Cultural Competency -Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs on HBCU College Campuses

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1 Cultural Competency -Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs on HBCU College Campuses Presented by Alyssa C. Ryan, 2011 graduate of the University of the Virgin Islands Former Student Peer Educator and USVI CSAP Fellow

2 Alyssa Ryan Contact Number ext 2607

3 Describe prevalence of ATOD on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Describe how to assess substance use and related problems Explain risk and protective factors that contribute to towards ATOD on HBCU campuses Describe how to assess a college community s readiness and resources to address these problems Define culture and how to apply cultural competence to ATOD prevention and promotion

4 "Use" of alcohol and drugs is not considered by most people to be a problem with regard to moderate use of alcohol and prescribed use of legal drugs. For example, most people recognize the wonderful medical benefits available in drug therapies. "Misuse, however, is a term used to describe the use of alcohol or drugs in a way that begins to have negative impacts on the individual or others around the individual. Any use of alcohol by minors and any use of illegal drugs by minors or adults is considered misuse. Excessive use of alcohol by adults is also considered misuse because it is associated with medical problems, impaired driving ability, relationship problems, and other negative consequences. The term "abuse" is often used to describe a higher degree of misuse whereby the person continues to use alcohol or drugs despite the presence of negative impacts. Often, these negative impacts grow in consequence and become serious problems for the individual and others around the individual. Addiction" or "dependence" is defined as the compulsive use of alcohol or other drugs despite the presence of serious negative consequences. Addiction is viewed by many as a disease state with physiological dimensions. Addiction clearly calls for treatment.

5 Researchers cite the disturbing consequences of drinking on campus each year: 1, 700 college student deaths from alcohol-related causes 600,000 unintentional injuries 700,000 assaults 100,000 cases of sexual assault and acquaintance rape Source: Kapner, D.A. (2008) Alcohol and Other Drug Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Info Facts and Resources.

6 Recent studies confirm that students at historically black colleges and universities and African American students in general drink far less and as a result suffer fewer consequences than do students at predominantly white institutions.

7 Prevalence Among Different Populations African American White Asian and Pacific Islander Latino American Indian Core Institute at Southern Illinois University Carbondale Core Institute Report

8 Prevalence Among Different Populations African American White Asian and Pacific Islander Hispanic Core Institute at Southern Illinois University Carbondale Core Institute Report

9 Prevalence Among Different Populations African American White Asian and Pacific Islander Hispanic Core Institute at Southern Illinois University Carbondale Core Institute Report

10 African American students drink less frequently and in smaller quantities than any other racial or ethnic group on campus African American students at HBCUs drink approximately the same rate as African American students at predominantly white institutions White students at HBCUs drink less than white students at non- HBCUs do Black student athletes drink less alcohol than white student athletes do, and black athletes are more likely than their white counterparts to abstain from alcohol Students at HBCUs use marijuana less than do students at predominantly white institutions Source: Kapner, D.A. (2008) Alcohol and Other Drug Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Info Facts and Resources.

11 Substance misuse and abuse Alcohol and drug addiction Serious psychological distress Suicide Mental and substance use disorders

12 Source: Swarbrick, M. (2006). A wellness approach. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 29,(4)

13 Making an Assessment and Gathering Data

14

15 A characteristic at the biological, family, community, or cultural level that precedes and is associated with a higher likelihood of problem outcomes

16 EARLY ADULTHOOD Early-onset depression and anxiety Need for extensive social support Childhood history of untreated anxiety disorders Childhood history of poor physical health Childhood history of sleeping and eating problems Poor physical health Lack of commitment to conventional adult roles Antisocial behavior Head injury Parental depression Spousal conflict Single parenthood Leaving home Family dysfunction Decrease in social support accompanying entry into a new social context Negative life events Attending college Substance-use peers Social adversity

17 A characteristic associated with a lower likelihood of problem outcomes or that reduces the negative impact of a risk factor on problem outcomes

18 EARLY ADULTHOOD Identity exploration in love, work, and world view Subjective sense of adult status Subjective sense of self-sufficiency making independent decisions, becoming financially dependent Future orientation Achievement orientation Balance of autonomy and relatedness to family Opportunities for exploration in work and school Connectedness to adults outside of family

19 Sense of community Cultural atmosphere supportive to African American students Commitment to student retention

20 The nature and extent of substance use behavior and related problems The risk and protective factors that influence the behavior The existing resources and readiness of the community [School Campus] to address the problems

21 Assessment Questions: What are the behaviors and related problems? How much are they occurring? Which populations are experiencing them the most?

22 Substance Behaviors Related Problems Alcohol Tobacco Current Use Binge Drinking in the Past 30 Days Age of Initial Use Current Use Daily Use Age of Initial Use Alcohol-Related Mortality Alcohol-Related motor Vehicle Crashes Alcohol-Related Crime Tobacco-Related Mortality Drugs Current Use Lifetime Use Age of initial use Drug-Related Mortality Drug-Related Crime Drug Abuse or Dependence

23 Problems How does it compare? What is the severity? Is it getting worse over time? Is it the largest one?

24 Resources Readiness Capacity

25 I am Latino and I know the Hispanic community on campus well. I am Latino We and have I know an the expertise Hispanic in community on evaluation. campus well. I have been working in the community on prevention for more than 5 years.

26 CORE SURVEY - The survey is used by universities and colleges to determine the extent of substance use and abuse on their campuses. (The survey is now administered by the CORE Institute at Southern Illinois University - Carbondale (SIUC)) Counseling Center or other existing school data Key Informant (one-to-one interviews) Focus Groups Pre and Post Test

27 How ready is your community or your campus to accept change? Realize that students are dealing with ATOD problems? Accept that a substance use problem needs to change? Take action to change the problem?

28 The ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures.

29 Geographic Location Religion Gender Race/Ethnicity Age Language Education Level Socioeconomic Status Customs and traditions Social Groups/Organizations Disability Sexual Identity/Orientation Political Affiliation

30 The Cultural Iceberg 10% Easy to See Customs Dress 90% Difficult to See Values Beliefs Assumptions

31 Cultural competency, at the individual and organization system involves: Respectfulness Health beliefs Practices Cultural and linguistic needs Valuing cultural differences Having an open mind Responsiveness Knowing something about the culture of the group Customizing prevention and promotion Involving people from the cultural group

32 Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care, Volume 1.

33 Cultural Destructive ness The attitudes, practices, policies, and structures are destructive to a cultural group. Cultural Incapacity The capacity to respond effectively to the needs, interests, and preferences of culturally and linguistically diverse group is lacking. Cultural Blindness The predominant philosophy is one that views and treat all people as the same. Cultural Pre- Competence There is awareness of strength and areas for growth to respond effectively to culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Cultural Competence Acceptance and respect for culture is consistently demonstrated in policies, structures, practices, and attitudes. Cultural proficiency Culture is held in high esteem and used as a foundation to guide all endeavors.

34 As a cultural competent professional, in prevention and health promotion one is able to: Assess Build Capacity Plan Implement Evaluate

35 Identify Types of Interventions Select Specific Programs, Practices and Policies Best-Fit Prevention Interventions Ensure Effectiveness

36 Campuses have been making strides in ATOD prevention, and each offers a unique perspective that can be shared with other campuses to help enhance their prevention efforts. Specific recommendations: Engage more with individual students Increase faculty involvement in nonacademic issues such as career advice and personal mentoring Provide more opportunities for community service Offer more mentoring programs Strengthen ties to the community; collaborate with local prevention coalitions and Community Based Organizations (CBOs)

37 SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence Based Programs and Practices U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse & Prevention Stop Underage Drinking Drug Free Communities Support Program Support-Program

38 CSAP was established in 1992 as one of the centers within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The SAMHSA CSAP Prevention Fellowship Program was launched in 2006 in an effort to build a workforce of substance abuse professionals. CSAP s goal is to improve the accessibility and quality of substance abuse prevention nationwide. The Prevention Fellowship Program (PFP) provides a career development and training program that maintains a superbly trained cadre of competent and knowledgeable professionals. It is the hope that each Fellow s experience with PFP will enhance their knowledge and understanding of the principles and best practices in substance abuse preventionand prepare them for certification from the International Certification and Reciprocity Consortium (IC & RC) and potential careers in the field HBCU Peer Educators in Behavioral Health Leadership Summit IC & RC is the certification board that oversees the granting of the Prevention Specialist Certification, a certification that a Fellow can test for having completed the 2-year fellowship.

39

40 Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care, Volume 1. Washington, DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center, Center for Child Health and Mental Health Policy, Georgetown University Child Development Center Kapner, D. A. (2008) Alcohol and Other Drug Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Info Fact Resources. Retrieved from Levels of Risk, Levels of Intervention. Prevention Training and Technical Assistance. Retrieved from nd-behavioral-health/levels-risk-levels-intervention/3 O Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (Eds.). (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Proceedings from SAPST Overview 12:Prevention Fellowship Program Training. National Harbor: Maryland. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Substance Use Disorders in People With Physical and Sensory Disabilities. In Brief, Volume 6, Issue 1. Swarbrick, M. (2006). A wellness approach. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 29,(4) Wolf-Branigin, M. (2007). Disability and abuse in relation to substance abuse: A descriptive analysis. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 6(3),

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