Reference R1 ~ R7. Reference

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1 Technical Guidance

2 Reerence R1 ~ R7 Steel and Non-Ferrous Metal Symbols Chart... R2 Hardness Scale Comparison Chart... R4 Standard o Tapers... R5 Finished Surace Roughness... R6 Tolerance Chart or Round Matching Parts... R7 R1 Reerence

3 Reerence Steel and Non-Ferrous Metal Symbols Chart Carbon Steels High Speed Steels Austenitic Stainless Steels JIS AISI DIN JIS AISI DIN JIS AISI DIN S1C 11 C1 SKH2 T1 SUS21 AISI 21 S15C 115 C15 SKH3 T4 SUS22 AISI 22 S2C 12 C22 SKH1 T15 SUS31 AISI 31 S25C 125 C25 SKH51 M2 S6-5-2 SUS32 AISI 32 S3C 13 C3 SKH52 M3 1 SUS32B AISI 32B S35C 135 C35 SKH53 M3 2 S6-5-3 SUS33 AISI 33 DINX1CrNiS189 S4C 14 C4 SKH54 M4 SUS33Se AISI 33Se S45C 145 C45 SKH56 M36 SUS34 AISI 34 DINX5CrNi181 S5C 149 C5 S55C 155 C55 Ni-Cr-Mo Steels SNCM SNCM SNCM415 SNCM SNCM SNCM447 Cr Steels SCr415 SCr42 SCr Cr4 SCr Cr4 SCr Cr4 SCr Cr-Mo Steels SCM415 SCM42 SCM SCM CrMo4 SCM CrMo4 Alloy Tool Steels SKS11 F2 SKS51 L6 SKS43 W2-9 1/2 SKS44 W2-8 1/2 SKD1 D3 X21Cr12 SKD11 D2 Grey Cast Iron FC1 2 GG-1 FC15 25 GG-15 FC2 3 GG-2 FC25 35 GG-25 FC3 4 GG-3 FC35 5 GG-35 Nodular Cast Iron FCD4 GGG-4 FCD45 6/4/ 8 GGG-4.3 FCD5 65/45/12 GGG-5 FCD6 8/55/6 GGG-6 FCD7 1/7/3 GGG-7 SUS34L AISI 34L DINX2CrNi1911 SUS34NI AISI 34N SUS35 AISI 35 DINX5CrNi1812 SUS38 AISI 38 SUS39S AISI 39S SUS31S AISI 31S SUS316 AISI 316 DINX5CrNiMo17122 SUS316L AISI 316L DINX2CrNiMo17132 SUS316N AISI 316N SUS317 AISI 317 SUS317L AISI 317L DINX2CrNiMo18164 SUS321 AISI 321 SUS347 AISI 347 DINX6CrNiNb181 SUS384 AISI 384 Heat Resisting Steels SUH31 SUH35 SUH36 SUH37 SUH38 SUH39 AISI 39 SUH31 AISI 31 DINCrNi252 SUH33 AISI 33 Reerence SCM Mn Steels and Mn-Cr Steels or Structural Use SMn SMn SMn SMn SMnC42 SMnC443 Cr-Mo Steels SK1 W1-13 SK2 W1-11 1/2 SK3 W1-1 C15W1 SK4 W1-9 SK5 W1-8 C8W1 SK6 W1-7 C8W1 SK7 C7W2 Ferritic Stainless Steels SUS45 AISI 45 DINX6CrAl13 SUS429 AISI 429 SUS43 AISI 43 DINX6Cr17 SUS43F AISI 43F DINX12CrMoS17 SUS434 AISI 434 Martensitic Stainless Steels SUS43 AISI 43 SUS41 AISI 41 DINX1Cr13 SUS416 AISI 416 SUS42JI AISI 42 DINX2Cr13 SUS42F AISI 42F SUS431 AISI 431 DINX2CrNi172 SUS44A AISI 44A SUS44B AISI 44B SUS44C AISI 44C Ferritic Heat Resisting Steels SUH21 DINCrAl125 SUH49 AISI 49 DINX6CrTi12 SUH446 AISI 446 Martensitic Heat Resisting Steels SUH1 SUH3 SUH4 SUH11 SUH6 R2

4 Reerence Steel and Non-Ferrous Metal Symbols Chart Classiications and Symbols o Steels Class Material Symbol Symbol's Rationale Non-Ferrous Metals Class Material Symbol Structural Steels Rolled Steels or welded structures SM "M" or "Marine" - Usually used in welded marine structures Re-rolled Steels SRB "R" or "Re-rolled" and "B" or "Bar" Rolled Steels or general structures SS "S" or "Steel" and or "Structure" Light gauge sections or general structures SSC "C" or "Cold" Steel Sheets Hot rolled mild steel sheets / plates in coil orm SPH "P" or "Plate" and "H" or "Hot" Carbon steel tubes or piping SGP "GP" or "Gas Pipe" Carbon steel tubes or boiler and heat exchangers STB "T" or "Tube" and "B" or "Boiler" Copper and Copper Alloys Copper and Copper alloys - Sheets, plates and strips Copper and Copper alloys - Welded pipes and tubes CxxxxP CxxxxPP CxxxxR CxxxxBD CxxxxBDS CxxxxBE CxxxxBF Steel Tubes Seamless steel tubes or high pressure gas cylinders STH "H" or "High Pressure" Carbon steel tubes or general structures STK "K" or "Kozo"- Japanese word meaning "structure" Carbon steel tubes or machine structural uses STKM "M" or "Machine" Alloy steel tubes or structures STKS "S" or "Special" Alloy steel tubes or pipings STPA "P" or "Piping" and "A" or "Alloy" Carbon steel tubes or pressure pipings STPG "G" or "General" Carbon steel tubes or high temperature pipings STPT "T" or " Temperatures" Carbon steel tubes or high pressure pipings SPS "S" ater "SP" is abbreviation or "Special" Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys Aluminium and Al alloys - Sheets, plates and strips AxxxxP AxxxxPC AxxxxBE Aluminium and Al alloys AxxxxBD - Rods, bars and wires AxxxxW Aluminium and Al alloys - Extruded shapes AxxxxS Aluminium and Al alloy orgings AxxxxFD AxxxxFH Stainless steel tubes or pipings SUS-TP "T" or "Tube" and "P" pr "Piping" Carbon steels or machine structural uses SxxC "C" or "Carbon" Magnesium Alloys Magnesium alloy sheets and plates MP Steel or Machine Structures Tool Steels Special Steels Stainless Steels Aluminium Chromium Molybdenum steels SACM "A" or "Al", "C" or "Cr" and "M" or "Mo" Chromium Molybdenum steels SCM "C" or "Cr" and "M" or "Mo" Chromium steels SCr "Cr" or "Chromium" Nickel Chromium steels SNC "N" or "Nickel" and "C" or "Chromium" Nickel Chromium Molybdenium steels SNCM "M" or "Molybdenium" Manganese steels or structural use Manganese Chromium steels SMn SMnC "Mn" or "Manganese" "C" or "Chromium" Carbon tool steels SK "K" or "Kogu"- Japanese word meaning "tool" Hollow drill steels SKC "C" or "Chisel" "S" or "Special" Alloy tool steel "D" or "Die" SKS SKD SKT "T" or "Tanzo"- Japanese word or "orging" High speed tool steels SKH "H" or "High speed" Free cutting suluric steels SUM "M" or "Machinability" High Carbon Chromium bearing steels SUJ "J" or "Jikuuke"- Japanese word meaning "bearing" Spring steels SUP "P" or "Spring" Stainless steels SUS "S" ater "SU" is abbreviation or "Stainless" Nickel Alloys Wrought Titanium Castings Nickel-Copper alloy sheets and plates NCuP Nickel-Copper alloy rods and bars NCuB Titanium rods and bars TB Brass castings YBsCx High strength Brass castings HBsCx Bronze castings BCx Phosphorus Bronze castings PCBx Aluminium Bronze castings AlBCx Aluminium alloy castings AC Magnesium alloy castings MC Zinc alloy die castings ZDCx Aluminium alloy die castings ADC Magnesium alloy die castings MDC Heat-resistant Steels Heat-resistant steels SUH "U" or "Special Usage" and "H" or "Heat" Heat-resistant steel bars SUHB "B" or "Bar" Heat-resistant steel sheets SUHP "P" or "Plate" Carbon steel orgings or general use SF "F" or "Forging" White metals WJ Aluminium alloy castings or bearings AJ Copper-Lead alloy castings or bearings KJ Forged Steels Carbon steel booms and billets or orgings SFB Chromium Molybdenium steel orgings SFCM "B" or "Billet" "C" or "Chromium" and "M" or "Molybdenium" Nickel Chromium Molybdenium steel orgings SFNCM "N" or "Nickel" Grey cast irons FC "F" or "Ferrous" and "C" or "Casting" Cast Irons Spherical graphite / Ductile cast irons FCD "D" or "Ductile" Blackheart malleable cast irons FCMB "M" or "Malleable" and "B" or "Black" Whiteheart malleable cast irons FCMW "W" or "White" Pearlite malleable cast irons FCMP "P" or "Pearlite" Cast Steels Carbon cast steels SC "C" or "Casting" Stainless cast steels SCS "S" or "Stainless" Heat-resistant cast steels SCH "H" or "Heat" High Manganese cast steels SCMnH "Mn" or "Manganese" and "H" or "High" Reerence R3

5 Reerence Hardness Scale Comparision Chart Reerence Brinell Hardness (HB) 3,kg R4 "A" Scale 6kg (Brale) Rockwell Hardness "B" Scale 1kg ( 1 /1" Ball) "C" Scale 15kg (Brale) "D" Scale 1kg (Brale) Traverse ickers Shore Rupture Hardness Hardness Strength 5kg (kg/mm 2 ) (11.) (19.) (18.5) Brinell Hardness (HB) 3,kg "A" Scale 6kg (Brale) Rockwell Hardness "B" Scale 1kg ( 1 /1" Ball) "C" Scale 15kg (Brale) "D" Scale 1kg (Brale) Traverse ickers Shore Rupture Hardness Hardness Strength 5kg (kg/mm 2 ) (18.) (17.5) (17.) (16.) (15.5) (14.5) (14.) (13.) (12.) (11.) (18.8) (17.5) (16.) (15.2) (13.8) (12.7) (11.5) (1.) (9.) (8.) (6.4) (5.4) (4.4) (3.3) (.9) ) Figures within the ( ) are not commonly used 2) Rockwell A, C and D scales utilises a diamond brale

6 Reerence Standard o Tapers Morse Taper ød1 a ød α (Fig 1) With Tang Type R b ød1 C ød2 r 8 18' (Fig 2) Drawing Thread Type K S r ød1,, a ød ød3 ød2 ød1 6 α t Morse Taper Number Morse Taper Number (Units in mm) Taper Taper Tang Taper* Angle D1 Shape (α ) D d d1 + l1 l2 d2 C e b R r (Estimated) (Estimated) (Max) (Max) (Max) (Max) (Max) '27" '43" '5" '16" '15" Fig '26" '36" '22" Taper Taper Thread Taper* Angle D1 Shape (α ) D d d1 + l1 l2 d2 K t d3 r (Estimated) (Estimated) (Max) (Max) (Max) (Max) (Max) '27" '43" M '5" M '16" M '15" M Fig '26" M '36" M '22" M * The ractional values are the taper standards. + Diameters (D1) and (d1) are calculated rom the values o (D) and other values o the taper. (alues are rounded up to one decimal place) Bottle Grip Taper American Standard Taper (National Taper) Fig 1 Fig 2 L t1 L t4 t5 t2 t3 t b1 6 d5 d2 d3 g A Face 7/24 Taper d4 b1 D2 D1 6 ød1 ø,,,,,,,, 7/24 Taper ød,, a b Bottle Grip Taper (Units in mm) Taper No. D1 D2 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 d1 (Standard) d2 d3 d4 L l2 l3 l4 g b1 t7 Reerence Shape BT M BT M Fig 1 BT M BT M American Standard Taper (National Taper) (Units in mm) Taper No. Nominal Diameter D d1 L l1 l2 l3 g a t b Shape /4" /2" /4" /8" Fig /4" " /4" /4" d5 l1 R5 Reerence

7 Reerence Finished Surace Roughness Types o Surace Roughness Measurements Types Symbol Method o Determination Maximum Height Ten-point Mean Roughness Calculated Roughness Ry Rz Ra This is the value (expressed in µm) measured rom the deepest valley to the highest peak o the reerence line, l, extracted rom the proile. (Disregard unusually high peaks and deep valleys as they are considered as laws.) From the proile, extract a portion to be the reerence line, l. Select the 5 highest peak and 5 deepest valleys. Measure the distance between the two lines and express it in µm. This method is to obtain a center line between the peaks and valleys within the reerence line, l. Fold along the center line to superimpose the valleys against the peaks. (Shaded portions with dashed outline on the right igure). Take the total shaded area and divided it by l in µm. Yp1 Descriptive Figure Yv1 Rp Yp2 Yv2 Ry Yp3 Yv3 Yp4 Rv Yv4 Roughness Curve Yp5 m Yv5 m Ra,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Designated values o the above types o surace roughness, standard reerence length values and the triangular symbol classiications are shown on the table on the right. Designated values or Ry (.5S).1S.2S.4S Designated values or Rz (.5Z).1Z.2Z.4Z Designated values or Ra (.13a).25a.5a.1a Standard reerence length values, l (mm).8s.8z.2a S 3.2S 6.3S 12.5S (18S) 25S (35S) 5S (7S) 1S (14S) 2S (28S) 4S (56S) 1.6Z 3.2Z 6.3Z 12.5Z (18Z) 25Z (35Z) 5Z (7Z) 1Z (14Z) 2Z (28Z) 4Z (56Z).4a.8a 1.6a.8 3.2a 6.3a a 25a (5a) (1a) Triangular Symbols Remarks: The designated values in the brackets do not apply unless otherwise stated. Reerence R6

8 Reerence Tolerance Chart or Round Matching Parts Tolerance or Shank Sizes Diameter, D(mm) Tolerance Class (µm) >D D b9 c9 d8 d9 e7 e8 e g5 g6 h5 h6 h7 h8 h Tolerance or Hole Sizes Diameter, D(mm) Tolerance Class (µm) >D D B1 C9 C1 D8 D9 D1 E7 E8 E9 F6 F7 F8 G6 G7 H6 H7 H H H Reerence R7

9 Turning Guidance T1 ~ T8 Selecting Cutting Conditions & Cutting... T2 Inluences o Cutting Edge Geometries... T3 General Guide Lines or Turning Tools... T4 Tool Lie... T5 Tool Failures and Their Counter-Measures... T6 Analysis o Chip Control on Turning... T7 Factors on Chip Control & Their Inluences... T8 T1 Turning

10 Turning Guidance Selecting Cutting Conditions & Cutting < Selection O Cutting Conditions > Cutting Conditions & Item Their Inluence Speed Feed Depth o Cut Inluencing Matters Work Eiciency, Tool Lie, Cutting Power Consumption & Surace Roughness Work Eiciency, Chip Control, Tool Lie, Cutting Power Consumption & Surace Roughness Working Eiciency, Chip Control, Cutting Power Consumption & Dimensional Accuracy Selecting Cutting Parameters Calculation o Cutting Speed, Table Feed & Cutting Time Calculating Rotating speed given the Cutting speed: N : Spindle Speed (rpm) N = 1 x : Cutting Speed (m/min) π x D D : Work Diameter (mm) π : 3.14 I extracting the Cutting Speed rom the Rotating Speed: π x D x N = The symbols are as 1 described in the above. Calculating the actual Table Feed (F) F = x N Finally, Calculating the actual Cutting Time (T) in mins. L T = F Where F is in mm/min Where L is the total cutting length Tool Materials and Cutting Speed Ratio HSS Carbide Coated Cermet Ceramic 1 3~6 5~15 5~1 1~25 N : Work Rotating speed (rpm) : Cutting speed (m/min) : Feedrate (mm/rev) d : Depth o cut (mm) D: Workpiece diameter (mm) Speed Ratio Related to Surace and Machining Conditions o The Work Turned Casting & Continuous Interuppted Surace Forging Faces Machining Machining < Cutting > Three Component Forces: Three Component Forces O Cutting Factors Aecting Cutting Factors Inluencing Cutting Factor Decrease < --Cutting --> Increase 1. Workpiece Low < -- Tensile Strength --> High 2. Cutting Area Small < -- Cutting Area --> Large 3. Cutting speed High < -- Cutting Speed --> Low 4. Rake Angle Large < -- Rake Angle --> Small (Positive) (Negative) 5. Approach Angle Small < -- Approach angle --> Large Relation Between Tensile Strength & Cutting Tensile Strength (kg/mm 2 ) 3~4 4~5 5~6 6~7 7~8 9~1 Determination O Cutting P1: Principal or Tangential Component Force P2: Feed Component Force P3: Back Component Force Determination o the Cutting P1 = Ps x q P1: Cutting (kg) Ps: Speciic Cutting (kg/mm 2 ) q: Area o the chip (mm 2 ) Cutting Ratio Cutting Area & Cutting Cutting Speed & Cutting Turning Determination O Power Requirement T2 Determination o Power Requirement W =..d.ps 6.12 x 13.η H = W.75 W : Power Requirement (kw) : Speed (m/min) : Feedrate (mm/rev) d : Depth o Cut (mm) η : Mechanical Eiciency H : Required Horsepower (HP) Approximate Ps value Normal Steel : 25~3 kg/mm2 Cast Iron : 15kg/mm2 Rake Angle & Cutting

11 Turning Guidance Inluences o Cutting Edge Geometries Edge Forms & Their Inluences Kind O Edge Forms 1. Back Rake 2. Top or Side Rake 3. Clearance Angle 4. Trail Angle 5. Approach Angle 6. Nose Radius Strength O Cutting Edge Cutting Edge Temperature Cutting Cutting Ability Tool Lie Surace Finished Chatter Chip Flow Direction Relation Between Rake Angle & Cutting Relation Between Rake Angle (α ) and Cutting Inluence O The Approach Angle : Approach Angle and Chip Thickness Chip Thickness and Speciic Cutting or Carbon Steels. *Relation To The Undeormed Chip Thickness. *Chip Thickness & Speciic Cutting. *Approach Angle & 3 Component Forces. Approach Angle and Three Component Forces Work Material: SCM44 (Hs38) Insert: TNGA22412 Conditions: = 1m/min =.45 mm/rev d = 4mm Inluence O the Nose Radius : *Nose Radius & 3 Component Forces *Nose Radius & Strength Nose Radius and Three Component Forces Work Material : SCM44 (Hs38) Insert: TNGA 224 Holder: PTGNR Conditions : = 1m/min d = 4 mm =.45 mm/rev Relation Between Nose Radius and Strength Workpiece : Grooved Material (Hs38) Conditions : =1m/min Insert : SNGA 124 ST1P d= 2 mm Holder : PSBNR =.2 mm/rev T3 Turning

12 Turning Guidance General Guide Lines or Turning Tools Surace Roughness Theoretical (Geometric) Surace Roughness Rmax = 2 8r Rmax : Surace Roughness (mm) : Feed (mm/rev) r : Nose Radius (mm) Steps To Improve Finished Suraces: 1. Enlarge the nose radius. 2. Optimise the cutting speed and eed. (To set conditions so that the built-up edge may not occur.) 3. Optimise the insert grade ariation o Surace Roughness According To The Nose Radius & Feed Actual Surace Roughness: In Case o Steels, Theoretical Roughness x 1.5~3 In Case o Cast irons, Theoretical Roughness x 3~5 Growth O The Built-Up Edge & Its Remedies Built-up edge is a state that while cutting, a portion o the workpiece piles up and adheres to the cutting edge due to work hardening. As an excessively harder degenerated substance than the base metal, the deposited material than acts as the cutting edge. Inluence o Built-up Edge Cycle o Built-up Edge 1. Deterioration o Surace Roughness And Accuracy. 2. Increase Edge Chipping Steps to Prevent Built-up Edge 1. Raise the cutting temperature by increasing the speed and eed. 2. Apply cutting luids that have a satisactory EP perormance. 3. Use coated or cermet tools. 4. Enlarge the rake angle. Dierent Edge Treatments & Their Eects Dierent Edge Treatments Inluence o the Width o Negative Land Inluence o the Honing Amount Figure Description Honing Turning Factors That Cause Chattering & Some O Its Remedies T4 r : Honing Amount θ : Angle O Negative Land l : Width O Negative Land Remedies Negative Land (Chamer Honing) Combined Honing Sharp Edge (w/o Edge Treatment) Poor Workpiece Rigidity Poor Tool Rigidity Poor Machine Rigidity Poor Cutting Conditions Poor Edge Design - Improve clamping. - Use a thicker shank. - Reduce backlash in - Select correct cutting - Reduce clearance - Use ixed steady. - Reduce the overhang. the main spindle conditions. angle. - Improve rigidity o the - Use a carbide shank Bearing - Change speed to - Reduce approach tail center. holder. - Eliminate backlash avoid the sympathetic angle. - Check that toolholder in machine slides vibration point. - Increase the end is held properly. cutting edge angle. - Reduce the nose radius. - Make the rake angle larger. - Hone the cutting edge slightly.

13 Turning Guidance Tool Lie Wear Process Curve Flank Wear Crater Wear B : Width o Flank Wear (Mean) C : Maximum Wear o Nose Radius N : Notch Wear Initial wear is very ast. It then evens out to a more gradual pattern until a limit is reached. From that limit point, the wear increases substantially. KT : Depth o Crater wear B : Width o land KM : Distance between the centre o the Crater wear and Cutting edge. Crater wear is more progressive, there is no sudden breakdown pattern. Lie Curve (-T Lines) At our speeds 1, 2, 3 and 4, the relative tool lives or a given lank wear B or crater KT are indicated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively, using log-log graph paper. Flank Wear Flank Wear Lie Curve Wearing Process Tool Lie Equation Tool Lie Equation (Taylor's Equation) T n = C : Cutting speed T : Tool Lie n & C : Constants Determined by the Work Material, Tool Material, Tool Design, etc. Alternative Tool Lie Criteria 1. When surace inish deteriorates unacceptably. 2. When a ixed amount o tool wear is reached, (see the right hand table) 3. When work piece dimension is not tolerable. 4. When power consumption reaches a limit. 5. Sparking or chip discolouration and disiguration. 6. Cutting Time or Number o components produced. Width o lank wear or general lie determination or cemented carbides. Width o Wear (mm) ~ 1.25 Applications Finish Cutting o Nonerrous Alloys, Fine and Light Cut, etc. Cutting o Special Steels and The Like. Normal Cutting o Cast Irons, Steels, etc. Rough Cutting o Common Cast Irons. Turning T5

14 Turning Guidance Tool Failures and Their Counter-Measures Characteristic O Tool Failure No. Failure Cause 1~ Flank Wear Chipping Physical Partial Fracture Crater Wear Plastic Deormation Chemical Thermal Crack Built-up Edge Due to the scratching eect o hard grains contained within the work material. Fine breakages caused by high pressure cutting, chatter and vibration, etc. Due to mechanical impact when an excessive orce is applied to the cutting edge. Due to a combination o galling and welding between the chips and the top rake. The cutting edge is deormed due to its sotening at high temperature. Thermal atigue rom the heating and cooling cycle during interrupted cutting. The deposition and adhesion o the hardened work material on the cutting edge. Failure & Countermeasures Failure Excessive Flank Wear Edge Failure Excessive Crater Wear Cutting Edge Chipping Partial Fracture O Cutting Edges Tool Material Cutting Conditions Tool Material Tool design Cutting Conditions Tool Material Tool design Cutting Conditions Tool Material Tool design Cutting Conditions Basic Counter-measures - Use a more wear-resistant grade Coated Carbide Carbide --> Cermet - Decrease Speed { - Use a crater-resistant grade. Carbide > Coated (K--> M--> P) Cermet - Enlarge the rake angle - Select the correct chip breaker - Decrease speed, reduce the depth o cut and eedrate. - Use tougher grades. I carbides: P1 -> P2 -> P3 K1 -> K1 -> K2 - I built-up edge occurs, change to a less susceptible grade eg. cermets. - Reinorce the cutting edge eg. Honing. - Reduce the rake angle. - Increase speed (I there is edge buildup). - Use tougher grades. For carbides: P1 -> P2 -> P3 K1 -> K1 -> K2 - Use the holder with a larger approach angle. - Use a holder with a larger shank size. - Reduce the depth o cut and eedrate. Recommended Insert Grade: Steel Application Example Cast Iron Finishing T11A (Cermet) BN25 (CBN) Rough AC2 AC5G (Alumina (Alumina Coated) Coated) NS26C (Ceramic) Recommended Insert Grade: Steel Cast Iron Finishing T11A (Cermet) BN25 (CBN) Rough AC2 AC5G (Alumina Machining (Alumina Coated) Coated) Use MU Type Chip Breaker Recommended Insert Grade: Steel Cast Iron Finishing T12A (Cermet) AC5G (Coated) Rough AC3 AC5G (Alumina Machining (Alumina Coated) Coated) NS26 (Ceramic) Edge Treatment : All o our inserts have been honed in advance. Recommended Insert Grade: Steel Cast Iron Rough Machining AC2 /AC3 AC5G (Coated) Insert : Use UX Type Breaker Holder : Use Lever-lock Type NS26C (Ceramic) Built-up Edge Tool Material Cutting Conditions - Change to a grade which is more adhesion resistant. - Increase the cutting speed and eed. - Use cutting luids. Recommended Insert Grades : Cermets Turning Plastic Deormation Tool Material Cutting Conditions - Change to high thermal resistant grades. - Reduce the cutting speed and eed. Recommended Insert Grades : AC2 or AC3 T6

15 Turning Guidance Analysis o Chip Control on Turning Classiication O Chip Formation & Their Inluences Shape Categories or Chips Depth o Cut Excess Slight Curled Length A B C D E No Curling Over 5 mm Up to and including 5 mm 1 to 5 Turns Below 1 Turn Hal Turn Inluence O Chip Shapes Inluence Chip Shape Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Tool lie Wear Chipping O X O X O O O O O X Quality Finished O O O O X Surace O O O O X O O O O X Machining X O O O O Transer Part Chips X X O O O Power Consumption Cutting Saety O X O O O O O O X X Overall Evaluation X O Excellent Excellent X O:Superior X:Inerior Remarks Continuous Random Shape Continuous Regular Shape Good Good Excessively Broken Chip Good chip control : Types C and D Unsatisactory chip control: - Type A : Twines around the tool and work material, causes the machine to stop, quality impairment on the machined surace or problems in saety. Type B : Causes perormance reduction o the chip's automatic transer system or even edge chipping. Type E : Causes such troubles as spray o chips, unsatisactory inished surace due to chattering, chipping o the cutting edges or increase in cutting resistance and heat generation. Factors To Determine Chip Formation (a) I Outlet Angle η = (b) I Outlet Angle η = 15 - Factors: Outlet Angle and Cutting Direction - Chip Forms According to The Combination o Factors Outlet Angle Cutting Direction I n = I n = / Upward Only Sideways Only Upward + Sideways Cylindrical Form Washer-Like Form Conical Form Spiral Form Types O Chip Breaking Figure o Chip Breaking Type Meanings Formation O Chips Flow Type Shear Type Tear Type Crack Type Work Obstructive Type Scroll Type Flank Obstructive Type Side Curl Type - Cause by the eect o the upward curl only, i the rake is too small. - Chip broken because it struck against the work end ace. - Caused by the upward curling orce when the rake angle is large. - Rolls in without breaking ater striking against the work end ace. - Removed spirally by the mixing o upward and sideways curls. - Strikes against the lank and breaks. - Occurs i the sideways curling actor is superior. - Strikes against the lank o the tool and breaks. Inluence Examples Condition Form Continuous Chip and satisactory surace inish Normal Cutting or Steels, Light Alloys, and Alloyed Cast Irons aa chip is Chip with the sliced -o at appearance o the shear angle being torn o. The workpiece surace is damaged. Low speed cutting or Steels and Stainless Steels Fine Cutting or Steels and Cast Irons at Excessively Low Speed The swar cracks beore reaching cutting edge,which then separates it rom parent work piece body. Cutting or General Purpose Cast Irons, Rocks, and Carbonous Materials Large <-- Work Deormation --> Small Large < Rake Angle > Small Slight < Depth o cut > Excess High <----- Cutting Speed -----> Low Turning T7

16 Turning Guidance Factors on Chip Control & Their Inluences Inluence On The Cutting Speed & Feed - The eective range o the chip breaker is reduced with the cutting speed being increased. Workpiece : S45C (Hs38) Insert : SNMG1248N-UX Holder : PSBNR At high speeds and small eedrates, lengthened chips will result. Cutting Conditions: d = 3 mm - At high speeds and large eedrates, packed chips will result. Inluence O The Feed & Cutting Depth - With small depths and small eeds, longer chips will be ormed. - With deeper depths and larger eeds, short chips will result. Workpiece : S45C (Hs38) Insert : SNMG1248N-UX Holder : PSBNR Cutting Conditions: = 15 m/min Inluence O The Nose Radius - Chips become unsusceptible to breakage when the nose radius is larger and the cutting depth is less. - Chips become thinner as the nose radius gets larger but their control is poor. Workpiece : S45C (Hs38) Insert : CNMG124 N-UX Holder : PCLNR Cutting Conditions: = 12 m/min =.3 mm/rev Inluence O The Side Cutting Edge Angle - I the side cutting edge angle becomes larger, the outlet angle and chips become larger and thinner respectively which makes the diicult to control. Workpiece : S45C (Hs38) Insert : SNMG1248N-UX Holder: PSBNR (Side Cutting edge angle 15 ) PSSNR (Side Cutting edge angle 45 ) Cutting Conditions: = 15 m/min d = 3 mm Inluence On The Rake Angle - Chips become thicker when the rake angle gets smaller but they are easier to control. For Small Top Rake Angle (α1) - The shear angle is small (φ1) - The chip is thick (t1) For Large Top Rake Angle (α2) - The shear angle is large (φ2) - The chip is thin (t2) Turning T8

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