PS Influence of different storage conditions on soybean grain quality

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PS1-3 6207 Influence of different storage conditions on soybean grain quality"

Transcription

1 9 th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection PS Influence of different storage conditions on soybean grain quality E.R. de Alencar, L.R.D A. Faroni, A.F. de Lacerda Filho, L.G. Ferreira, M.R. Meneghitti 1 Abstract The main qualitative changes on soybean grains during storage were assessed in the present work. The soybean grains were harvested with moisture content around 18 % and dried until 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8 % moisture content. The grains were subsequently stored at the following conditions of temperature and relative humidity for 11.2 % m.c.: 20 ºC and 61.7 %; 30 ºC and 67.9 %; 40 ºC and 69.4 %; for 12.8 % m.c.: 20 ºC and 73.7 %, 30 ºC and 76.7 % and 40 ºC and 80.8 %; and for grains with 14.8 % m.c.: 20 ºC and 82.7 %, 30 ºC and 83.9 % and 40 ºC and 85.3 %. Sampling was carried out every 45 days until 180 days of storage. The following analyses were carried out: moisture content, germination, electrical conductivity and grain classification. The soybean grains generally deteriorated with storage and deterioration was particularly strong for grains stored with initial moisture contents of 12.8 and 14.8 % at 40 o C. The grains stored with initial moisture contents of 14.8 % at 30 and 40 o C were classified as out of market standard after 135 and 90 days respectively. Only grains stored with initial moisture contents of 11.2 % at 20 and 30 o C and 12.8 % at 20 o C showed satisfactory qualitative characteristics throughout the 180 days of storage. Key words: Soybean, deterioration, storage conditions, storage quality. Introduction Grain quality is an important parameter for marketing and processing, and can affect the commodity value. In spite of all the technology available to Brazilian agriculture, the qualitative and quantitative losses originating during the post harvest process are still not well controlled and, the grain is constantly submitted to external factors during storage. These factors can be physical, such as temperature and humidity; chemical, such as oxygen supply; and biological, such as bacteria, fungal, insects and rodents (Brooker et al., 1992). According to Villa and Roa (1979), the parameters temperature, moisture content, length of storage and percentage of broken grains are all factors that can accelerate or delay the process of deterioration. Safe storage keeps the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the grains by providing unfavorable conditions for the development of insects, rodents and microorganisms (Bailey, 1974). The storage of grains in the natural environment of tropical areas presents larger problems due to the temperature conditions and relative humidity, when compared to the areas having a cold or temperate climate (Abba and Lovato, 1999). The parameters of temperature and relative humidity during storage are decisive in the process of loss of seed viability and alterations in the grain color and composition (Whigham and Minor, 1978, Liu, 1997, Lacerda et al., 2003). In tropical areas, such as Brazil, where ambient 1 Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. * Corresponding author: - 30

2 Stored Grain Losses temperatures of storage are observed above 20 ºC, the decrease in germination is more accentuated (Dhingra et al., 2001). Based on this, the object of this study is to evaluate the qualitative alterations to soybean grains stored in different combinations of moisture content and temperature. Materials and methods Soybean (Glicine max (L.) MERRIL) were obtained from the district of Almeida Campos, Ponte Nova county, MG, Brazil. Grains, with approximately 18 % m.c.(w.b.) at harvest were dried in a fixed bed dryer with natural air to 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8 % m.c. (w.b.). After drying, the grains were stored in plastic containers of about 3.0 L and taken to BOD incubators at 20, 30 and 40 ºC. To guarantee the same grain water content during storage at different temperatures, the equilibrium relative humidity (ERH), previously calculated by the Chung- Pfost model (Navarro and Noyes, 2001) for each combination of temperature and water content (Table 1), was controlled inside each BOD. The data acquisition monitoring was performed by a 1- wire TM system (Martins et al., 2004). Table 1. Equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) for each combination of moisture content and temperature. Moisture content (%) Temp. (ºC) 11,2 12,8 14, Stored for 180 days, the grains were analyzed every 45 days for the following parameters: moisture content, classification, germination and electrical conductivity. The moisture content was determined using the method S352.2 following the ASAE recommendations (ASAE, 2000). Classification of the grains for commercial purpose was made in agreement with the guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA, 1983). The percentage of germination was obtained in agreement with the Brazilian Rules for Analysis of Seeds (MAPA, 1992). The electric conductivity of the solution containing the soybean was made by using a glass system or mass conductivity (Vieira et al., 2001), used for the purpose of evaluating the increase in the membrane permeability as the grain deteriorates. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized split-plots, with three replicates. The treatments, temperature combinations (20, 30 and 40 ºC) and moisture content (11.2, 12.8 and 14.8 %) were allocated in the main plot, whereas the subplot consisted of the storage periods (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 days), with the treatments arranged in a factorial design. Initially, a repeated measures analysis of variance was carried out to determine the best residual covariance structure. Regression analysis was performed for the variable electrical conductivity. Results and discussion Moisture content Table 2 shows the values of the equilibrium moisture content of the soybean stored for 180 days for each combination of temperature and equilibrium relative humidity (E.R.H.). In general, the moisture content of the soybean remained practically constant, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.4, except for the grains stored with 14.8 % m.c. at 30 C (83 % E.R.H.), and 12.8 and 14.8 % m.c. at the temperature of 40 ºC (80 and 86 % E.R.H., respectively). The increase in moisture content is due to both the grain respiration and to the microflora associated with in, although the grain respiratory rate is usually not as intense as the microorganisms (Pomeranz, 1974, Muir and White, 2000). Still in accordance to these authors, the grain transpiration is higher due to its higher moisture content, although the temperature, the relative humidity and the storage conditions can also influence the grain metabolism. 31

3 9 th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection Classification of the grains Table 3 shows the average percentages of the sour and damaged soybean stored with moisture contents of 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8 %, in the temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 ºC, whose values were obtained from the official classification requirements issued by the Agricultural Institute of Minas Gerais.In general, the soybean kept the basic standard, except for grains stored with 14.8 % m.c. and temperature above 30 ºC. Although it is possible to verify an increase of the percentage of sour grains and, consequently, of the total of damaged grains, when the grains were stored with 14.8 % m.c. at 30 ºC, for 90 days, the soybean kept the basic standard up to 180 days of storage. However, the grains stored with 12.8 and 14.8 % m.c. at 40 ºC were considered to be out of the basic standard for 135 and 90 days, respectively. In accordance to Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA, 1983) the maximum limit of damaged soybean for the basic standard is 8 %. Table 2. Moisture content of soybean stored for 180 days for each combination of temperature and equilibrium relative humidity Temp. EHR Storage Period (Days) Average ± (ºC) (%) sd ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 1.2 Tabela 3. Sour and damaged grains of soybean stored at temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 ºC and moisture content of 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8 % for 180 days. Moisture Storage Period (Days) Temp. content (ºC) (%) SR DMG CLS SR DMG CLS SR DMG CLS SR DMG CLS SR DMG CLS 11, BS BS BS BS BS 20 12, BS BS BS BS BS 14, BS BS BS BS BS 11, BS BS BS BS BS 30 12, BS BS BS BS BS 14, BS BS BS BS BS 11, BS BS BS BS BS 40 12, BS BS BS ABS ABS 14, BS BS ABS ABS ABS SR values of sour grains (%); DMG values of damaged grains (%); CLS classification of the soybean; BS damaged grains inside of the limit for Basic Standard; ABS damaged grains above the limit for Basic Standard. 1 Product classified as Out of the Basic Pattern for commercialization for exceeding the maximum limit of damaged grains (8%) established for Brasil (MAPA, 1983). 32

4 Stored Grain Losses Germination In accordance to the results of the analysis of variance (p < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the percentage of germination due to the triple interaction between moisture content, temperature and storage period. The average percentage values of germination of soybean stored with different moisture contents at each temperature during the storage are shown in Figure 1. In general, decresed germination occurred during the storage, regardless of moisture content and temperature. At the temperature of 20 ºC (Figure 1A), the reduction of the germination potential was more accentuated when the soybean grains were stored with moisture content of 14.8 %. From 135 days of storage the grains did not germinate. However in the temperatures of 30 and 40 ºC (Figure 1B-C), the reduction of germination potential took place independently of the moisture content. It is clear, however, that the reduction was more accentuated as the moisture content of the grains increased. Similar results were obtained by Dorworth and Christensen (1968) when they stored soybean with four moisture contents and at four temperatures, even though they had not controlled the relative humidity during the storage. According to Burris (1980), the fast deterioration of the soybean during the period of storage is influenced by the moisture content and temperature. The qualitative deterioration of soybean stored with initial moisture contents between 9.8 and 13.8% in tropical conditions (30 ºC and 82 % R.H.) was simulated by Locher and Bucheli (1998). These authors verified a more pronounced reduction in the percentage of germination between 5 and 9 months of storage, and this was more accentuated in grains with a higher initial moisture content. The effect of the temperature and relative humidity in the maize viability was studied by Abba and Lovato (1999), who stored seeds with water content of 10.5 % in a temperature of 30 ºC and 95 % of relative humidity. They verified loss of the germinative capacity in the maize after 42 days storage. Bhattacharya and Raha (2002) studied the alterations of soybean and corn stored with moisture contents of 14.0 and 9.7 %, respectively, in the presence of different species of 33 Figure 1. Germination of soybean stored for 180 days for each combination of moisture content and temperature.

5 9 th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection storage fungus. These authors observed a decrease in the percentage of germination in the soy and in the maize during the storage period. The percentage of germination in the soybean and corn after 10 and 12 months was zero and 4 %, respectively. Electric conductivity The analysis of variance (p < 0.05) indicated that there was significant variation of electrical conductivity of the solution that contained the soybean due to the interaction moisture contenttemperature-storage period. Figure 2 shows the regression curves of electrical conductivity, corresponding to the solutions that contained the grains stored with moisture content equaling 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8 %, stored in the temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 ºC. It can be seen that only the grains stored at a temperature of 20 ºC (Figure 2A) and a water content of 14,8 % show an increase of the electrical conductivity and consequent reduction of their physiological quality. In Table 4 the adjusted regression equations and their determination coefficients are shown, which link the electrical conductivity of the solution that contained the soybean grains with three amounts of water and the storage period for each temperature. In agreement with Heslehurst (1988), readings taken of the electrical conductivity of the solution that contains the grains can be used to evaluate their vigor, because the conductivity is related with the amount of ions leached into the solution, which in turn is directly associated with the integrity of the cellular membranes; badly structured membranes and damaged cells are usually associated with the process of seed deterioration and reduced vigor. The loss of germination and vigor of old seeds is positively correlated with the electrolytic leaching, which increases with the decrease of the phopholipid content of the membrane (Lin, 1990). The smallest values, corresponding to the smallest exudates liberation, indicate high physiological potential (larger vigor), which indicates a smaller disorder intensity in the cell membrane systems (Vieira et al., 2002). The increase of electrical conductivity was more expressive as the temperature and moisture content 34 Figure 2. Electrical conductivity of soybean as function of time of storage for each combination of moisture content and temperature.

6 Stored Grain Losses Table 4. Equations for electrical conductivity as function of time of storage for each combination of moisture content and temperature and respective determination coefficients. Temp. Moisture (ºC) content (%) Equations r 2 F Prob y = y = y = X X < y = X < y = X < y = X 0.006X < y = X X < y = X 1.002X < y = X 1.530X < of the grains increased (Figure 2B-C). Those stored at 40 ºC (Figure 2C) showed increased electrical conductivity readings in the solution that contained those grains during the storage period, regardless of the grain moisture content. The electrical conductivity was used by Krittigamas et al. (2001) as parameter in the determination of vigor in stored soybean. The authors observed a significant increase of this parameter and consequent loss of vigor in the grains after 180 days. Krishnan et al. (2004) studied the characteristic thermodynamics of the soy during storage under conditions of accelerated aging and also verified larger medium values of electrical conductivity in the solution that contained the grains as higher temperatures were used during the storage period. The analysis and the interpretation of the results obtained relating to the grains allowed the following conclusions: For final certification, soybean storage is not recommended in the following combinations of moisture content and temperature: 11.2 % at 40 ºC; 12.8% at 30 and 40 ºC; and 14.8 % at 20, 30 and 40 ºC. For soybean commercialization at the basic standard level, it is possible to store grains for 180 days with moisture content of up to 14.8 % 20 and 30 ºC. At 40 ºC, only the grains with moisture content of 11,2 % can be stored for 180 days. Grains with water volumes of 12.8 and 14.8 % at 40 ºC can be stored for 135 and 90 days, respectively. References Abba, E.J., Lovato, A., Effect of seed storage temperature and relative humidity on maize (Zea mays L.) seed viability and vigour. Seed Science and Technology 27, ASAE Standard, Moisture measurement - Unground grain and seeds. St. Joseph, Michigan: ASAE. Bailey, J.E., Whole grain storage. In: Christensen, C.M. (Ed.), Storage of cereal grains and their products. St. Paul, pp Bhattacharya, K., Raha, S., Deteriorative changes of maize, groundnut and soybean seeds by fungi in storage. Mycopathologia 155, Brooker, D.B., Bakker-Arkema, F.W., Hall, C.W., Drying and storage of grains and oilseeds. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Burris, J.S., Maintenance of soybean seed 35

7 9 th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection quality in storage as influenced by moisture, temperature and genotype. Iowa State Journal of Research 54, Dhingra, O.D., Mizubuti, E.S.G., Napoleão, I.T, Jham, G., Free fatty acid accumulation and quality loss of stored soybean seeds invaded by Aspergillus ruber. Seed Science and Technology 29, Dorworth, C.E., Christensen, C.M., Influence of moisture content, temperature, and storage time upon changes in fungus flora, germinability, and fat acidity values of soybeans. Phytopathology 58, Heslehurst, M.R., Quantifying initial quality and vigour of wheat seeds using regression analysis of conductivity and germination data from aged seeds Seed Science and Technology 16, Krishnan, P., Nagarajan, S., Moharir, A.V., Thermodynamic characterization of seed deterioration during storage under accelerated ageing conditions. Biosystems Engineering 89, Krittigamas, N., Vearasilp, S., Thanapornpoonpong, S., Suriyonga, S., Paoblek, S., Pawelzikc, E., Investigation of post-harvest soybean seed storability after passing the different steps of processing. In: Asch, F., Becker, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of 5 th Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development., Bonn, German, pp Lacerda, A.D.S., Lazarini, E., Sá, M.E., Filho, W.V.V., Storage of dessicated soybean seed and the evaluation of physiologic, biochemical and sanitary characteristics. Brazilian Journal of Seeds 25, Lin, S.S., Changes in leakage, germination and vigor of bean seeds aged under high relative humidity and high temperature. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 2, 1-6. Liu, K., Soybeans: chemistry, technology and utilization. New York: Chapman & Hall. Locher, R., Bucheli, P., Comparison of soluble sugar degradation in soybean seed under simulated tropical storage conditions. Crop Science 38, MAPA, Portaria nº 262 de Brasília: Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. MAPA, Regras para Análise de Sementes. Brasília: Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Martins, J. H.; Monteiro, P. M. B.; Mota, A. M. N.; Fonseca, J. A. G., The 1-wire TM system an application for agricultural processes. In: Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control. Proceedings of 6 th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control, Faro, Portugal, pp Muir, W.E., White, N.D.G., Microorganisms in stored grain. In: Muir, W.E. (Ed.), Grain Preservation Biosystems: Manitoba, pp Navarro, S., Noyes, R.T., The Mechanics and Physics of Modern Grain Aeration Management. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Pomeranz, Y., Biochemical, functional, and nutritive changes during storage. In: Christensen, C.M. (Ed.), Storage of cereal grains and their products. St. Paul, pp Vieira, R.D., Tekrony, D.M. Egli, D.B., Rucker, M., Electrical conductivity of soybean seeds after storage in several environments. Seed Science and Technology 29, Vieira, R.D., Penariol, A.L., Perecin, D., Panobianco, M., Electrical conductivity and initial water content of soybean seeds. 36

8 Stored Grain Losses Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Research 37, Villa, L.G., Roa, G., Drying and storage of the industrial soybean and seeds in bulk. Campinas: Fundação Cargill. Whigham, D.K. Minor, H.C., Agronomic characteristics and environmental stress. In: Norman, A.G. (Ed.), Soybean physiology, agronomy and utilization. New York, pp

PS1-7 - 6121 Influence of storage condition on seed quality of maize, soybean and sunflower

PS1-7 - 6121 Influence of storage condition on seed quality of maize, soybean and sunflower PS1-7 - 6121 Influence of storage condition on seed quality of maize, soybean and sunflower B. Šimic 1,*, A. Sudaric 1, I. Liovic 1, I. Kalinovic 2, V. Rozman 2, J. Cosic 2 Abstract The study was aimed

More information

1. SAFE STORAGE CONDITIONS

1. SAFE STORAGE CONDITIONS 1. SAFE STORAGE CONDITIONS 1.1. INTRODUCTION From the moment of harvest to the moment of its use in processing for human food or animal feed, grain should be stored so as to prevent quality deterioration.

More information

4.1. INTRODUCTION I. INTRODUCTION AND PRINCIPLES 4.1. INTRODUCTION 4.1. INTRODUCTION 4.2. PARAMETERS OF SEED QUALITY 4.1.

4.1. INTRODUCTION I. INTRODUCTION AND PRINCIPLES 4.1. INTRODUCTION 4.1. INTRODUCTION 4.2. PARAMETERS OF SEED QUALITY 4.1. UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO ESCOLA SUPERIOR DE AGRICULTURA LUIZ DE QUEIROZ Brazil 4.1. INTRODUCTION IMPORTANCE OF SEED QUALITY I. INTRODUCTION AND PRINCIPLES 4. SEED QUALITY Ana Novembre ESALQ Piracicaba,

More information

CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN HERMETIC STORAGE OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) IN SMALL GLASS JARS

CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN HERMETIC STORAGE OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) IN SMALL GLASS JARS Ochandio D, Bartosik R, Yommi A, Cardoso L (2012) Carbon dioxide concentration in hermetic storage of soybean (Glycine max) in small glass jars. In: Navarro S, Banks HJ, Jayas DS, Bell CH, Noyes RT, Ferizli

More information

Storage of Soybeans and Its Effects on Quality of Soybean Sub-Products

Storage of Soybeans and Its Effects on Quality of Soybean Sub-Products Storage of Soybeans and Its Effects on Quality of Soybean Sub-Products Ernandes Rodrigues de Alencar 1 and Lêda Rita D Antonino Faroni 2 2 1 Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade

More information

Changes in Viability, Vigour and Chemical Composition of Soybean Seeds Stored Under the Humid Tropical Conditions

Changes in Viability, Vigour and Chemical Composition of Soybean Seeds Stored Under the Humid Tropical Conditions Changes in Viability, Vigour and Chemical Composition of Soybean Seeds Stored Under the Humid Tropical Conditions V. Arulnandhy and Y.D.A. Senanayake Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture University of

More information

SEED VIABILITY OF OIL CROPS DEPENDING ON STORAGE CONDITIONS

SEED VIABILITY OF OIL CROPS DEPENDING ON STORAGE CONDITIONS HELIA, 33, Nr. 52, p.p. 153-160, (2010) UDC 633.854.78:631.53.01.026:631.542.841 DOI: 10.2298/HEL1052153B SEED VIABILITY OF OIL CROPS DEPENDING ON STORAGE CONDITIONS Balešević-Tubić, S. *, Tatić, M., Ðorđević,

More information

Effects of Storage Materials and Environmental Conditions on Germination Percentage of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr) Seeds in Yola Nigeria

Effects of Storage Materials and Environmental Conditions on Germination Percentage of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr) Seeds in Yola Nigeria International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 2015; 2(4): 90-94 Published online July 20, 2015 (http://www.aascit.org/journal/ijasnr) ISSN: 2375-3773 Effects of Storage Materials

More information

Post harvest Seed Storage/handling. Dilip Gokhale STAK Conference, Nairobi, 15 May 2009

Post harvest Seed Storage/handling. Dilip Gokhale STAK Conference, Nairobi, 15 May 2009 Post harvest Seed Storage/handling Dilip Gokhale ae STAK Conference, Nairobi, 15 May 2009 Seed Storage Definition i i of Seed Storage: Seeds are considered to be in storage from the moment seed reach to

More information

Challenges in On farm Drying and Storage of Soybean for Seed in Modern Bin Systems

Challenges in On farm Drying and Storage of Soybean for Seed in Modern Bin Systems Challenges in On farm Drying and Storage of Soybean for Seed in Modern Bin Systems Griffiths G. Atungulu University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Introduction Commercial practice allows seed to dry

More information

Grain Drying Tools: Equilibrium Moisture Content Tables and Psychrometric Charts

Grain Drying Tools: Equilibrium Moisture Content Tables and Psychrometric Charts DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE R E S E A R C H & E X T E N S I O N University of Arkansas System Agriculture and Natural Resources FSA1074 Grain Drying Tools: Equilibrium Moisture Content Tables and Psychrometric

More information

Comparison and Selection of EMC/ERH Isotherm Equations for Drying and Storage of Grain and Oilseed

Comparison and Selection of EMC/ERH Isotherm Equations for Drying and Storage of Grain and Oilseed Comparison and Selection of EMC/ERH Isotherm Equations for Drying and Storage of Grain and Oilseed Da-Wen Sun Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, National University

More information

2008 International Grain Quality & Technology Congress Proceedings

2008 International Grain Quality & Technology Congress Proceedings STORAGE OF CORN, WHEAT SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER IN HERMETIC PLASTIC BAGS Bartosik 1, Ricardo, Juan Rodríguez 1 and Leandro Cardoso 1 EEA INTA Balcarce, Ruta 226 km 73,5, Balcarce (7620), Pcia. Bs.As, Argentina

More information

Azadi M.S. 1, Younesi E. 2 *

Azadi M.S. 1, Younesi E. 2 * Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, Vol. 9 No. 4 2013, pp. 289-298 ISSN 1997-0838 Original Text Copyright 2013 by Azadi, Younesi ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics

More information

The Role of Quality Evaluation in Seed Production as Exemplified by Soybean Seed Production. Francisco Carlos Krzyzanowski, Ph.D.

The Role of Quality Evaluation in Seed Production as Exemplified by Soybean Seed Production. Francisco Carlos Krzyzanowski, Ph.D. The Role of Quality Evaluation in Seed Production as Exemplified by Soybean Seed Production Francisco Carlos Krzyzanowski, Ph.D. Embrapa Soybean SEED CERTIFICATION SYSTEM STANDARDS To reach them, several

More information

EFFECT OF CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF STORAGE SOYBEAN SEED

EFFECT OF CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF STORAGE SOYBEAN SEED BANGLADESH RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS JOURNAL ISSN: 1998-2003, Volume: 7, Issue: 4, Page: 421-427, November - December, 2012 EFFECT OF CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF STORAGE SOYBEAN SEED U.S. Monira, 1 * M.

More information

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR MAINTAINING GRAIN QUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE STORAGE JOSEPH F. RICKMAN AND EUGENE AQUINO

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR MAINTAINING GRAIN QUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE STORAGE JOSEPH F. RICKMAN AND EUGENE AQUINO Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S., Bell, C., Jayas, D., Noyes, R., Phillips, T.W. [Eds.] (2007) Proc. Int. Conf. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Gold-Coast Australia 8-13th August 2004..

More information

Abstract. Introduction

Abstract. Introduction PS8-2 6257 Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) relationships of three popcorn grain varieties and their incorporation into in-bin grain conditioning strategies D. Garg 1, *, R.G. Larson 2, D.E. Maier 3

More information

Vigor and Seed Performance. Seed vigor introduction and history

Vigor and Seed Performance. Seed vigor introduction and history Vigor and Seed Performance Mark A. Bennett Seed Biology Program Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Science Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1086 bennett.18@osu.edu Seed vigor introduction and history

More information

Determination of Moisture Content

Determination of Moisture Content Determination of Moisture Content 1. Introduction: Drying, storage, marketing, and roasting are four important aspects of coffee handling in which moisture plays an important role: Drying: moisture measurement

More information

GROWTH DYNAMICS AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES GROWN AT DIVERSE NITROGEN LEVELS E. SUGÁR and Z. BERZSENYI

GROWTH DYNAMICS AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES GROWN AT DIVERSE NITROGEN LEVELS E. SUGÁR and Z. BERZSENYI GROWTH DYNAMICS AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES GROWN AT DIVERSE NITROGEN LEVELS E. SUGÁR and Z. BERZSENYI AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, MARTONVÁSÁR The growth

More information

Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and Drying Constant of Cocoa Bean

Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and Drying Constant of Cocoa Bean Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and Drying Constant of Cocoa Bean Ndukwu Macmanus Chinenye Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering,

More information

TSGC. Grain Temperature Monitoring Systems INC. Tri-States Grain Conditioning, Inc.

TSGC. Grain Temperature Monitoring Systems  INC. Tri-States Grain Conditioning, Inc. TSGC INC Tri-States Grain Conditioning, Inc. Grain Temperature Monitoring Systems 52 48 72 80 WWW.TSGCINC.COM Grain Temperature Monitoring - An Effective Management Tool CONTROL ENERGY COSTS: 1 HP = 1

More information

Introduction to Seed Testing (Methodology and Terminology)

Introduction to Seed Testing (Methodology and Terminology) Introduction to Seed Testing (Methodology and Terminology) The main purposes of seed testing are to: Study the physiological quality of seed Study seed procurement of the species Seed tests are based on

More information

Quality Advantages of Food Grade Soybeans from the Upper Midwest: storage perspective. Sam K. C. Chang. Ph.D., Professor; IFT Fellow

Quality Advantages of Food Grade Soybeans from the Upper Midwest: storage perspective. Sam K. C. Chang. Ph.D., Professor; IFT Fellow Quality Advantages of Food Grade Soybeans from the Upper Midwest: storage perspective Sam K. C. Chang Ph.D., Professor; IFT Fellow Department of Cereal and Food Sciences North Dakota State University Fargo,

More information

Introduction: Growth analysis and crop dry matter accumulation

Introduction: Growth analysis and crop dry matter accumulation PBIO*3110 Crop Physiology Lecture #2 Fall Semester 2008 Lecture Notes for Tuesday 9 September How is plant productivity measured? Introduction: Growth analysis and crop dry matter accumulation Learning

More information

High Moisture Corn Drying and Storage. Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E. Extension Engineer & Professor

High Moisture Corn Drying and Storage. Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E. Extension Engineer & Professor High Moisture Corn Drying and Storage Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E. Extension Engineer & Professor Estimated Corn Field Drying EMC GDD PET Est. Drying (%pt) (%) (in) Month Week Sep 15 250-350 4.0-5.0

More information

Germination characteristics of twenty varieties of soybean (glycine max (l) merr stored for seven months

Germination characteristics of twenty varieties of soybean (glycine max (l) merr stored for seven months Scientia Agriculturae www.pscipub.com/sa E-ISSN: 2310-953X / P-ISSN: 2311-0228 DOI: 10.15192/PSCP.SA.2016.13.3.151155 Sci. Agri. 13 (3), 2016: 151-155 PSCI Publications Germination characteristics of twenty

More information

ESCOAMENTO DO AR EM ARMAZÉM GRANELEIRO DE GRANDE PORTE COM SISTEMA DE AERAÇÃO SIMULATION OF AIR FLOW IN LARGE AERATED GRAIN STORAGE

ESCOAMENTO DO AR EM ARMAZÉM GRANELEIRO DE GRANDE PORTE COM SISTEMA DE AERAÇÃO SIMULATION OF AIR FLOW IN LARGE AERATED GRAIN STORAGE ESCOAMENTO DO AR EM ARMAZÉM GRANELEIRO DE GRANDE PORTE COM SISTEMA DE AERAÇÃO Oleg Khatchatourian 1 Antonio Rodrigo Delepiane de Vit 2 João Carlos Cavalcanti da Silveira 3 Luciano Ferreira 4 RESUMO Foi

More information

BCA GRAIN AND FEED COMPANY LIMITED

BCA GRAIN AND FEED COMPANY LIMITED BCA GRAIN AND FEED COMPANY LIMITED LOW COST ECO-FRIENDLY GRAIN SOLAR DRYERS & GRAIN STORAGE BAGS Rivergardens Business Park, Arusha Moshi Road, P.0. Box 11005, Arusha Tanzania Tel: +255 71 577 2195/+255

More information

Effect of drying conditions and harvest time on soybean seed viability and deterioration under different storage temperature

Effect of drying conditions and harvest time on soybean seed viability and deterioration under different storage temperature African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 7(36), pp. 5118-5127, 18 September, 212 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar DOI: 1.5897/AJAR12.6 ISSN 1991-637X 212 Academic Journals

More information

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) CAC/RCP 51-2003 Page 1 of 8 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS, INCLUDING ANNEXES ON OCHRATOXIN A, ZEARALENONE, FUMONISINS AND TRICOTHECENES CAC/RCP

More information

STORAGE AND TESTING OF FORAGE SEEDS IN THE TROPICS

STORAGE AND TESTING OF FORAGE SEEDS IN THE TROPICS STORAGE AND TESTING OF FORAGE SEEDS IN THE TROPICS H.F. Chin INTRODUCTION Studies on the storage and testing of tropical forage seeds are lacking particularly in developing countries. This is evidenced

More information

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Makerere University and Humidtropics collaboration Soybean Seed production Training of Kiboga-Kyankwanzi platform members in Soybean Seed Production

More information

Nitrogen is an essential element for all living things. It is a key component of proteins.

Nitrogen is an essential element for all living things. It is a key component of proteins. MODULE NUMBER 1 NITROGEN AND TROPICAL AGRICULTURE SUMMARY As a key component of proteins, nitrogen is essential for all life. Nitrogen moves in a cycle from the atmosphere into the soil and plant system,

More information

YIELD OF MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY FERTILISER APPLICATION PRACTICES

YIELD OF MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY FERTILISER APPLICATION PRACTICES YIELD OF MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY FERTILISER APPLICATION PRACTICES Msarmo, K.R- and Mhango,W.G. Bunda College of Agriculture, Crop science Department, P.O. Box 29, Lilongwe. ABSTRACT A study was conducted

More information

EFFECTS OF VARYING IRRIGATION AND MEPIQUAT CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON COTTON HEIGHT, UNIFORMITY, YIELD, AND QUALITY. Abstract

EFFECTS OF VARYING IRRIGATION AND MEPIQUAT CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON COTTON HEIGHT, UNIFORMITY, YIELD, AND QUALITY. Abstract EFFECTS OF VARYING IRRIGATION AND MEPIQUAT CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON COTTON HEIGHT, UNIFORMITY, YIELD, AND QUALITY Glen Ritchie 1, Lola Sexton 1, Trey Davis 1, Don Shurley 2, and Amanda Ziehl 2 1 University

More information

7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions

7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions 7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions Multiple choice questions 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B Structured questions 11 a i Maintenance of a constant internal environment within set limits i Concentration

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION 29 MAY 2013

CELLULAR RESPIRATION 29 MAY 2013 CELLULAR RESPIRATION 29 MAY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson, we: Define cellular respiration Define aerobic respiration o The role of glycolysis in aerobic respiration o The role of the Kreb s cycle

More information

THE EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON DETERMINING CORN HARDNESS FROM GRINDING TIME, GRINDING ENERGY,

THE EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON DETERMINING CORN HARDNESS FROM GRINDING TIME, GRINDING ENERGY, THE EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON DETERMINING CORN HARDNESS FROM GRINDING TIME, GRINDING ENERGY, AND NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY P. R Armstrong, J. E. Lingenfelser, L. McKinney ABSTRACT. The Stenvert hardness

More information

III. THE MICROBIAL BIOMASS

III. THE MICROBIAL BIOMASS III. THE MICROBIAL BIOMASS Required Readings: Ley, R.E., D.A. Lipson and S.K. Schmidt. 2001. Microbial biomass levels in barren and vegetated high altitude talus soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:111 117.

More information

Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants

Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants Agriculture production is a very intensive business and is related to better quality and better yield leading to better profitability Every farmer s dreams to achieve this

More information

Introduction to Plant Pathology

Introduction to Plant Pathology Introduction to Plant Pathology What is a plant disease? A plant disease is any abnormal condition that alters the appearance or function of a plant. It is a physiological process that affects some or

More information

Influence of soybean storage conditions on crude oil quality. Influência das condições de armazenagem da soja na qualidade do óleo bruto

Influence of soybean storage conditions on crude oil quality. Influência das condições de armazenagem da soja na qualidade do óleo bruto Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental v.1, n.3, p.33 3, 1 Campina Grande, PB, UAEA/UFCG http://www.agriambi.com.br Protocolo 1. 5/7/ Aprovado em 5/9/9 Influence of soybean storage conditions

More information

Canola Drying and Storage Management

Canola Drying and Storage Management Canola Drying and Storage Management Kenneth Hellevang, Extension Engineer Factors affecting canola storage include seed maturity and condition, seed moisture, temperature, length of storage, molds, insects

More information

What role can GM sugarcane play in sustainability

What role can GM sugarcane play in sustainability What role can GM sugarcane play in sustainability 30 April 2015 Contents Introduction Global uptake of GM technology Evolution of GM technologies Obstacles to realise GM opportunities in sugarcane Why

More information

Response of Maize Yield and Yield Components to Different Hydropriming Durations in Rainfed Region of Bannu

Response of Maize Yield and Yield Components to Different Hydropriming Durations in Rainfed Region of Bannu www.ejarr.com/volumes/vol6/ejbs_6_03.pdf Response of Maize Yield and Yield Components to Different Hydropriming Durations in Rainfed Region of Bannu K. Musharaf 1, M. Asim *,1, F.M. Shah 2, Saqeb Ullah

More information

Applied AS/A Level GCE

Applied AS/A Level GCE Science Department Applied AS/A Level GCE GCE in Applied Science OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Applied Science H7 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Applied Science (Double Award) H7 OCR Advanced GCE in Applied

More information

Selected Physical Properties of Soybean In Relation To Storage Design

Selected Physical Properties of Soybean In Relation To Storage Design RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS Selected Physical Properties of Soybean In Relation To Storage Design Engr. Onu John Chigbo Department Of Agricultural Engineering Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra Statenigeria

More information

Multiple Regression YX1 YX2 X1X2 YX1.X2

Multiple Regression YX1 YX2 X1X2 YX1.X2 Multiple Regression Simple or total correlation: relationship between one dependent and one independent variable, Y versus X Coefficient of simple determination: r (or r, r ) YX YX XX Partial correlation:

More information

CHAPTER 1 A VIEW OF LIFE

CHAPTER 1 A VIEW OF LIFE CHAPTER 1 A VIEW OF LIFE 1.1 How to Define Life Living things are called organisms. Organisms are often hard to define because they are so diverse; however, they share many common characteristics: 1. Living

More information

PBIO*3110 Crop Physiology Lecture #1

PBIO*3110 Crop Physiology Lecture #1 PBIO*3110 Crop Physiology Lecture #1 Fall Semester 2008 Lecture Notes for Thursday 4 September How is crop yield related to the absorption of sunlight by a chlorophyll molecule? Introduction: Level of

More information

RICE QUALITY AND PROCESSING. Comparison of Milling Characteristics of Hybrid and Pureline Rice Cultivars

RICE QUALITY AND PROCESSING. Comparison of Milling Characteristics of Hybrid and Pureline Rice Cultivars RICE QUALITY AND PROCESSING Comparison of Milling Characteristics of Hybrid and Pureline Rice Cultivars S.B. Lanning and T.J. Siebenmorgen ABSTRACT Milling characteristics of two long-grain pureline and

More information

Attributes of Living Organisms

Attributes of Living Organisms The Nature of Life Outline Attributes of Living Organisms Chemical and Physical Bases of Life Molecules Bonds and Ions Acids and Bases Elements in Cells Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins Enzymes Nucleic

More information

On-Farm Drying and Storage of Soybeans

On-Farm Drying and Storage of Soybeans CHAPTER 15 Arkansas Soybean Production Handbook DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH & EXTENSION University of Arkansas System On-Farm Drying and Storage of Soybeans Sammy Sadaka Arkansas farmers harvested

More information

Cover crops and crop rotation

Cover crops and crop rotation Cover crops and crop rotation Exercise 1 Looking at the roots of cover crops Crop roots are important to take up nutrients and water for the plants. Besides this they are very important to keep the soil

More information

HORTSCIENCE 43(5):1544 1548. 2008.

HORTSCIENCE 43(5):1544 1548. 2008. HORTSCIENCE 43(5):1544 1548. 2008. Controlled Deterioration and Accelerated Aging Tests to Estimate the Relative Storage Potential of Cucurbit Seed Lots Ibrahim Demir 1 and Kaim Mavi Department of Horticulture,

More information

Reliable grain quality analysis as a tool to address global food security issues

Reliable grain quality analysis as a tool to address global food security issues Southern African NPC is our passion Reliable grain quality analysis as a tool to address global food security issues WIANA LOUW OCTOBER 2013 IMPORTANCE OFGRAIN More than 75% of total food intake comes

More information

CHANGES OF SOME ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAINS AND SEEDS DURING STORAGE

CHANGES OF SOME ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAINS AND SEEDS DURING STORAGE 76 CHANGES OF SOME ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAINS AND SEEDS DURING STORAGE Zuzana Hlaváčová, Peter Hlaváč Abstract Electrical properties are utilized in many areas of human activities. They have the biggest

More information

Barley Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare. barleyworld.org

Barley Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare. barleyworld.org Barley Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare barleyworld.org Barley World s oldest crop (?) Native to Middle East Ancestral forms are winter habit hulled 10,000 years ago: selection for shattering resistance

More information

DRIED VEGETABLES. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

DRIED VEGETABLES. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations DRIED VEGETABLES Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations DRIED VEGETABLES 1.- Dried Vegetable Processing - General Information The vegetable dehydration technique is reasonably simple and

More information

Storage life of soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) seeds after seed dressing

Storage life of soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) seeds after seed dressing Journal of Tropical Agriculture 42 (1-2):, 3-7, 2004 3 Storage life of soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) seeds after seed dressing M.A. Adebisi, I.O. Daniel* and M.O. Ajala Department of Plant Breeding and

More information

1. INTRODUCTION. Rice is the most cultivated major food crop in the world. It is the staple food for

1. INTRODUCTION. Rice is the most cultivated major food crop in the world. It is the staple food for INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION Rice is the most cultivated major food crop in the world. It is the staple food for seventeen countries in Asia and the Pacific, eight countries in Africa, seven countries

More information

Drying Parawood with Superheated Steam

Drying Parawood with Superheated Steam Drying Parawood with Superheated Steam Surachai Bovornsethanan and Somchai Wongwises Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT) Bangmod, Bangkok 10160,

More information

Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment. K. Raja Reddy

Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment. K. Raja Reddy Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment K. Raja Reddy Krreddy@pss.msstate.edu Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment Goals and learning objectives are to: Understand the respiration costs associated

More information

Plant and Soil Science I

Plant and Soil Science I Plant and Soil Science I Levels: Grades 9-12 Units of Credit: 1.00 CIP Code: 02.0411 Core Code: 30-02-00-00-080 Prerequisite: None Skill Test: # 140 COURSE DESCRIPTION Students will develop knowledge and

More information

GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWENTY VARIETIES OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max (L) merr STORED FOR SEVEN MONTHS

GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWENTY VARIETIES OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max (L) merr STORED FOR SEVEN MONTHS ASJ: International Journal of Agricultural Research, Sustainability, and Food Sufficiency (IJARSFS) Vol. 3(1) 16 March, 2016, Pp. 35-40 www.academiascholarlyjournal.org/ijarsfs/index_ijarsfs.htm ISSN:

More information

Course Syllabus: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Course Syllabus: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Course Syllabus: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Course Number 2.47100 (AG-BAS) Instructor: Mrs. Sabrina Garrett Class Room #: 218 Contact information: Office 896-4131 (ext. 1219) Cell 706-435-8265

More information

Acceleration of germination of tomato seed by applying AC electric and magnetic "elds

Acceleration of germination of tomato seed by applying AC electric and magnetic elds Journal of Electrostatics 48 (2000) 103}114 Acceleration of germination of tomato seed by applying AC electric and magnetic "elds Jae-Duk Moon *, Hwa-Sook Chung Department of Electrical Engineering, College

More information

Importance of Quality Grain to Produce Quality Malt. Paul Schwarz and Richard Horsley Plant Sciences North Dakota State University

Importance of Quality Grain to Produce Quality Malt. Paul Schwarz and Richard Horsley Plant Sciences North Dakota State University Importance of Quality Grain to Produce Quality Malt Paul Schwarz and Richard Horsley Plant Sciences North Dakota State University Why is Quality important? Let s consider why is malt used in brewing Malt

More information

Vernonia oilseed production in the mid-atlantic region of the United States

Vernonia oilseed production in the mid-atlantic region of the United States Industrial Crops and Products 12 (2000) 119 124 www.elsevier.com/locate/indcrop Vernonia oilseed production in the mid-atlantic region of the United States H.L. Bhardwaj a, *, A.A. Hamama a, M. Rangappa

More information

Seasonality In Corn and Soybean Prices Received By South Dakota Farmers; Grain: Sell or Store

Seasonality In Corn and Soybean Prices Received By South Dakota Farmers; Grain: Sell or Store South Dakota State University Open PRAIRIE: Open Public Research Access Institutional Repository and Information Exchange Economics Commentator Department of Economics 9-24-1993 Seasonality In Corn and

More information

Bridging the gap between climate science and development practice

Bridging the gap between climate science and development practice Bridging the gap between climate science and development practice FIC/IEH Methodology for analyzing climate change impacts on productive systems and value chains Climate model simulations are essential

More information

Managing Crops for Excess Water Stress

Managing Crops for Excess Water Stress Managing Crops for Excess Water Stress Curtis Cavers* and John Heard Canada-Manitoba Crop Diversification Centre (CMCDC) Potato Agronomist (curtis.cavers@agr.gc.ca) A review of literature on the effect

More information

ABSTRACT: 142 EFFECT OF STORAGE ON SOYBEAN SEED VIGOR AND EMERGENCE

ABSTRACT: 142 EFFECT OF STORAGE ON SOYBEAN SEED VIGOR AND EMERGENCE ABSTRACT: 142 EFFECT OF STORAGE ON SOYBEAN SEED VIGOR AND EMERGENCE RUPE J C 1, CARTWRIGHT R E 2, ROBINSON J 3, COCHRAN K 1, HOLLAND R 1, GOEKE S 1, PALMER A 3 & STEGER A 1 1 University of Arkansas; 2

More information

Will It Sprout? Seed Germination Test

Will It Sprout? Seed Germination Test Objective Will It Sprout? Seed Germination Test The student will understand the importance of a seed germination test performed on field seed, and will do a classroom germ test. Grade Level 1-3 4-6 TEKS:

More information

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) Seed Quality as Affected by Type and Duration of Storage

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) Seed Quality as Affected by Type and Duration of Storage AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGY JOURNAL OF NORTH AMERICA ISSN Print: 21517517, ISSN Online: 21517525 2010, Science Huβ, http://www.scihub.org/abjna Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) Seed Quality as Affected

More information

-75- MULTIPLE REGRESSION TECHNIQUES IN THE EVALUATION OF WEATHER AND TECHNOLOGY IN CROP PRODUCTION. Louis M. Thompson1

-75- MULTIPLE REGRESSION TECHNIQUES IN THE EVALUATION OF WEATHER AND TECHNOLOGY IN CROP PRODUCTION. Louis M. Thompson1 -75- MULTIPLE REGRESSION TECHNIQUES IN THE EVALUATION OF WEATHER AND TECHNOLOGY IN CROP PRODUCTION Louis M. Thompson1 The yield per acre of the major grain crops in the central area of the United States

More information

Soybean Physiology: How Well Do You Know Soybeans?

Soybean Physiology: How Well Do You Know Soybeans? Soybean Physiology: How Well Do You Know Soybeans? Shaun Casteel, Purdue University Soybean Extension Specialist www.soybeanstation.org 2010-11, Purdue University - 1 Vegetative Growth Stages Reproductive

More information

Danseed - Seed drying sensors

Danseed - Seed drying sensors 12. marts 2013 Danseed - Seed drying sensors Johannes Ravn Jørgensen Ole Green, Webstech Erik Fløjgaard Kristensen, AU Finn Vestergaard Poulsen, dlg Mette Bak Pedersen, dlg optisee DANseed Optiseeddry

More information

Grain Drying & Management Bob Schultheis Natural Resource Engineering Specialist University of Missouri Extension

Grain Drying & Management Bob Schultheis Natural Resource Engineering Specialist University of Missouri Extension Grain Drying & Management Bob Schultheis Natural Resource Engineering Specialist University of Missouri Extension Materials primarily developed by: Charles Ellis, Natural Resource Engineer University of

More information

TYPE: ORGANIC NUTRIENTS CODE: BF4-POWDER / LIQUID / GRANULE (JAIVIZYME) AVAILABLE: BULK, PRIVATE LABEL & BRANDS

TYPE: ORGANIC NUTRIENTS CODE: BF4-POWDER / LIQUID / GRANULE (JAIVIZYME) AVAILABLE: BULK, PRIVATE LABEL & BRANDS TYPE: ORGANIC NUTRIENTS CODE: BF4POWDER / LIQUID / GRANULE (JAIVIZYME) AVAILABLE: BULK, PRIVATE LABEL & BRANDS Composition Ingredient Liquid Granule Potassium Humate 10.00% B Vitamins 00.05% Potassium

More information

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland Wheat in Poland Cereals are cultivated on 7859 kha, in which 22,9% is covered by wheat. Winter wheat monoculture in Poland Monoculture effects

More information

Analytical Test Method Validation Report Template

Analytical Test Method Validation Report Template Analytical Test Method Validation Report Template 1. Purpose The purpose of this Validation Summary Report is to summarize the finding of the validation of test method Determination of, following Validation

More information

INTRODUCTION TO CROP SCIENCE CSEM 200 SPRING 2014

INTRODUCTION TO CROP SCIENCE CSEM 200 SPRING 2014 Instructor: INTRODUCTION TO CROP SCIENCE CSEM 200 SPRING 2014 SYLLABUS April Vigardt, avigardt@siu.edu Room: Ag 161C Agriculture Building, Office: 453-1791; Main office: 453-2496 Office hours: MWF, 10-11

More information

AES BIOFLUX Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society

AES BIOFLUX Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society AES BIOFLUX Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society The effect of timely and late sowing on the maize (Zea mays L.) yield: feasibility study of delay compensation

More information

FENACAM 14 Programação Técnica -VIII Simpósio Internacional de Aquicultura 11 13 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2014

FENACAM 14 Programação Técnica -VIII Simpósio Internacional de Aquicultura 11 13 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2014 FENACAM 14 Programação Técnica -VIII Simpósio Internacional de Aquicultura 11 13 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2014 Shrimp Feed Usage: Why Extruded over Pelleted Feeds? Joseph P. Kearns Wenger Manufacturing, Inc Sabetha,

More information

IDŐJÁRÁS Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service Vol. 116, No. 3, July September 2012, pp. 211-220

IDŐJÁRÁS Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service Vol. 116, No. 3, July September 2012, pp. 211-220 IDŐJÁRÁS Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service Vol. 116, No. 3, July September 2012, pp. 211-220 Impact of precipitation on yield quantity and quality of wheat and maize crops Csaba

More information

ANNEX 1: HACCP: THE METHOD AND EXAMPLES (Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Points):

ANNEX 1: HACCP: THE METHOD AND EXAMPLES (Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Points): ANNEX 1: HACCP: THE METHOD AND EXAMPLES (Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Points): ANNEX 1.1. General information and prerequisites The HACCP is a method used to effectively identify the critical points

More information

Energy Efficient Grain Drying. Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Extension Engineer

Energy Efficient Grain Drying. Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Extension Engineer Energy Efficient Grain Drying Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Extension Engineer Estimated Corn Field Drying PET=Potential Evapotranspiration EMC (%) PET (in) Est. Drying (%pt) Month Week Sep

More information

Chapter 4 and 5 solutions

Chapter 4 and 5 solutions Chapter 4 and 5 solutions 4.4. Three different washing solutions are being compared to study their effectiveness in retarding bacteria growth in five gallon milk containers. The analysis is done in a laboratory,

More information

EFFECT OF STORAGE LONGEVITY UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS ON SEED VIGOR AND OIL CONTENT IN MAIZE, SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER

EFFECT OF STORAGE LONGEVITY UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS ON SEED VIGOR AND OIL CONTENT IN MAIZE, SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 631.243.36:631.523:633.15+633.34+633.854.78 EFFECT OF STORAGE LONGEVITY UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS ON SEED VIGOR AND OIL CONTENT IN MAIZE, SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER B. Šimić, Marija

More information

Nutrition. The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes.

Nutrition. The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes. Nutrition The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes. There are 6 Essential Nutrients found in varying amounts in the food and drinks we consume.

More information

Latin American Feedstocks

Latin American Feedstocks Latin American Feedstocks Professor: Márcia Miguel Castro Ferreira. PhD Student: Magale Rambo. University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Institue of Chemistry, Labor for Theoretical and Applied Chemometrics LQTA

More information

The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION

The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION Corn silage is an important ingredient in dairy and beef rations. Acres of Illinois corn harvested

More information

Thermal properties of soils Soil temperature Soil air Gaseous exchange

Thermal properties of soils Soil temperature Soil air Gaseous exchange Thermal properties of soils Soil temperature Soil air Gaseous exchange Influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth Thermal properties of soils The thermal properties of soils are a component

More information

The effect of nitrogen fertilization on chlorophyll content and composition in the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans

The effect of nitrogen fertilization on chlorophyll content and composition in the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans The effect of nitrogen fertilization on chlorophyll content and composition in the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans Jake Nelson Plant Nutrition Abstract Chlorophyll concentration was monitored under

More information

Simple and Effective Drying and Storage of Seeds and Horticultural Products for Developing World Farmers

Simple and Effective Drying and Storage of Seeds and Horticultural Products for Developing World Farmers Simple and Effective Drying and Storage of Seeds and Horticultural Products for Developing World Farmers Delivering improved seeds to smallholder farmers in the developing world is an efficient and sustainable

More information

Get It Right. Answers. Chapter 1: The Science of Life. A biologist studies all living things.

Get It Right. Answers. Chapter 1: The Science of Life. A biologist studies all living things. Discover Biology 'N' Level Science Chapter 1 Chapter 1: The Science of Life A biologist studies all living things. In order to carry out the scientific method, we need to ask questions. Discover Biology

More information

AGRICULTURE COMPETENCIES

AGRICULTURE COMPETENCIES STATE OF WYOMING AGRICULTURE &NATURAL RESOURCES CLUSTER AND PLANT SCIENCE PATHWAY COMPETENCIES AGRICULTURE COMPETENCIES Cluster Level Core Competencies & Objectives AS1 Students will demonstrate knowledge

More information