# Citation analysis as a practical tool for managers and entrepreneurs: selected scientometric concepts relevant for business model improvement

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7 one of whom (publication list B) already had three well-cited papers. They have the same h- index value of 5, but it is clear that the second researcher deserves recognition for her better output. The g-index has the value of 12, taking into account this fact, compared to the first researcher s g-index of 5. We notice here one somewhat counterintuitive feature of the g- index: in some situations its value may be greater than the number of publications that the analyzed author had! Table 1 Comparisons of academic quality indexes for two fictitious publication lists. Grey cells indicate the h-core, i.e. papers whose citations count towards the h-index. Publication list A Publication list B publication rank r r 2 number of citations per paper cumulative number of citations indexes number cumulative of citations number per of paper citations indexes h = 5 g = h = g = 12 A = 6.2 R = 5.6 A = 26.8 R = 11.6 In Table 1 I also present values of two additional measures of academic quality: the A-index (which is just the arithmetic average of citation counts received by the publications in the h- core) and the R-index which is meant to capture the best qualities of both h- and A-indexes. The R-index is calculated as the square root of the product of A-index and h-index, i.e. it is 7

8 the geometric mean of the two indexes 36. However, one should note that there is no agreement among bibliometricians as to which index is the best, i.e. the most meaningful measure of academic excellence 37. Measures of influence of journals, or what journals to read Both researchers and people outside of academic circles (e.g., managers) need some easy to understand measures of quality of academic journals. For a manager who is not trained technically but, for some reason, supervises a team of R&D workers, being able to assess the quality of knowledge sources used by them would be essential. One can do it based on some established measure of journal influence, since it is easy to see if the team is referring to good quality journals in their everyday work. Impact factor (IF), a measure used by Web of Knowledge database and available through Journal Citation Reports, can be computed for a journal for the year, say, 2012, by obtaining two numbers: total number of papers published in that journal in 2010 and 2011, and total number of citations received by these papers in Impact factor for 2012 is the ratio of the second number divided by the first. Currently, Journal Citation Reports provide also IFs based on 5-year publication period. Journal quality may also be assessed through PageRank algorithm which takes into account the quality of journals from which citations came: citing articles weigh more if they were themselves published in better cited journals. One could argue that while IF is a measure of popularity, weighing introduces the notion of prestige in journal assessment 38. A measure SJR used by SCImago Journal & Country Rank portal (based on Elsevier s Scopus database) uses the citation time window of three years (rather than two or five in IF) and the system of weighing citations based on the PageRank algorithm 39. SCImago portal is more easily accessible to users from outside the academic world (such as managers or business people), but does not provide information about individual research 36 B. H. Jin, L. M. Liang, R. Rousseau, L. Egghe, The R- and AR-indices: complementing the h-index, Chinese Science Bulletin 2007, 52, p G. Abramo, C. A. D'Angelo, F. Viel, Assessing the accuracy of the h- and g-indexes for measuring researchers' productivity, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2013, 64, p P. Ball, Prestige is factored into journal ratings, Nature 2006, 439, p SCImago 2007, SJR SCImago Journal & Country Rank, [accessed June 27, 2013] 8

9 papers and their citations. It is excellent for general orientation in the quality of journals or of geographic regions. Knowledge about journals, down to the level of subscription costs, may be obtained from the website As with citations to individual papers, disciplines vary widely in their journals measures of influence. For example, median value of SJR of journals in the field of classics (arts and humanities) is 0.1 (while top 10 journals SJR scores range from down to 0.140), in philosophy , in ocean engineering , in metals and alloys In the area of biotechnology median value of SJR is about 0.48, and in genetics about 0.82 (with scores for top 10 journals SJR ranging from down to 6.546). Very specialized journals, by definition, have a limited potential to generate high citation interest (when the population of researchers is small), and consequently have lower measures of influence than journals of broader scope. Assessing the speed of change in a field From the business point of view, one could also be interested in the speed of change occurring in a given field or even an emergence of a new R&D frontier. This information is captured in the Journal Citation Reports 2012 by the immediacy index which reflects the degree to which a given journal is topical or urgently cited. It is computed by dividing the number of citations received in a given year by the articles in a journal by the number of articles published in this journal in the same year. Some rapidly developing fields as biotechnology will be characterized by higher immediacy index than philosophy. For example, among 159 journals in biotechnology and applied microbiology, median value of this index was about 0.3, but for the most immediately cited three journals in this category the values were 8.7, 7.1 and 3.4. Similar data for history and philosophy of science are as follows: median value for 41 journals was 0.12, and top three journals had values of 4.5, 1.0, and 0.6. Another, more refined characteristic is the speed with which knowledge in a given journal becomes obsolete. How well do the papers published there withstand the test of time? Do they become irrelevant very quickly? Journal s cited half-life is the median age of the articles from that journal that were cited in a given year. For example, if a journal's half-life in 2012 was 10 years, it means that among all the citations received by that journal in 2012, 50% of them were referring to papers published in that journal during the period ; the other half of the citations are to papers published there before the year Journals in disciplines 9

11 between disciplines within each country will be the basis for conclusions about the state of business and management research in Poland. Why Poland versus Spain? Spain can be used as a demanding benchmark for international comparisons with Poland: there are several important similarities, but the comparisons may lead to conservative conclusions. It is a country of similar population size (of 46.7 million vs Poland s 38.5 million, i.e. 1.2 times larger), but with substantially (1.5 times) higher per capita GDP (PPP). According to the Eurostat data for 2011, the population size of researchers in the highereducation sector (expressed in full-time equivalents, FTE) was 1.8 times larger in Spain ( FTEs) than in Poland ( FTEs). More specifically, in natural sciences, there were 2.15 times more active researchers in Spain than in Poland ( FTEs versus FTEs, respectively) and in social sciences 2.06 times more in Spain than in Poland ( versus 9 685; Eurostat data for 2011, for higher education sector only; Total R&D personnel and researchers by sectors of performance, sex and fields of science). Spain occupies 21 st position, and Poland 29 th position in the ranking built with respect to the number of professional researchers engaged in R&D per million people 42. This index is derived from World Development Indicators for the years 2000 to Importantly, however, the argument presented below is not affected by the difference in absolute population size, since it is based on size-independent measures of academic quality. In addition, Spain and Poland occupy 28 th and 29 th positions, respectively, in the ranking of Talent Index which measures both human capital and size of the, so called, creative class 43, i.e. a fraction of a country s labor force that is engaged in relatively sophisticated problem solving in everyday work 44. Finally, Spain s English Proficiency Index for 2012, a measure of the average level of English skills among adults, was (moderate proficiency) and was lower than Poland s EPI of (high proficiency; source: Wikipedia). This removes one important objection to any attempts at criticizing the performance of Polish academic authors. 42 Creativity and Prosperity: The Global Creativity Index, Martin Prosperity Institute, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Klasa Kreatywna w Polsce. Technologia, Talent i Tolerancja jako Źródła Rozwoju Regionalnego, ed. K. Klincewicz, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Zarządzania Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa GCI Report, 2011, op. cit. 11

14 production in the area of business and management) does indeed reflect lower academic quality of such papers. How governmental incentives become counterproductive One could ask: why is the academic production in business and management in Poland of poor quality? Governmental institutions, such as the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSW), National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR) and National Science Centre (NCN) use various rules and incentives which create an environment affecting professional behavior in the world of R&D. Decisions of what and where to publish, and in what language, depend on cost-benefit analyses carried out in that environment, by academic researchers. MNiSW assigns points for academic publications, subsequently used by the Ministry in parametric evaluation of academic institutions. In 2012, an English-language chapter published in a monograph volume, yielded 7 points. In contrast, a Polish-language chapter brought only 4 points. In 2013, the rules were changed and English-language chapters yielded only 5 points, i.e. only 1.25 times more than chapters written in Polish. When the Ministry changed the structure of incentives, the results became immediately noticeable, since the added effort (cost) of preparing English text has become even more acutely undercompensated by the offered parametric points. For example, two volumes following the annual 2012 conference of the Polish Society for Production Management (PTZP) comprised 85 Polish-language papers and 52 (or 38% of all 137 papers) English-language papers. In 2013, there were only 24 English-language papers that constituted only 17% of all 141 papers in the post-conference volumes. This dramatic and statistically significant (comparison of two proportions, Z = 3.915, p < ) more than 2- fold drop in the English-language academic production shows that authors respond in their publishing decisions by optimizing effort with respect to the expected payoffs (in this case: points for parametric assessment). The previous system did not provide sufficient incentives for the authors to publish in English (since there were too few English-language papers, 38%); the current system generates results that are even further (17%) from the minimum goal of 50%. I estimate that at least 8 points given to an English-language paper versus 4 points for a Polish-language paper would be necessary for the frequencies of the Polish- and Englishlanguage papers to be equalized. 14

15 The rules established by the NCN for the preparation of grant proposals in social sciences (which include areas of organization and management) require them to be written in Polish, only with a summary in English. This rule removes the possibility for the proposals being reviewed by international referees thus creating a cost of lost opportunity to obtain valuable feedback from external experts. Both institutions, MNiSW and NCN have inadvertently created a system which pushes Polish social sciences into provincialism. Conclusions Are then Polish entrepreneurs doomed to rely on the consulting power of the local experts, who cannot document superior academic credentials but whose only reason for priority is that they are cheaper to hire and ensure easier communication in Polish with their local customers? Current academic system indeed gives them the priority and is set up with rules that preserve this priority 46. However, once (if ever ) we open the system to competition from foreign experts, verified through scientometrics, the overall quality of academic research and of innovation in Poland will increase. I believe that industry managers and entrepreneurs, by creating a sufficiently high expectations for experts in the consulting market, may have an important role to play in this process. Acknowledgements At different stages of writing this paper I was supported by the project The culture of innovation within the Kreator innowacyjności program (funded in part by the Polish National Center for Research and Development, NCBiR) and by the project number Reinvent: Transforming SMEs in creative sectors through business model innovation, funded by the Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways Programme (IAPP). References G. Abramo, C. A. D'Angelo, F. Viel, A robust benchmark for the h- and g-indexes, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2010, 61, p M. Jasieński, Rozpędzić uczelniane stadka, Rzeczpospolita 27 November 2008, p. A

16 G. Abramo, C. A. D'Angelo, F. Viel, Assessing the accuracy of the h- and g-indexes for measuring researchers' productivity, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2013, 64, p H.A. Abt, A publication index that is independent of age, Scientometrics 2012, 91, p P. Ball, Prestige is factored into journal ratings, Nature 2006, 439, p V. Bush, As we may think, Atlantic Monthly 1945, 176, p R. Costas, M. Bordons, Is g-index better than h-index? An exploratory study at the individual level, Scientometrics 2008, 77, p Creativity and Prosperity: The Global Creativity Index, Martin Prosperity Institute, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario B. Cronin, L. Meho, Using the h-index to rank influential information scientists, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2006, 57, p T.H. Davenport, D.J. Patil, Data scientist: the sexiest job of the 21st century, Harvard Business Review October 2012, 90, p J. Dyer, H. Gregersen, C.M. Christensen, Innovator's DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators, Harvard Business Review Press, Boston L. Egghe, Theory and practise of the g-index, Scientometrics 2006, 69, p L. Egghe, The Hirsch index and related impact measures, Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 2010, 44, p E. Garfield, Citation indexing for studying science, Nature 1970, 227, p E. Garfield, Bradford s Law and related statistical patterns, Essays of an Information Scientist , 4, p M. Golińska-Pieszyńska, Polityka Wiedzy a Współczesne Procesy Innowacyjne, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Warszawa J. E. Hirsch, An index to quantify an individual's scientic research output, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2005, 102, p A.B. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg, Patents, Citations & Innovations. A window on the Knowledge Economy, MIT Press, Cambridge M. Jasieński, Demon Garfielda, czyli o roli analizy cytacji w rozwoju nauki (głównie ekologii) w Polsce, Wiadomości Ekologiczne 1991, 37, p M. Jasieński, It s incredible how often we re surprised by findings, Nature 2006, 440, p

17 M. Jasieński, Rozpędzić uczelniane stadka, Rzeczpospolita 27 November 2008, p. A M. Jasieński, Garfield's Demon and "surprising" or "unexpected" results in science, Scientometrics 2009, 78, p M. Jasieński, Edukacja menedżerów w Polsce: więcej heurystyki i jakości, in: Edukacja Ekonomiczna Wobec Przemian Otoczenia Społeczno-gospodarczego, eds. J. Dietl, Z. Sapijaszka, Fundacja Edukacyjna Przedsiębiorczości, Łódź 2012, pp M. Jasieński, Innovaria - It s time for academics to replace garage-based inventors, Warsaw Business Journal Observer, 2014, April, p. 16. M. Jasieński, M. Rzeźnik M, Innovatics a new toolbox of skills for innovative production managers, in: Innovations in Management and Production Engineering, ed. R. Knosala, Oficyna Wydawnicza Polskiego Towarzystwa Zarządzania Produkcją, Opole 2012, pp M. Jasieński, M. Rzeźnik, M. Candi, Understanding and innovating business models: some basic methodological issues, in: Innovations in Management and Production Engineering, ed. R. Knosala, Oficyna Wydawnicza Polskiego Towarzystwa Zarządzania Produkcją, Opole 2013, pp B. H. Jin, L. M. Liang, R. Rousseau, L. Egghe, The R- and AR-indices: complementing the h- index, Chinese Science Bulletin 2007, 52, p M.W. Johnson, C.M. Christensen, H. Kagermann, Reinventing your business model, Harvard Business Review, December 2008, 86, p K. Klincewicz, Polska Innowacyjność. Analiza Bibliometryczna, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Zarządzania Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa Klasa Kreatywna w Polsce. Technologia, Talent i Tolerancja jako Źródła Rozwoju Regionalnego, ed. K. Klincewicz, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Zarządzania Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa K. Klincewicz, M. Żemigała, M. Mijal, Bibliometria w Zarządzaniu Technologiami i Badaniami Naukowymi, Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego, Warszawa S. Kwiatkowski, Przedsiębiorczość Intelektualna, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa E. Lillquist, S. Green, The discipline dependence of citation statistics, Scientometrics 2010, 84, p A. Łomnicki, Impact factors reward and promote excellence, Nature 2003, 424, p I. Marszakowa-Szajkiewicz, Badania Ilościowe Nauki: Podejście Bibliometryczne i Webometryczne, UAM, Poznań

18 A. McAfee, E. Brynjolfsson, Big Data: the management revolution, Harvard Business Review October 2012, 90, p L.I. Meho, Y. Rogers, Citation counting, citation ranking, and h-index of human-computer interaction researchers: a comparison of Scopus and Web of Science, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2008, 59, p Z. Osiński, Bibliometria metodą analizy i oceny dorobku naukowego historyków najnowszych dziejów Polski, in: Kultura, Historia, Książka: Zbiór Studiów, eds. A. Dymmel, B. Rejakowa, Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin, 2013, pp K. Pawłowski, Społeczeństwo Wiedzy, Szansa dla Polski, Wydawnictwo Znak, Kraków L. Pratelli, A. Baccini, L. Barabesi, M. Marcheselli, Statistical analysis of the Hirsch index, Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 2012, 39, p Science, Technology and Innovation in Europe, 2013 edition. Eurostat Pocketbooks. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013, ISSN X. SCImago 2007, SJR SCImago Journal & Country Rank, [accessed June 27, 2013] A. Ujwary-Gil, Kapitał Intelektualny a Wartość Rynkowa Przedsiębiorstwa, Wydawnictwo C.H. Beck, Warszawa C. Zott, R. Amit, Business model design and the performance of entrepreneurial firms, Organization Science 2007, 18, pp C. Zott, R. Amit, L. Massa, The business model: recent developments and future research, Journal of Management 2011, 37, pp

19 Tytuł Analiza cytacji jako praktyczne narzędzie dla menedżerów i przedsiębiorców: wybrane pojęcia z naukometrii pożyteczne dla poprawy modeli biznesowych Streszczenie Przedsiębiorcy stają coraz częściej przed wyzwaniem nawiązania współpracy z badaczami, którzy są potencjalnym źródłem wiedzy eksperckiej i mogą służyć jako partnerzy biznesowi, współpracownicy lub eksperci. Ponieważ wynajęcie ekspertów może być kosztowne, istotnym jest, aby byli to specjaliści o najwyższej jakości. Niniejsza praca zawiera przegląd podstawowych narzędzi naukometrycznych (takich jak indeksy h oraz g), dzięki którym menedżer lub przedsiębiorca może w sposób ilościowy oszacować naukową jakość konkretnych osób albo instytucji. Informacja uzyskana w ten sposób jest ogólnie dostępna, łatwo zrozumiała oraz w dużym stopniu oparta na wartości merytorycznej (a nie np. aktywności administracyjnej) ekspertów, aczkolwiek należy jej używać z ostrożnością. Porównawcza ocena całych dyscyplin może być zilustrowana krytyczną analizą aktywności krajowych badaczy w dziedzinie biznesu i zarządzania, którzy publikują w markowych czasopismach mało prac i o niskiej jakości. Naukometria może również udokumentować niską jakość przyjętych standardów ministerialnych (np. przy ocenie parametrycznej), które zniechęcają autorów do publikowania prac w języku angielskim. Słowa kluczowe: analiza cytacji, bibliometria, h-index, konsulting, naukometria, przedsiębiorczość, zarządzanie 19

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