculty of utomobile Engineering Xi'an Highway UniversitY Xi'an, Shaanxi, 7l0064 China Fax: Tao Chen Graduate Student Faculty of utomobile Engineering Xi'an HighwaY UniversitY Xi'an, Shaanxi, China Fax: bstract: In this paper, based on the accident site information, a cartocar accident reconstruction system is developed, which is used to simulate the impact velocity and trajectory of vehicles. The accidents concerned involve the second impact' Five collision tests involving second impact were used to evaluate the system. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with realworld test results' 1. FOREWORI) In the field of traffic accidents authenticating, estimating the impact velocity and trajectory of vehicles is often the main goal of an accident analysis in order to establish accident course and transact accident responsibility justly in the light of the law Cartocar collisions are a common tra{iic accident form. Its impact analytical solutions have aroused the attention of the accident investigators. The authors published a cartocar analytical impact model not involving the second impact and the animate reconstructing program three years ago. The video and data of sixteen collisions tests provided by Japan utomobile Research Institute (JRI) was used to test and verify its validity. The second impact was found in some videos of collision tests provided by JRI. nd specifically this Journal ol thc Easlern sia Srciety lirr Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
2 238 L,ang WEI,Hirotoshi ISHIKW, Yinsan CHEN, Rui FU and Tho CHEN kind of accident was called cartocar impact accident involving the second impact. Cartocar impact accident, as a special traflic accident form and its analytical simulation and reconstruction method has aroused great interest for the accident investigators. ut, many realworld cartocar collisions involve the second impact (It can be deduced by check the mark on the car body whether the second impact occulred or not). For this kind of accidents, the second impact center position in the ground coordinate system can't be obtained by investigating the accident site, besides, the instantaneous motion state and velocity during the second impact is unknown. It is therefore much more complex to simulate and reconstruct cartocar impact.accidents involving the second impact. Furthermore, it is difficult to verify through tests. The method used to simulate cartocar impact accident involving second impact hasn't been found till now. This paper improves the algorithms [Lang, Hirotoshi and Takashi (1995)], [Lang, Yinsan, Takashi and Hirotoshi (1996)1, [Hirotoshi (1995)], and develops the methods dealing with reconstruction of cartocar collisions accidents involving the second impact, based on the analysis for a number ofcartocar collision tests. The video and data offive collision tests were used to test and veri$ its validity. 2.THE SIMULTION SYSTEM FOR CRTOCR IMPCT CCIDENT INVOLVING THE SECOND IMPCT The meaning of the notation and subscript is as follows: (NOTTTON) X, Y: the centroid coordinate of vehicle in the ground coordinate system r, 4 : the centroid coordinate of vehicle in the second impact coordinate system( r k 4) 0 : the angle between the longitudinal central line of vehicle and x axle m : vehicle mass V: velocity w: angular velocity p : radius of gytation P: impact momentum e : restitution coefficient L: wheel spacing : axle spacing Lr: distance from the centroid to fore axle L, : distance from the mark center of second impact to centroid (m) ( It is positive in the front of the centroid; negative behind the centroid.) L, : the total length of vehicle (m) u : road friction coefficient,: the width of vehicle (m) r x, E y, 0 : the permitted error of the centroid position along x axle, y axle and o angle. (Subscript) X, y, r, rl:the component of x axle, y ax1e, taxle (tangential), I axle (normal) k: the value at second impact center (or the second impact mark center) Journal oflhe Easlernsia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
3 239 Study of Computer Simulatiou Syslem lbr Rcconstructiug CartoCar Collision ccidcnts Involving the Second lmpact so: (initial) the value at impact position su: the value at rest Position q : preimpact instantaneous value g: postimpact instantaneous value T: test value S: simulation value, : the value of vehicle, vehicle The cartocar accidents analytical impact model involving the second impact consists of the following subsystem: l) The subsystem used to calculate the second impact center position' 2) The subsystem used to calculate the postimpact instantaneous motion variables. 3) The computation model at the second impact instant. 4) The computation model for estimating the initial impact velocity' 2.1 The Subsystem used To calculate The second Impact Center Position Finding the second impact center position in ground coordinate system is key to analyzing the cartocar collision accident involving the second impact. The reason that second impact occurs after the first impact is the sharp rotation of impact vehicles. It can be inferred that second impact mainly occured on the two sides of vehicle (including the end of the sides). dditionally, studying numerous data of collision tests, we can infer that the impulsive force of second impact is less than that of the first impact. In view of this, the method of asymptotic approximate which used to compute the second impact center position was presented. Firstly, under the condition of neglecting the second impact, on the basis of the method of reference [Lang, Yinsan, Takashi and Hirotoshi (1996)], the trajectory of the second impact mark center point can be computed in the light of the impact and rest position. Then, the approximate coordinate (X*, Y*) of second impact center can be obtained. The formula is as follows: Where I x,) ltx,;,^, * tr i = it Y,^i * I = il{min(dr, + 0) U [mind*, 0minfl] dr,=m X *i\ l2\ Y*,i) t2 ), (i = 1,2,o o o,n)l (i =l,2,ooo,n) (l) (2) lkt^, f,=1 l[<a^,  ot')l  0u,) ,rll lon, l0 n,  0r,l< (r / 2)  0r,l> (tr I 2) (i =l,2,ooc,n) Journal of lhc Eastern sia S<rcicly lirr Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
4 240 Lang WEI,Hirotoshi ISHIKW, Yinsan CHEN, Rui FU and Tho CHEN 2.2The Subsystem Used to Calculate The PostImpact Instantaneous Motion Variables The subsystem used to calculate the second postimpact instantaneous motion variables mainly consists of the following computation models:. iterationconvergence judge model. kinematics model of impact vehicles. tireground mechanics model (adopt G. Gim and P. E Nikavesh tire model [Gwanghun and Parviz (1990)], [Gwanghun and Parviz (1991)]) In this subsystem, the variables such as velocity and angular velocity can be obtained in the light of second impact center and the rest positions [Lang, Hirotoshi and Takashi (1995)], [Lang, Yinsan, Takashi and Hirotoshi (1996)]. Its computational flow diagram is shown in Figure l. (The second impact position) Tireground mechanics model + Kinematics model of impact vehi c I es Iterationconvergence judge model The instantaneous motion variables after the second impact Fig. I Thetomputational Flow Diagram of Motion Variables after the Second Impact 2.3 The Computation Model at the Second Impact Instant. This computational model is used to describe the relation of the motion variables between the instant preimpact and postimpact. When the second impact center was obtained, the postimpact instantaneous velocity and angular velocity can be deduced from preimpact velocity of the second impact. s shown in Figure 2, set the side of struck vehicle as the impact surface, and the second impact center k as origin. The t axie is tangential to the impact surface, parallel to the longitudinal central line of vehicle body, then the second impact coordinate system t k 4 is built. The following instantaneous impact model is obtained based on the law of conservation ofnomentum. vorrn=rrr*z (3) vor,n =vrr,n fr Q) Journal ofthe Eastern sia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, Seplcmber, 1999
5 241 Slldy of Computer Simulation System for Reconstructing CartoCar Collision ccidents Involving the Second Impact Po,r*  ok l = d rk 4 a =mtpe (5) Vq*ta =t'rrr,  b*, (6) n, Yo*a=Yektafi (7) Prrru  Prrrlu 0ok T maps (8) Where e,, = uj,af',^"t' * L) * u,*a "'a + )l) P" = o;^.)l* '*o'" * )) *''n"tr * lll Figure 2. The Coordinate SYstem of Second Impact Center Position Ra, = V e*4t  t rra) ru  V glat + t *,to stt i Xr, = V grra + s  Y g*r,t  q k/a) shl M,,"= m,m,m"i f qtfrtlqams ; ^= ' 1/4mtl7qtms ^,=Z:l!!amai /,tmtt/,ams ^o=tu' u*fu+ mtpt mtpe r,,t=+1, y*=4,r.,= f",. i t,,=2; pt +tu pr' +ru' / tlt pr' +qr' Pi +t\u 2.4 The Computation Model for Estimating the Initial Impact Velocity In this subsystem, postimpact velocity and angular velocity of the first impact can be gained through the first and second impact center position. Furthermore, on the basis of impact velocity computational model, preimpact velocity and angular velocity of the first impact can be obtained [Lang, Hirotoshi and Takashi (1995)], [Lang, Yinsan, Takashi and Hirotoshi (1996)1. Its computational flow diagram is shown in Figure THE SIMULTION SYSTEM FOR RECONSTRUCTING CRTOCR COLLISIONS INVOLVING SECOND IMPCT The flow diagram of the animated simulation system for reconstructing cartocar collisions involving second impact is shown in Figure 4. The program automatically read and input the postimpact velocity and angular velocity calculated in the former section. fter the computations, it can display the instantaneous motional state at every time step and the second impact position, which shows the entire process of impact accident. Simulation can be visualized with the continuous animate. Journal o[ the Eastern sia Sociely lirr Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
6 242 Lang WEI,Hirotoshi ISHIKW, Yinsan CHEN, Rui FU and Tho CHEN (lnitial impacr position) l Tireground mechanics model +Kinematics model of impact veh ic les Iterationconvergence judge model.(the second impact position) and (The preimpact motion variables of the secpnd impact) The postimpact motion variables of vehicles (first impact) Impact velocity computational model Preimpact instantaneous velocity and angular velocity of vehicles ( first impact ) Fig. 3 The Computational Flow Diagram of Impact Vetocity The animation output of preimpact vehicles'movement Impact position, postimpact motion variables of vehicles, other vehicle parameters Tireground mechanics model +Xinematics model of impact vehi c les The output of vehicles movement and position corresponding to the difference calculation step The second impact position The second impact position, The postimpact motion variables of vehicles (the second impact) Rest position (The entire process of impact accident and overall perspective) Figure 4. The Flow Diagram Of Simulation System for Reconstructing CarToCar Collisions Involving Second Impact 4. EVLUTION OF THE SYSTEM USING THE TESTS Under the common conditions, the data measured at the realworld accident site, especially the impact velocity from accident investigation, is not suitable to verify the validity of the Journal of the Easlern sia Srxiety for Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
7 243 Sr[dy of compurer Simularion System a. u:::rjffitl"l Cartocar collisior ccidents hvolving the simulation model. In this paper, under the accurate control and test conditions, five cartocar collision tests involving second impact (see Table l) were used to verify and assess the simulation system. Table 1. The Data of Real world collision Tests Involving Second Impact MoL,L 16r cil {tg (m) (m) (m) T1 n R T4 15 lo l5 t.t2 rod 125 l.l7 sl ln l{ IID lrts 124 l.l0 lrc9 t ltr l04t 124 l.l0 lgl 124 l.l0 9t l l.l5 lm 18 l Ll E E5 E5 E5 X* (m) t# 0m ld off tfi o.l0 t6182 tfi 0g t6115 t# 058 th 030 t6 {X5 Yro (m) 1fi 056 lre 068 0m 067 a4 tn 1.'70 0.o Xru 0 (m) Y,u (m) s4n5%m l&,.10 3# 33 s l & l& : fr 6 0 2n5 041 y5 3 { % :15 llsl m $vl 49n $ 0r, P Lr 0(rn) (at) 065 (L)l3s (R)r65 (L)l2s (L)145 (R)l6s (1i20 (Rll6 (LRI Notes: Hm, Mm, Hg and Mg present the motion state of leftfront wheel, rightfront wheel, leftrear wheel and rightrear wheel respectively. ppoint: the value was set to I when the locked wheel can't roll' the value was set to 0 when the wheel can roll freely. 4.1 Verification of Simulation Computation The observed value Vr and calculated value V. of initial impact velocity, observed value and calculated value of the second impact center position are shown in Table 2' The absolute error of velocity is within 7.4krnlh, and the relative elror is within 12.2loh except for the car in T2 case (221l%) and car in T3 case (28'83%)' Table 2 Impact center Position and velocity comparison between Test and Simulation value Test Car ',(m) ',(m). r() &(m)yrr(m) ft(m) Y(m) TI T2 T3 T4 o.253r l9r5 otr 4D fi? r7r 2& 2g t0 t.d vr km/h & a8 5l.l 45.0 V. absolute enor m/h\ Gm/h) 4t t7 47 2l 47 I q relative error (%) t2.2t 22.1t I il.ll 1 'r7 4.2 TheContrast Verilication for Simulation Reconstruction The trajectory comparison between the simulation and collision tests are shown in Figure Figure 9. The second impact simulation trajectories were found to be in good 5  agreement with realworld test results. Journal ofthe Eastern sia Society tbr Transportation Studies, vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
8 244 laug WEI,Hirotoshi ISHIKW, Yirran CHEN, Rui FU aud Tho CHEN Ki,r W :ffi ffi rtll Fig. 5 Tl Test Result (Left) and Simulation Resutt Fig. 6 T2 Test Result (Left) and Simutation Resutt (Right) Journal of the Eastern sia Society tirr Transporlation Studies, Vol.3, No. l, September, I 999
9 245 Stttdy of Computer Simulation Systcm for Reconstrucling CartoCar Collision ccidcnts Involving the Second Impacl s e cond. imdact Fig. 7 T3 Test Result (Left) and Simulation Result (Right) b\ q Fig. 8 T4 Test Result (Left) and Simulation Result (Right) /* Fig. 9 T5 Test Result (Left) and Simulation Result (Right) Journal ol'lhc Eastcrn sia Sociely lirr Transportation Sludics, Vrl.3, No. l, Scptcmbcr, 1999
10 246 L:ngWEI,Hirotoshi ISHIKW, Yinsan CHEN, Rui FU andtho CHEN 5. CONCLUSIONS ased on the simulation model for cartocar single impact accidents and quoted normal and tangential restitution coeffrcients in this paper, the simulation system for reconstructing cartocar collisions involving second impact is described. Using the field data such as impact position, rest position, impact marks on the car body, this system can obtain the kinematic state of accident vehicles, the second impact position and impact velocity. Five collision tests involving second impact were used to evaluate this system, and the simulation results were found to be in good agreements with the realworld test results. REFERENCES Lang Wei, Hirotoshi Ishikawa and Takashi Nakatsuji (1995) Study on ccident Reconstruction Model, utomobileresearch, I 7 I 0. Lang Wei, Yinsan chen, Takashi Nakatsuji and Hirotoshi Ishikawa (1996) Study of Computer Simulation System for Reconstructing Car{ocar Collisions ccidents, China Journal of Highway, Vol.9 No.4, l421' Hirotoshi ishikawa (1995) Restitution Coeffrcients in Cartocar Collisions, utomobile Research, l71. Lang Wei and Takashi Nakatsuji (1995) Study on ccident nimate Reconstruction Model, 30th nniversary of JCTS, Tokyo,Japan,S689. Gwanghun Gim and Parviz E.Nikravesh (1990) n nalytical Model of Pneumatic Tyres for Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part l:pure Slips, International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol.ll, No.6, 589'618. Gwanghun Gim and Parviz E.Nikravesh (1991) n nalytical Model of Pneumatic Tyres for Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 2:Comprehensive Slips, International Journal of Vehicte Design, Vol.l2, No.l, l939. Journal ol thc Easlcrtt sia Socicty tirr Transportation Studies, Vol.3, No.l, September, 1999
Virtual CRASH 3.0 Staging a Car Crash
Virtual CRASH 3.0 Staging a Car Crash Virtual CRASH Virtual CRASH 3.0 Staging a Car Crash Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of
More informationKINEMATICS OF PARTICLES RELATIVE MOTION WITH RESPECT TO TRANSLATING AXES
KINEMTICS OF PRTICLES RELTIVE MOTION WITH RESPECT TO TRNSLTING XES In the previous articles, we have described particle motion using coordinates with respect to fixed reference axes. The displacements,
More informationWorking Model 2D Exercise Problem 14.111. ME 114 Vehicle Design Dr. Jose Granda. Performed By Jeffrey H. Cho
Working Model 2D Exercise Problem 14.111 ME 114 Vehicle Design Dr. Jose Granda Performed By Jeffrey H. Cho Table of Contents Problem Statement... 1 Simulation SetUp...2 World Settings... 2 Gravity...
More informationA Road Crash Reconstruction Technique
A Road Crash Reconstruction Technique Mukherjee S, nonmember Chawla A 1, member Lalaram Patel, nonmember Abstract The purpose of reconstruction is to identify the critical factors involved in a road
More informationMidterm Solutions. mvr = ω f (I wheel + I bullet ) = ω f 2 MR2 + mr 2 ) ω f = v R. 1 + M 2m
Midterm Solutions I) A bullet of mass m moving at horizontal velocity v strikes and sticks to the rim of a wheel a solid disc) of mass M, radius R, anchored at its center but free to rotate i) Which of
More informationPredicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes
304 Int. J. Vehicle Safety, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006 Predicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes S. Mukherjee and A. Chawla* Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,
More informationA New Wheel/Rail Spatially Dynamic Coupling Model and its Verification
Vehicle System Dynamics 2004, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 301 322 A New Wheel/Rail Spatially Dynamic Coupling Model and its Verification G. CHEN 1 AND W.M. ZHAI 2 SUMMARY Based on the theory of vehicletrack coupling
More informationHW Set VI page 1 of 9 PHYSICS 1401 (1) homework solutions
HW Set VI page 1 of 9 1030 A 10 g bullet moving directly upward at 1000 m/s strikes and passes through the center of mass of a 5.0 kg block initially at rest (Fig. 1033 ). The bullet emerges from the
More informationOrbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum
Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely
More informationPractice Exam Three Solutions
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics Physics 8.01T Fall Term 2004 Practice Exam Three Solutions Problem 1a) (5 points) Collisions and Center of Mass Reference Frame In the lab frame,
More informationPHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true?
1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? A) Kinetic energy can be measured in watts. B) Kinetic energy is always equal to the potential energy. C) Kinetic energy is always
More informationciil => 8 =9+3Vg =) 3Vs= *... Vg't fts vft.4 ln.^$ ger  Lxln SxL+ Ln6 = LrZ+ 3V6 2Vn = tf
Ht MftY 2ot3 rneenfrrtonr\l 1. Two particles I and B, of mass 2 kg and 3 kg respectively, are moving towards each other in opposite directions along the same straight line on a smooth horizontal surface.
More informationTitle: A Day in the Life of John Henry, Traffic Cop. Keywords: car accident, conservation of momentum, forces, friction
https://chico.nss.udel.edu/pbl/viewindex.jsp?id=33142400882 Problem Detail Title: A Day in the Life of John Henry, Traffic Cop Author: Barbara J. Duch 105 Pearson Hall Newark, DE 19716 bduch@physics.udel.edu
More informationF f v 1 = c100(10 3 ) m h da 1h 3600 s b =
14 11. The 2Mg car has a velocity of v 1 = 100km>h when the v 1 100 km/h driver sees an obstacle in front of the car. It takes 0.75 s for him to react and lock the brakes, causing the car to skid. If
More informationPREDICTING THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES
PREDICTING THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES MUKHERJEE S, CHAWLA A, MOHAN D, CHANDRAWAT S, AGARWAL V TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAMME INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEW
More informationPHY231 Section 1, Form B March 22, 2012
1. A car enters a horizontal, curved roadbed of radius 50 m. The coefficient of static friction between the tires and the roadbed is 0.20. What is the maximum speed with which the car can safely negotiate
More informationEFFECT OF VEHICLE DESIGN ON HEAD INJURY SEVERITY AND THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES
EFFECT OF VEHICLE DESIGN ON HEAD INJURY SEVERITY AND THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES S. Mukherjee A. Chawla D. Mohan M. Singh R. Dey Transportation Res. and Injury Prevention program Indian
More informationPHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #10. April 8, 2013
PHYSICS HOMEWORK SOLUTION #0 April 8, 203 0. Find the net torque on the wheel in the figure below about the axle through O, taking a = 6.0 cm and b = 30.0 cm. A torque that s produced by a force can be
More informationPh\sics 2210 Fall 2012  Novcmbcr 21 David Ailion
Ph\sics 2210 Fall 2012  Novcmbcr 21 David Ailion Unid: Discussion T A: Bryant Justin Will Yuan 1 Place answers in box provided for each question. Specify units for each answer. Circle correct answer(s)
More informationResearch on Safety Distance Mathematical Model of ProActive Head Restraint in Rearend Collision Avoidance System
Vol.9, No. (05), pp.347356 http://dx.doi.org/0.457/ijsia.05.9..33 Research on Safety Distance Mathematical Model of Proctive Head Restraint in Rearend Collision voidance System Xiaoqin Yin and Mingxia
More informationChapter 10 Rotational Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 10 Rotational Motion Angular Quantities Units of Chapter 10 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities Constant Angular Acceleration Torque Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia Solving Problems
More informationE/ECE/324/Rev.2/Add.116/Rev.2/Amend.2 E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2/Add.116/Rev.2/Amend.2
6 August 2013 Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for
More informationResearch on Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Driving Simulator Fang Tang a, Yanding Wei b, Xiaojun Zhou c, Zhuhui Luo d, Mingxiang Xie e, Peixin Li f
Advanced Materials Research Vols. 308310 (2011) pp 19461950 Online available since 2011/Aug/16 at www.scientific.net (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.308310.1946
More informationCharacteristics of Crash Data from Event Data Recorders in Collisions with Narrow Objects
Characteristics of Crash Data from Event Data Recorders in Collisions with Narrow Objects Ryo Oga *, Nobuaki Takubo *, Kenshiro Kato *, Takaaki Terashima * *National Research Institute of Police Science,
More informationThe dynamic equation for the angular motion of the wheel is R w F t R w F w ]/ J w
Chapter 4 Vehicle Dynamics 4.. Introduction In order to design a controller, a good representative model of the system is needed. A vehicle mathematical model, which is appropriate for both acceleration
More informationLecture 17. Last time we saw that the rotational analog of Newton s 2nd Law is
Lecture 17 Rotational Dynamics Rotational Kinetic Energy Stress and Strain and Springs Cutnell+Johnson: 9.49.6, 10.110.2 Rotational Dynamics (some more) Last time we saw that the rotational analog of
More informationACTUATOR DESIGN FOR ARC WELDING ROBOT
ACTUATOR DESIGN FOR ARC WELDING ROBOT 1 Anurag Verma, 2 M. M. Gor* 1 G.H Patel College of Engineering & Technology, V.V.Nagar388120, Gujarat, India 2 Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology, Limda391760,
More informationENGINEERING COUNCIL DYNAMICS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS D225 TUTORIAL 1 LINEAR AND ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
ENGINEERING COUNCIL DYNAMICS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS D225 TUTORIAL 1 LINEAR AND ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION This tutorial covers prerequisite material and should be skipped if you are
More informationWheeled Vehicle Design For Science Olympiad By Carey I. Fisher
Wheeled Vehicle Design For Science Olympiad By Carey I. Fisher The Wheeled Vehicle competition requires that the vehicle travel a specific distance set by the judge at the time of the contest. So the problem
More informationPhysics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics  Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam
Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics  Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry
More informationAnalysis of dynamic properties of the PRT vehicletrack system
BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TECHNICAL SCIENCES, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2015 DOI: 10.1515/bpasts20150091 Analysis of dynamic properties of the PRT vehicletrack system M. KOZŁOWSKI, W. CHOROMAŃSKI,
More information1. What data might a car leave behind at the scene of an accident?
Bellwork 21015 It takes 8,460 bolts to assemble an automobile, and one nut to scatter it all over the road. Author Unknown 1. What data might a car leave behind at the scene of an accident? 1 5 9 ACCIDENT
More informationTHEORETICAL MECHANICS
PROF. DR. ING. VASILE SZOLGA THEORETICAL MECHANICS LECTURE NOTES AND SAMPLE PROBLEMS PART ONE STATICS OF THE PARTICLE, OF THE RIGID BODY AND OF THE SYSTEMS OF BODIES KINEMATICS OF THE PARTICLE 2010 0 Contents
More informationACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION EXAMPLE A POSSIBLE MODALITY FOR ROLLOVER AFTER THE FACT STUDY
CONAT20042069 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION EXAMPLE A POSSIBLE MODALITY FOR ROLLOVER AFTER THE FACT STUDY 1 Ciolan, Gheorghe, 1 Preda, Ion *, 1 Covaciu, Dinu 1 Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania KEYWORDS
More informationOptimumT Product Description
OptimumT Product Description OptimumT is a convenient and intuitive software package that allows users to perform advanced tire data analysis, visualization, and model fitting. The model fitting procedure
More informationEstimating the Speed of a Motor Vehicle in a Collision
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Volume 58 Issue 1 Article 14 1967 Estimating the Speed of a Motor Vehicle in a Collision Conrad K. Rizer Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/jclc
More information3 Work, Power and Energy
3 Work, Power and Energy At the end of this section you should be able to: a. describe potential energy as energy due to position and derive potential energy as mgh b. describe kinetic energy as energy
More information1. SYSTEM OVERVIEW. 1) Basic Theory of ABS Function 103 489101
103 1. SYSTEM OVERVIEW When braking suddenly or braking on slippery roads, the vehicle keeps moving forward but the wheels are locking and not rotating. If these happen, the vehicle may lose stability
More informationLongitudinal and lateral dynamics
Longitudinal and lateral dynamics Lecturer dr. Arunas Tautkus Kaunas University of technology Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Terrassa 2011 1 Content of lecture Basic
More informationThe Effects of Wheelbase and Track on Vehicle Dynamics. Automotive vehicles move by delivering rotational forces from the engine to
The Effects of Wheelbase and Track on Vehicle Dynamics Automotive vehicles move by delivering rotational forces from the engine to wheels. The wheels push in the opposite direction of the motion of the
More informationVISCOSITY OF A LIQUID. To determine the viscosity of a lubricating oil. Time permitting, the temperature variation of viscosity can also be studied.
VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID August 19, 004 OBJECTIVE: EQUIPMENT: To determine the viscosity of a lubricating oil. Time permitting, the temperature variation of viscosity can also be studied. Viscosity apparatus
More informationLecture 16. Newton s Second Law for Rotation. Moment of Inertia. Angular momentum. Cutnell+Johnson: 9.4, 9.6
Lecture 16 Newton s Second Law for Rotation Moment of Inertia Angular momentum Cutnell+Johnson: 9.4, 9.6 Newton s Second Law for Rotation Newton s second law says how a net force causes an acceleration.
More informationFORENSIC COLLISION INVESTIGATION REPORT
FORENSIC COLLISION INVESTIGATION REPORT Prepared by: Martin Lowe Prepared For: Solicitors for the XXXXXXXXXX Table of Contents 1. Brief.....1 Instructing Solicitors Instructions Location of the collision
More informationRick Galdos, Forensic Engineering 1
Impact and Damage Analyses of Motor Vehicle Accidents Commonly Asked Questions P.O. Box 10635 Tampa, Florida 33679 rgaldos@tampabay.rr.com General Overview Basic Terms in accident reconstruction and injury
More informationAP Physics Circular Motion Practice Test B,B,B,A,D,D,C,B,D,B,E,E,E, 14. 6.6m/s, 0.4 N, 1.5 m, 6.3m/s, 15. 12.9 m/s, 22.9 m/s
AP Physics Circular Motion Practice Test B,B,B,A,D,D,C,B,D,B,E,E,E, 14. 6.6m/s, 0.4 N, 1.5 m, 6.3m/s, 15. 12.9 m/s, 22.9 m/s Answer the multiple choice questions (2 Points Each) on this sheet with capital
More informationDynamics of Rotational Motion
Chapter 10 Dynamics of Rotational Motion PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 5_31_2012 Goals for Chapter
More information/* 
Pr o g r a m v a r e fo r tr a fik k b e r e g n in g e r b a s e r t p å b a s is k u r v e m e to d e n n M a tr ix * x M a tr ix E s ta lp h a B e ta ; n M a tr ix * z M a tr ix ; g e n M a tr ix X
More information1 Differential Drive Kinematics
CS W4733 NOTES  Differential Drive Robots Note: these notes were compiled from Dudek and Jenkin, Computational Principles of Mobile Robotics. 1 Differential Drive Kinematics Many mobile robots use a drive
More informationTOP VIEW. FBD s TOP VIEW. Examination No. 2 PROBLEM NO. 1. Given:
RLEM N. 1 Given: Find: vehicle having a mass of 500 kg is traveling on a banked track on a path with a constant radius of R = 1000 meters. t the instant showing, the vehicle is traveling with a speed of
More informationPOLICE TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATION Identify and report on causative and/or related events in a traffic crash
1 of 7 level: 6 credit: 20 planned review date: April 2006 subfield: purpose: entry information: accreditation option: moderation option: Police This unit standard is intended for sworn or warranted police
More informationPHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013
PHY11 #8 Midterm I 3.06.013 AP Physics Newton s Laws AP Exam Multiple Choice Questions #1 #4 1. When the frictionless system shown above is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F, the tension
More informationISSN: 22773754 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 2, Issue 8, February 2013
Performance of Mot Brake Testers with Varying: Tyre Pressures, Distance between Rollers and Roughness of Rollers Carolina Senabre, Emilio Velasco, Sergio Valero Abstract This research examines the differences
More informationProblem 6.40 and 6.41 Kleppner and Kolenkow Notes by: Rishikesh Vaidya, Physics Group, BITSPilani
Problem 6.40 and 6.4 Kleppner and Kolenkow Notes by: Rishikesh Vaidya, Physics Group, BITSPilani 6.40 A wheel with fine teeth is attached to the end of a spring with constant k and unstretched length
More informationof traffic accidents from the GIDAS database until 5 seconds before the first collision. This includes parameters to describe the environment data,
STANDARDIZED PRECRASHSCENARIOS SCENARIOS IN DIGITAL FORMAT ON THE BASIS OF THE VUFO SIMULATION Dipl.Math. A. Schubert*, Dipl.Ing. (FH), M. Eng. C. Erbsmehl*, Dr.Ing. L. Hannawald* *Verkehrsunfallforschung
More informationAppendix 4C. Open Channel Theory
4C1 Appendix 4C Open Channel Theory 4C2 Appendix 4.C  Table of Contents 4.C.1 Open Channel Flow Theory 4C3 4.C.2 Concepts 4C3 4.C.2.1 Specific Energy 4C3 4.C.2.2 Velocity Distribution Coefficient
More informationExam 2 is at 7 pm tomorrow Conflict is at 5:15 pm in 151 Loomis
* By request, but I m not vouching for these since I didn t write them Exam 2 is at 7 pm tomorrow Conflict is at 5:15 pm in 151 Loomis There are extra office hours today & tomorrow Lots of practice exams
More informationProblem 1. 12ft. Find: Velocity of truck for both drag situations. Equations: Drag F Weight. For force balance analysis: Lift and Drag: Solution:
Problem 1 Given: Truck traveling down 7% grade Width 10ft m 5 tons 50,000 lb Rolling resistance on concrete 1.% weight C 0.96 without air deflector C 0.70 with air deflector V 100 7 1ft Find: Velocity
More informationChapter #7 Giancoli 6th edition Problem Solutions
Chapter #7 Giancoli 6th edition Problem Solutions ü Problem #8 QUESTION: A 9300 kg boxcar traveling at 5.0 m/s strikes a second boxcar at rest. The two stick together and move off with a speed of 6.0 m/s.
More informationLecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy. Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014
Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014 Announcements Schedule next few weeks: 9/08 Unit 3 9/10 Unit 4 9/15 Unit 5 (guest lecturer) 9/17 Unit 6 (guest lecturer) 9/22 Unit 7,
More informationLecture Presentation Chapter 7 Rotational Motion
Lecture Presentation Chapter 7 Rotational Motion Suggested Videos for Chapter 7 Prelecture Videos Describing Rotational Motion Moment of Inertia and Center of Gravity Newton s Second Law for Rotation Class
More informationAP1 Oscillations. 1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false?
1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false? (A) The displacement is directly related to the acceleration. (B) The
More informationI. INTRODUCTION THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM OF RAILWAY IN CHINA
39 THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM OF RAILWAY IN CHINA PingHUANG Zhongyr ZHANG Dr. of Eng., Associate Professor Professor Automation System Institute Automation System Institute
More informationProblem Set 1. Ans: a = 1.74 m/s 2, t = 4.80 s
Problem Set 1 1.1 A bicyclist starts from rest and after traveling along a straight path a distance of 20 m reaches a speed of 30 km/h. Determine her constant acceleration. How long does it take her to
More informationNumerical simulation of the drive performance of a locomotive on straight track and in curves Steen Muller, Rudiger Kogel, Rolf Schreiber ABB Corporate Research Center, Speyerer Str. 4, 69117 Heidelberg,
More informationTennessee State University
Tennessee State University Dept. of Physics & Mathematics PHYS 2010 CF SU 2009 Name 30% Time is 2 hours. Cheating will give you an Fgrade. Other instructions will be given in the Hall. MULTIPLE CHOICE.
More informationANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS OF DOUBLEDECK BUS ROLLOVER AT THE AVOIDANCE OF AN OBSTACLE HAVING SUDDENLY SPRUNG UP
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 19, No. 3 2012 ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS OF DOUBLEDECK BUS ROLLOVER AT THE AVOIDANCE OF AN OBSTACLE HAVING SUDDENLY SPRUNG UP Leon Prochowski Military University
More informationVELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE
VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE velocity Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second ( m s ). Velocity indicates the rate of change of the object s position ( r ); i.e., velocity tells you how
More informationCenter of Gravity. We touched on this briefly in chapter 7! x 2
Center of Gravity We touched on this briefly in chapter 7! x 1 x 2 cm m 1 m 2 This was for what is known as discrete objects. Discrete refers to the fact that the two objects separated and individual.
More informationChapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Units of Chapter 4 Force Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal
More informationSOLID MECHANICS TUTORIAL MECHANISMS KINEMATICS  VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION DIAGRAMS
SOLID MECHANICS TUTORIAL MECHANISMS KINEMATICS  VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION DIAGRAMS This work covers elements of the syllabus for the Engineering Council exams C105 Mechanical and Structural Engineering
More informationCurso20122013 Física Básica Experimental I Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía.
1. A body of mass m slides a distance d along a horizontal surface. How much work is done by gravity? A) mgd B) zero C) mgd D) One cannot tell from the given information. E) None of these is correct. 2.
More informationHow to program a Zumo Robot with Simulink
How to program a Zumo Robot with Simulink Created by Anuja Apte Last updated on 20150313 11:15:06 AM EDT Guide Contents Guide Contents Overview Hardware Software List of Software components: Simulink
More informationForm: Parental Consent for Blood Donation
A R C Wt, C 20006 Ptl Ct f B i Ifi T f t y t ll f i y tl t q y t l A R C ly. Pl ll 1800RECROSS (18007332767) v. if y v q r t t i I iv t f yr,, t, y v t t: 1. Y y t t l i ly, 2. Y y t t t l i ( k
More informationTech Tip: Steering Geometry
Designing Steering Geometry When you re designing steering kinematics, the goal is to orient the tire to the road in the optimal orientation. But, how do you know the optimal orientation? Tire data, of
More informationSome Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000)
Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Finding the formula in polar coordinates for the angular momentum of a moving
More informationGeometric Camera Parameters
Geometric Camera Parameters What assumptions have we made so far? All equations we have derived for far are written in the camera reference frames. These equations are valid only when: () all distances
More informationIdentification of Energy Distribution for Crash Deformational Processes of Road Vehicles
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 4, No., 007 Identification of Energy Distribution for Crash Deformational Processes of Road Vehicles István Harmati, Péter Várlaki Department of Chassis and Lightweight
More informationChapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Units of Chapter 4 Force Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the NormalForce
More informationSTUDY PACKAGE. Available Online : www.mathsbysuhag.com
fo/u fopkjr Hkh# tu] ugha vkjehks dke] foifr ns[k NksM+s rqjar e/;e eu dj ';kea iq#"k flag ladyi dj] lgrs foifr vusd] ^cuk^ u NksM+s /;s; dks] j?kqcj jk[ks VsdAA jfpr% ekuo /kez iz.ksrk ln~xq# Jh j.knksm+nklth
More informationHW Set II page 1 of 9 PHYSICS 1401 (1) homework solutions
HW Set II page 1 of 9 450 When a large star becomes a supernova, its core may be compressed so tightly that it becomes a neutron star, with a radius of about 20 km (about the size of the San Francisco
More informationChapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions
Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions P3.37. Prepare: We are asked to find period, speed and acceleration. Period and frequency are inverses according to Equation 3.26. To find speed we need to know the distance traveled
More informationAP Physics: Rotational Dynamics 2
Name: Assignment Due Date: March 30, 2012 AP Physics: Rotational Dynamics 2 Problem A solid cylinder with mass M, radius R, and rotational inertia 1 2 MR2 rolls without slipping down the inclined plane
More informationA Product Automatically Queuing and Positioning Technology Based on Conveyor Belt
Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae 624 The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, 2015, 9, 624629 Open Access A Product Automatically Queuing and Positioning Technology Based on Conveyor
More informationMechanics 2. Revision Notes
Mechanics 2 Revision Notes November 2012 Contents 1 Kinematics 3 Constant acceleration in a vertical plane... 3 Variable acceleration... 5 Using vectors... 6 2 Centres of mass 8 Centre of mass of n particles...
More informationPhysics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives
Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring
More informationChapter 5 Using Newton s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 5 Using Newton s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces Units of Chapter 5 Applications of Newton s Laws Involving Friction Uniform Circular Motion Kinematics Dynamics of Uniform Circular
More informationLab 8: Ballistic Pendulum
Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum Equipment: Ballistic pendulum apparatus, 2 meter ruler, 30 cm ruler, blank paper, carbon paper, masking tape, scale. Caution In this experiment a steel ball is projected horizontally
More informationBRAKE SYSTEMS 101. Energy Conversion Management. Presented by Paul S. Gritt
Energy Conversion Management Presented by Paul S. Gritt Topics To Be Presented The Basic Concepts Hydraulic layouts Component functions Brake Balance Stopping Distance and Fade Formula SAE vs. Mini Baja
More information11. Rotation Translational Motion: Rotational Motion:
11. Rotation Translational Motion: Motion of the center of mass of an object from one position to another. All the motion discussed so far belongs to this category, except uniform circular motion. Rotational
More informationThe BulletBlock Mystery
LivePhoto IVV Physics Activity 1 Name: Date: 1. Introduction The BulletBlock Mystery Suppose a vertically mounted 22 Gauge rifle fires a bullet upwards into a block of wood (shown in Fig. 1a). If the
More informationPhysics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension Conceptual Questions 1) Suppose that an object travels from one point in space to another. Make
More informationF1 Fuel Tank Surging; Model Validation
F1 Fuel Tank Surging; Model Validation Luca Bottazzi and Giorgio Rossetti Ferrari F1 team, Maranello, Italy SYNOPSIS A Formula One (F1) car can carry more than 80 kg of fuel in its tank. This has a big
More informationDesign of a Universal Robot Endeffector for Straightline Pickup Motion
Session Design of a Universal Robot Endeffector for Straightline Pickup Motion Gene Y. Liao Gregory J. Koshurba Wayne State University Abstract This paper describes a capstone design project in developing
More informationTwo Car Collision at City Intersection
Two Car Collision at City Intersection by Frank Owen, Alpha Omega Engineering, Inc. (www.aoengr.com), all rights reserved August 2012 This example is taken from the book Technische Analyse von Verkehrsunfällen
More informationChapter 9. is gradually increased, does the center of mass shift toward or away from that particle or does it remain stationary.
Chapter 9 9.2 Figure 937 shows a three particle system with masses m 1 3.0 kg, m 2 4.0 kg, and m 3 8.0 kg. The scales are set by x s 2.0 m and y s 2.0 m. What are (a) the x coordinate and (b) the y coordinate
More informationEquivalent Spring Stiffness
Module 7 : Free Undamped Vibration of Single Degree of Freedom Systems; Determination of Natural Frequency ; Equivalent Inertia and Stiffness; Energy Method; Phase Plane Representation. Lecture 13 : Equivalent
More informationPHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #8. March 24, 2013
PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #8 March 24, 2013 0.1 A particle of mass m moves with momentum of magnitude p. a) Show that the kinetic energy of the particle is: K = p2 2m (Do this on paper. Your instructor
More informationCHAPTER 15 FORCE, MASS AND ACCELERATION
CHAPTER 5 FORCE, MASS AND ACCELERATION EXERCISE 83, Page 9. A car initially at rest accelerates uniformly to a speed of 55 km/h in 4 s. Determine the accelerating force required if the mass of the car
More informationChapter 9. particle is increased.
Chapter 9 9. Figure 936 shows a three particle system. What are (a) the x coordinate and (b) the y coordinate of the center of mass of the three particle system. (c) What happens to the center of mass
More informationSlide 10.1. Basic system Models
Slide 10.1 Basic system Models Objectives: Devise Models from basic building blocks of mechanical, electrical, fluid and thermal systems Recognize analogies between mechanical, electrical, fluid and thermal
More information