EFFECT OF CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF STORAGE SOYBEAN SEED

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1 BANGLADESH RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS JOURNAL ISSN: , Volume: 7, Issue: 4, Page: , November - December, 2012 EFFECT OF CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF STORAGE SOYBEAN SEED U.S. Monira, 1 * M. H. A. Amin 2, M. M. Aktar 3 and M.A.A. Mamun 4 U.S. Monira, M. H. A. Amin, M. M. Aktar and M.A.A. Mamun (2012). Effect of on Seed Quality of Storage Soybean Seed. Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 7(4): Retrieve from Abstract The main goal of the study was the effect of storage containers on the quality of Soybean seed. The experiment was conducted at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University. Current investigation demonstrates the moisture content, germination and seed health of soybean seed. The initial moisture content and germination percentages were kept in three types of containers such tin container, poly bag and cloth bag and stored at room temperature and relative humidity for the study period. After initial quality assessment seed were kept in different containers to observe the deterioration pattern. Among the three containers, seeds of cloth bag absorbed more moisture from surrounding atmosphere. The moisture content increased with advanced of storage period but the increasing rate was higher in the seeds of cloth bag. The initial germination percentage of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag was 91.32%, 89.15% and 88.40% respectively but after storage it was declined. When seed moisture% is increasing the rate of germination% is decreases and the deterioration rate was also highest in seeds of cloth bag. The shoot and root length of seedling was lowest at the end of storage in cloth and the lowest seedling vigor. In case of dry weight per plant of soybean seed decreases all cases but the rate of deterioration is highest in cloth bag. So, cloth bag is not safe for soybean seed storage for long time than tin container and polythene bag. Because the rate of moisture absorbance was higher in cloth bag than tin container and polythene bag. Key words: Soybean seed, seed quality and container storage. Introduction Soybean has a tremendous value in agriculture for source of high quality plant protein and vegetable oils and also capable to fix nitrogen Its contains about 40-45% protein, 20-22% oil, 20-26% carbohydrate and a high amount of Ca, P and Vitamins (BARI, 2004). Total production of soybean in Bangladesh in 1999 was 8.0 thousand tons from an area of 5.0 thousand hectare with an average yield of ton ha -1 (BARI, 2000). On an average, about 8-10% of the protein intake in Bangladesh Diet originates from animal sources (Begum, 1989), the rest should be met from plant sources by increasing the consumption of pulses. The average yield of soybean in Bangladesh is very low (1.2 tha-1).this is mainly due to *Corresponding Author s 1 Seed Technologist, Quality control department, Supreme Seed Company ltd. 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agroforestry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University 3 Lecturer, Agronomy department, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University 4 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University

2 Monira et al. use of low yield potential varieties. The yield of legume however, is very low as compared to cereals (Rachie and Roberts, 1974). Further, yield of legumes in farmers field is usually less than 1 t ha -1 against the potential yield of 2 to 4 t ha -1 (Ramakrishna et al., 2000) suggesting a large yield gap. Such yield gap of legumes indicates a great opportunity to increase the productivity of soybean at farm level. There are many factors that can narrow down the gap between potential and farm level yield. Among them, use of quality seed is the most important one (Ahmad, 2001). Seed moisture and storage temperature are two of the most important factors affecting seed longevity during storage. Barton, (1954) have shown that Storage experiments reduction in moisture content extends the life of Douglas far and Western Hemlock seeds. Harrington (1960) formulated a general rule for seed storage involving temperature and seed moisture content. Seed health has also been found to be influenced by the see quality of different crops as has been reported by Fakir et al. (1989). Storage fungi are mostly saprophytes and grow products on storage. This group of fungi has some advantage that they can grow without free water. For every 5% reduction in storage temperature of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. which are reported to be capable of growth in seeds whose moisture content are in equilibrium with relative humidity's of 70 to 90% (Christensen and Kaufmann. 1969). Soybean seeds lose viability within 3-4 months if the storage arrangement and the condition of seed are not proper. Types of container also regulate temperature, relative humidity and seed moisture contents. High temperature, relative humidity and moisture in the storage environment appear to be principle factors involved in deterioration of seed quality. Loss of germination capacity is the final manifestation of seed deterioration Maintenance of seed quality during storage period is important not only for crop production in the following year but also for the maintenance integrity of the seeds because of their constant threat and of genetic erosion. In view of the above facts, the present research work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of abiotic factors (temperature, relative humidity) and biotic factors (insect and fungi) on the seed moisture and seed germination as stored container during the storage time, nature and status of damage of stored soybean seed. Materials and method The investigation was carried out at the out reach building of BSMRAU, Salna, Gazipur during 0ctober, 2007 to December, Seeds were kept in three containers such as tin containers, poly bag and cloth bag and stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 2 months. During the storage period Seeds samples were taken every 10 days from the containers for determination of change of moisture content (Wet basis), germination percentage, presence of insect and diseases. Moisture content test Moisture content was determined by using high constant temperature oven method following International Rules for Seed Testing (Anonymous, 1999) in the Agronomy laboratory of BSMRAU. Around 5 g of seeds from each 6 containers were taken and weighed. After weighing of seeds, were poured in a small container with cover and kept in an oven maintained at a temperature of 103 o C for a period of 18 hours. The moisture content of seeds (wet basis) was determined by the following formula (Anonymous, 1999). 422

3 Effect of on Seed Quality MC (%) = _M2 M3 x 100 M2-M1 M1 = Wt. of container + cover M2 = Wt. of container + cover + Soybean seed before drying M3 = Wt. of container + cover + Soybean seed after drying Germination capacity test Germination percentage was calculated using the following formula (Krishnasamy and Seshu, 1990). Germination (%) = Seedling vigor Number of seeds germinated Number of seeds tested x 100 Germination rate (GR) was calculated from a daily count of germinated seeds until it reached a constant value, using the following formula given by Maguire (1962). GR= Number of normal seedlings Days to first count 423 Number of normal seedlings Days to final count Germination index Germination index (GI) was calculated using the following formula given by Scott et al. (1984). GI= ΣTiNi Recording of weather data S Where, Ti= number of days after sowing Ni= number of seeds germinated on day S= total number of seeds placed in the petrel-dish For recording weather data, Reading of dry bulb and weight bulb temperature and relative humidity of inside the room was recorded in every day from the beginning of the observation to 45 days after storage. For the observation of biotic factor that influence seed quality, 50 g of seeds were taken and observed the numbers and kind of insects or pathogen were present. Results and discussion Seed moisture Higher moisture in seeds enhances seed deterioration, which ultimately reduces the planting value of seeds in the field. When legumes seed attained physiological maturity its moisture content ranges from 40 to 50 percent (Delouche, 1980). The initial moisture content of different containers seeds was similar (around 12%) but it was increased with increasing storage time. The increasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag (Table 1). As seed is highly hygroscopic living material; it absorbs moisture from air if it is stored in an environment where relative humidity is higher than seed moisture content (Copeland, 1976). The relative humidity was near 70% or above through the storage period. For this reason, seeds absorbed moisture from the ambient air and tended to equilibrium with relative humidity. The rate of absorbance was higher

4 Monira et al. in cloth bag because of cloth bag is not air tight container but tin and polythene bag are moisture proof so, increasing rate was lower in air tight container. Table1. Moisture content of Soybean seeds stored in room condition during the testing period %Moisture 10 th day 20 th day 40 th day Tin container 13.3a 13.5b 13.8b Poly bag 13.1a 13.7b 14.0b Cloth bag 12.2b 14.4a 15.2a CV% Germination capacity Germination rate of soybean seeds varied widely due to different moisture content of different containers. It was observed that germination rate was almost similar at initial stage but it decreased with increase of storage period. After storage the germination rate was better in seeds of tin (87.34%) and polythene bag (84.73%) compared to that of cloth bag (68.51%) (Table 2). The seeds of nonair tight container (cloth bag) absorbed moisture from the surrounding atmosphere. By increasing moisture content of seeds respiratory activity and another physiological activities increased and stored food also decreased. Rahman and Rahman (1997) reported that the highest germination and lowest prevalence of fungi was recorded in the seeds stored in tin followed by polythene bag and cloth bag with polythene. A positive correlation between increase in population of storage fungi and loss in germination was obtained. Table 2. Germination percentage of soybean seeds during the testing period Container %Germination 10 th day 20 th day 30 th day 40 th day Tin container 91.32a 90.22a 89.13a 87.34a Poly bag 89.15b 88.41ab 87.22a 84.73b Cloth bag 88.40b 85.53b 76.42b 68.51c CV% Abnormal Seedling The initial abnormal seedling (Table 3) of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag were 5.32, 5.45 and 6.63 percent but it was increased with increasing storage time. At the end the abnormal seedling of soybean seed were increased to7.54, 8.43 and percent. The increasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag. Because it was due to high moisture and fungal activities (Mali et al., 1983) Table 3. Abnormal seedling percentage of Soybean during testing period %Abnormal Seedling 10 th day 20 th day 30 th day 40 th day Tin container 5.32b 6.43b 7.65b 7.54c Poly bag 5.45b 6.12b 8.23b 8.43b Cloth bag 6.63a 8.13a 11.69a 16.63a CV% Dead seed The initial dead seeds (Table 4) in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag were 3.56, 5.40 and 4.97 percent but it was increased with increasing storage time. At the end of 45 days the dead seeds of soybean seed were increased to 424

5 Effect of on Seed Quality 5.07, 6.84 and 14.86%. The increasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag. Because it was due to high moisture and fungal activities Table 4. Dead seed percentage of Soybean during testing period % Dead seed 10 th day 20 th day 30 th day 40 th day Tin container 3.56c 3.35c 3.22c 5.07b Polybag 5.40b 5.47b 4.55b 6.84b Cloth bag 4.97a 6.34a 11.39a 14.86a CV% Seedling Vigour Test Seedling growth Seed quality of Soybean evaluated by seedling characters, i.e. length and weight of seedling. Seedling characters like shoot length, root length varied over storage containers and storage period (Table 5). The decreasing rate was highest in cloth bag s seeds. It might be due to faster rate of moisture increase and high respiratory activity resultant to shorten the storage food materials Table 5. Seedlings root length and shoot length of Soybean seeds stored in different container at different storage periods Root length (cm) 20 Initial th 30 th 40 th day day day Initial Shoot length (cm) 20 th 30 th day day 40 th day Tin container 9.6a 8.82a 7.54a 12.25a 9.25a 8.77a Poly bag a 8.05ab 6.43b ab 9.40a 8.25a Cloth bag 8.12b 7.00b 5.72c 10.03b 8.15b 6.35b CV% Germination indices Seed germination test provides an indication about seedling vigor as well as performance of seed in the field. In most cases, performance relates to the ability of seeds to germinate and produce a seedling that will emerge from the soil and develop into a healthy vigorous plant. Germination indices of soybean seeds varied widely due to different moisture content of different containers. It was observed that, germination rate were better in seeds of tin and poly bag compared to that of soybean cloth bag If we consider the weather condition during the whole storage period, it is clear that above 70% relative humidity prevailed during the storage period. So that initially moisture content of the seeds of non-air tight container (soybean cloth bag) was low and overtime it increased. Possibly, the seeds of soybean bag absorbed moisture from the surrounding atmosphere. Table 6. Germination index of soybean seeds stored in different Observation Initial NS 20 th day 30 th day 40 th day Tin 3.10a 2.98a 2.82a Poly ab 2.86a 2.78a Cloth bag 2.62b 2.47b 2.20b CV% Seedling dry weight Seedling dry weight of Soybean seed was obtained for seed of three containers (tin container, poly bag and cloth bag) which indicate that dry weight 425

6 Monira et al. of cloth bag s seedling was lower than the other container s seed. Therefore it can concluded that vigority of cloth bag s seed will be decreased over time of storage due moisture more absorption. Table 7. Dry weight per plant of soybean seedling of different container at storage period 426 Storage Container Dry Weight (mg) /plant at different storage period 20 th day 30 th day 40 th day Tin container 11.84a 11.16a a Poly bag 10.56ab 10.14a 9.27 b Cloth bag 9.59b 8.11b 6.12 c CV% Effect of Biotic Factors In general prevalence of fungi were found higher in the seeds of cloth bag and tin container than the seed of poly bag. Number of dead seed (Table 4) indicated the presence of fungi but these were not identified by pathological test. No insects observed during the storage period in all the containers. It might be due to the average temperature and moisture content was not favorable for insects. Conclusion The effect of storage containers environment at different storage period on the quality of Soybean seed. The initial moisture content of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag were 13.3%, 13.1% and 12.2% but it was increased with increasing storage time. The increasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag. The initial germination percentage of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag seeds were 91.32%, 89.15% and 88.40% but after storage it was declined. The decline rate is higher in seeds of cloth bag. The initial abnormal seedling of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag seeds were 5.32%, 5.45% and 6.63% but it was increased with increasing storage time. The increasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag. The initial dead seed of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag seeds were 3.56%, 5.40% 4.97% but it was increased with increasing storage time. The increasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag. The initial root and shoot length of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag were cm & 13.3 cm, cm & cm and 8.24 cm & cm but it was decreased with increasing storage time. The decreasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag. The initial root and shoot dry matter (DM) of seeds in tin container, polythene bag and cloth bag were mg, 10.56mg, and 9.59mg but it was decreased with increasing storage time. The decreasing rate was higher in seeds of cloth bag.germination index is lower in cloth bag. During setting of experiment on germination, several fungus like Fusarium, Alternaria,, Colletotrichum, and Rhizopus were found Higher no. of fungus was observed in seeds of cloth bag. From the above discussion, we may conclude that cloth bag is not safe for soybean seed storage for long time than tin container and polythene bag. Because the rate of moisture absorbance was higher in cloth bag than tin container and polythene bag. References Ahmad, Ahmad, S Environmental effects on seed characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). J. Agron. Crop Sci. 187:

7 Effect of on Seed Quality Anonymous, International Rules for SeedP Testing. International Seed Testing Association. Seed Sci. and Technol., 4: BARI (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute) Krishi Projukti Hatboi. Bangladesh Agril. Res. Inst., Joydebpur, Gazipur. p BARI (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute) Krishi Projukti Hatboi. Bangladesh Agril. Res. Inst., Joydebpur, Gazipur. p Barton, L.Y Relation of certain air temperatures and humidities to viability of seeds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst.pp Begum, A., Debnata, S. and Seal, D.R studies on the effect of food, temperature and humidity on fecundity and development of callosobruchus analis fabricius. Bangladesh J. of Zool. Vol. 12 (2):71-78 Christensen; C. M. and Kanfmann, H.H Grain storage the Rate of Fungi in Quality loss. Univ. of Minnesota Press, minncapolis.delouche, J.C Environmental effects on seed development and seed quality. Hort. Sci. 15: Fakir, G.A Seed health test in seed quality control and seed certification. Department of Plant Pathology, Seed Path. Lab. Pub. No. 4. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. pp Harrington, J.F Drying, Storing and packing seed to maintain germination and vigor. Seed drying and storage. Seed Tech. Lab.State College, Mississippi. 13: Krishnasamy, V. and D.V. Seshu Germination after accelerated ageing and associated characters in rice varieties. Seed Sci. Tech. 18:147 Mali J. B. Joi. M. B. and Shindh, P. A Fungi associated with Chickpea seeds. J. Mah. Agril. Universities 8: Rachie, K.O. and L.W. Roberts Grain legume of the lowland tropics. Advances in Agronomy. 26: Rahman, M. M. K. and G. M. M. Rahman Effect of container and length of storage on germination and seed-borne associated with jute seed. Bangladesh J. Plant Path. 13(1-2): Ramakrishna, A., C.L.L. Gowda and Johansen Management factors affecting legumes production in the Indo- Gangetic plain. In: Legumes in rice and wheat cropping systems of the Indo- Gangetic plain constrains and opportunities. Pp (eds. C. Johansen, J.M. Duxbury, S.M.Virmani, c.l.l. Gowda, S. Pande and P. K. Joshin) ICRISAT, Patancheru, Andrapradesh, India. 427

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