2 "#$! %'(!)*+,-,./!*0!12!3*345!! 6!,)-+.-,.,7!8!9:;7!<!+=-+$,!'+/!1!,#33*$.!! Data reduction and interpretation! RESIK RESIK was a unique Bragg crystal spectrometer operating on the Russian CORONAS-F satellite launched on 31 st of July The instrument operated for two years ( ) during a period close to the maximum of Solar Cycle 23. The instrument recorded many high quality spectra in the spectral range Å (Fig. 1), which has never before been studied systematically. In the spectra, several prominent X-ray emission lines are seen formed in active regions and flares in particular. Fig. 1. Example of RESIK spectra for flare SOL T22:2. On the flare- averaged spectrum (top left panel), identifications of stronger spectral lines are given. Panels e, g and n correspond to the rise, maximum and decay phases of the event. The pre-flare spectrum is shown at the bottom of panel n. The analysis of emission lines and the continuum allows the study of the physical conditions in the multi-million kelvin plasmas and thedetermination of plasma chemical composition in particular. In 2014 further analysis of flaring plasma spectra has been performed in close collaboration with Prof. Ken Phillips (Natural History Museum, London). The dependence of abundance determinations on iso- or multi-temperature plasma source models has been investigated. The results obtained indicate that a simplified isothermal approach provides overestimated values for abundances of elements whose ions are formed at relatively low-temperature. Thus, for RESIK X-ray spectra, it is clear from these studies that an isothermal approach is not valid for abundance determinations of silicon and sulfur, and instead, a multi-temperature approach is necessary. A dedicated multi-temperature abundance optimization method AbuOpt has been further developed and described in the paper published in ApJ ( / !/787/1/1). This has been
3 applied for a single flare in 2002 (SOL T22:26), with the result that abundance estimates of Si and S are decreasedin comparison with those from isothermal analyses but Ar and K (ions formed at higher temperatures) are approximately the same. With mean optimized abundances (A Si, A S, A Ar and A K ) for this flare the time evolution of the differential emission measure was determined (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. Left: contour plot of the differential emission measure during the SOL T22:26 flare, darker colors indicating greater emission measure. The horizontal scale is the logarithm of temperature in K, with time increasing upwards, measured from 22:14:41 UT. The horizontal dotted lines define the time intervals a, g, i, l, and q (right panel) and the smooth curve running fromthe top to bottom is the temperature derived from the ratio of the two GOES channels on an isothermal assumption. Right: emission measure distributions for the intervals indicated in the left plot, derived from the Withbroe Sylwester routine. Vertical error bars indicate uncertainties. A cooler (temperature!4 5 MK) component is present over all the time intervals shown, with the hotter component (!18 MK) at the peak of the GOES light curve. Subsequently, our AbuOpt approach has been used in the analysis of 33 flares observed by RESIK in the period December 2002 March 2003, after the instrument settings had been optimized. Very precise determinations of abundances (A Si, A S, A Ar and A K ) were made throughout each event to search for any time dependence but no such variability was detected outside the measurement uncertainties (Fig. 3 shows one of the 33 flares).
4 Fig. 3. Time variations of absolute abundance estimates of K, Ar, S, and Si. The abundances were determined using the abundance optimization (AbuOpt) approach described in the text. The error bars on abundance determination are based on the results in Figure 4 and correspond to the range of values for min(" 2 ) The thin black horizontal lines represent time-averaged values of elemental abundances together with their rms error bands (dotted horizontal lines). X-ray light curves from GOES (blue and red) and the RHESSI hard X-ray spacecraft are shown in the top panel. In the lower 4 panels, the horizontal blue dotted lines correspond to coronal abundances (Feldman 1992), the dashed red lines to photospheric abundances (Asplund et al. 2009). Also, very little if any difference is present from flare to flare. The paper describing these results has been submitted to ApJ and is at present under review.
5 Fig. 4. Mean abundance estimates for each of the 33 flares of K, Ar, S, and Si. The red dashed horizontal lines indicate photospheric abundance estimates from Asplund et al. (2009) (Si, S, K) or solar proxies from Lodders (2008) (Ar). The blue dotted lines are coronal abundance estimates from Feldman et al. (1992), those specified in the CHIANTI database coronal abundance set. DIOGENESS (B. Sylwester, J. Sylwester, A. K!pa) DIOGENESS was a spectrometer on the CORONAS-F spacecraft consisting of the four flat scanning crystals. The instrument operated a couple of months after the launch in Two of the crystals were mounted in a so-called dopplerometer configuration. Around 600 spectra were recorded for flares of M and X classes. Spectra from the four bands have been reduced and show several lines not seen before.example sequenceof measured spectra is shown in Figure 5. Some forty emission lines at least feature in the spectra and nearly all have been identified.
6 Fig. 5. Left: Forward (increasing wavelength) scans for DIOGENESS channel 4 (Ca XIX lines) during the 25 August 2001 flare stacked with increasing times from top to bottom (time range 16:29 18:00 UT). Right: Corresponding backward (decreasing wavelength) scans. Details of the Diogeness construction, operation data reduction and initial analysis are given in the paper published in Solar Physics (DOI /s ). SphinX (Z. Kordylewski, J. Sylwester, M.St!"licki, B.Sylwester, S. P#ocieniak, M. Siarkowski) The SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer on theboard ofthe Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite operated successfully between February and December The instrument collected ~2 million spectra from a period of record low solar activity, the lowest for approximately 100 years. SphinX was developed entirely in Wroclaw Solar Physics Division of SRC PAS under the financial support from the Ministry of Science grants 4 T12E and N N Over the past year, a detailed analysis of X-ray light curves observed in the energy range above ~1 kev has been performed with the aim of counting weak flares and X-ray brightenings. A new analysis approach allowed us to decompose the light curves into individual flare components (Figure 6 illustrates this).
7 Fig. 6. Example of the fit to the observed lightcurve over a several-hour period of solar X-ray emission (E > 1 kev) with individual elementary flare profiles. By fitting the elementary flare profiles, it is possible to precisely determine basic flare characteristics: start, maximum and end times and study flare evolution on a so-called diagnostic diagram.example of the fitted elementary flare time profile and the corresponding diagnostic diagram is shown in Figure 7. %:!,.$'-=:.!4-+,5 Fig. 7. Example of the elementary flare time profile fits withthe SphinX light curve of a small (A9.0) event SOL T0204 (left) and the corresponding diagnostic diagram (right) showing the evolution of theplasma emission measure and the temperature. Changing colours reflect progressing times. It is observed thatthe initial decay phase runs along the steady state branch (red dashed). At later times the heating-off takes place and the inclination steepens, being close to the OFF-case (yellow dot branch). Such a detailed study has been performed for the first time and the results are to be presented in a dedicated paper. X-ray light curves from SphinX have been compared with measurements of solar X-ray emission from the XRS-SAX instrument on board the MESSENGER spacecraft on its way to the planet Mercury. For two intervals during 2009, the location of Messenger was along the Sun-Earth line, so
8 during those times a comparison of SAX and SphinX X-ray emission profiles is possible, as shown in Fig. 8. Fig. 8. Upper panel: The comparison of X-ray lightcurves of the Sun as seen from MESSENGER (black) and SphinX (blue). The sensitivity of SphinX was many times higher than XRS. For the period in late September 2009 (lower panel), MESSENGER observed the same part of the solar disk, so a direct comparison is possible. Analysis of SphinX and XRS-SAX data is in progress, with early results indicating a problem with absolute calibration of one of the instruments, most likely the XRS (see Fig. 9). Fig. 9. Comparison of XRS (MESSENGER) and SphinX absolute fluxes of solar X-ray emission above 1 kev (left). SphinX values are about twice those of the XRS, though the derived plasma temperatures (from an isothermal assumption) are in a good agreement. Different colours correspond to particular small flares indicated by arrows in Fig. 8 (lower panel). SphinX individual detector events from D1 (the detector having the largest aperture) were carefully examined one by one with the aim of discriminating those eventsdue to thesolar X-ray photons from those due to magnetospheric energetic particles penetrating the instrument.
9 Fig. 10. Two examples of D1 SphinX records from the very low activity period. Green lines represent signal before cleaning and black after rejection of solar events. The dynamic range of the signal due to energetic particles is increased by about a factor of 100. In Fig. 10, an example of this analysis is shown. The eliminationof thesolar detector events allows for studies of particle events with an accuracy that is ~100 times better than before. The analysis of SphinX records due to particles is progressing in close collaboration with the Kharkiv group (Dr. Dudnik). Theoretical Modeling (P. Podgórski, M. Gryciuk, M. Siarkowski, A. K!pa) A new approach has been conceived using the CERN Geant4 particle package to model the detailed interaction of theelectron beams precipitating from the coronal acceleration region to thedenser chromospheric layers (cf. Fig. 11). Geant4 has an advantage of solving the problem in a Monte-Carlo approach without using simplified assumptions as has been done before. Fig. 11. Left: thevisualization of the relativistic electron track (red) impeding the solar denser chromosphere. Secondary electron paths are clearly visible leading to emission of thebremsstrahlung continuum. Right: Spectrum of X-ray emissioncalculated using Geant4 for theelectron power low beam above 10 kev (histogram). Straight linerepresent the analytical solution. (T. Mrozek, A. Barylak, J. Barylak)
10 New instruments ideas STIX STIX is the imaging Fourier hard X-ray spectrophotometer for the ESA Solar Orbiter. The instrument is in the final phase of construction C/D for the launch expected in Poland is contributing to the hardware and software development as a significant partner in the instrument consortium led by Switzerland. The main task of the SPD SRC Wroc#aw group is thedevelopment of the instrument EGSE,the development of the hardware/software detector simulator (~300 independent detector channels) and thesoftware flare simulator. All activities evolved nominally over The numerousdocuments have been drawn up and delivered to the consortium and/or ESA. Software and hardware progress were substantial, example of which is the construction of so called 3D detector simulator (cf. Fig. 12). This DSS allows the simulation of the real responses of the instrument detector pixels (>300 units in 32 detectors) and electronics down to the compressed telemetry stream. The front part of the simulator consists of elaborated block of IDL routines simulating the hard X-ray source with a high time (20 ns) and spatial resolution (1 arcsec) in a Monte-Carlo approach. ;O FO Fig. 12. A view of the detector simulator system (DSS-left) and one of the printed boards to be placed inside. The back-end of the instrument IDPU, under construction in Warsaw, interfaces with the SIIS Solar orbiter s simulator system delivered to SPD from ESA. The corresponding software (scripts) has been written in Wroc#aw to allowthe development of the IDPU software and test procedures. Fig. 13. Block scheme of the STIX test configuration to be used for EM and FM of the instrument.
11 In order for the simulator toadequately representthe real instrument with all its detectors, a Geant4 simulation of detector response to illumination by X-rays has been undertaken. These calculations were found to be in a good agreement with the test measurements of the detector response performed in the SACLAY, France - the detector construction laboratory (cf. Fig 14). Fig. 14. Comparison of the measured STIX detector response (in red) with the Geant4 calculated response (in blue). Satisfactory agreement is observed. All 32 STIX detectors (flight units) will be measured and fitted in order to properly convert the stream of telemetry data into images of X-ray flares in selected energy ranges. ChemiX (P. Podgórski, M. Kowali$ski, D. %cis#owski, A. Barylak, J. Barylak. M. St!"licki, T. Mrozek) ChemiX (cf. Fig. 15) is the Bragg bent crystal spectrometer under development for the two Russian Interhelioprobe interplanetary missions to be launched in 2020 and Orbits of Interhelioprobe will be similar to thesolar Orbiter, reaching distances to the Sun as close as ~0.3 a.u. ChemiX is equipped with pin-hole soft X-ray imager and 10 bent crystals illuminating CCD detectors taking the soft X-ray spectra in the entire range from 1.5 Å to ~9 Å. Three pairs of identical crystals are placed in a so-called dopplerometer configuration allowing for theprecise determinations of line shifts and physical line profiles. Over 2014, a complete reconfiguration of the instrument construction took place reducing the weight of the detection section.
12 Fig. 15. General view of the ChemiX Bragg spectrometer (left). The upper two panels are the filter boards to be mounted on the mission thermal screen. They have to withstand harsh thermal conditions (~400 C). The crystals and detectors are mounted within the block placed ~1m behind the filters. The red-capped tube is the particle detector system, under development by the Ukrainian Kharkiv group led by Dr. Dudnik. Right: a view of ChemiX from the direction of the Sun. Reliable thermal modelling is especially important for ChemiX since the mission so closelyapproaches the Sun and the solar thermal flux is many times larger than in the Earth s neighborhood. An example of the thermal modelling is shown in Fig. 16.
13 Fig. 16. Distribution of ChemiX instrument temperatures, calculated for the case of the instrument support temperature being at -20 C. This corresponds to the lowest temperature envisaged for the payload support plate. (J. Bka#a, '. Szaforz, M. Siarkowski, Z. Kordylewski, A. Owczarek, M. Kowali$ski, W. Trzebi$ski, Sz. Gburek, S. P#ocieniak. U. Kaszubkiewicz) SolpeX SolpeX (cf. Fig. 17) is the soft X-ray polarimeter-spectrometer for the International Space Station. The instrument consists of three functional blocks to be placed inside Russian-build KORTES assembly. Delivery of KORTES to the ISS is planned for 2017/2018. The three SolpeX units are: the rotating bent-crystal polarimeter (B-POL), a fast rotating drum spectrometer RDS, and the pin-hole imager. B-POL will hopefully detect (for the first time) the polarization of the soft X-ray lines and continuum around a photon energy of ~3 kev, which is expected to be present during impulsive phase of flares. RDS will take spectral measurements covering the entire soft X-ray range 1.5 Å 23 Å up to 10 times per sec and the pin-hole will image the solar disk in a softer X-ray range detecting position and the lightcurves of individual events.
14 Fig. 17. A view of the three SolpeX units within KORTES shadow. The B-POL rotating polarimeter axis is actively directed towards the flare (being in progress) as seen in the pin-hole image. The RDS consists of 8 flat crystals mounted on the rotating drum revolving 10 times/sec. Bragg-reflected X-rays are collected by four SDD detectors. Appropriate crystal selection assures a full spectral coverage over the soft X-ray spectral range. (J. Sylwester, S. P#ocieniak, J.A. Hernandez Castello, '. Szaforz, D. %cis#owski, P. Podgórski, M. Kowali$ski, W. Trzebi$ski, M. St!"licki, M. Siarkowski) Proba-3 Proba-3 (Fig. 18) is the ESA project aimed to observe details of solar corona in the optical range. Project is in phase C/D. Fig Members of the SPD SRC (Siarkowski, St$%licki Sylwester), were engaged in theprocess of selection of the spectral bands where the observations are to be undertaken by this formation flying solar coronograph. We suggested that the mission shouldbe equipped with the X-ray spectrometer SphinX-NGP to widen the science output (cf. Fig 19).
15 Fig. 19. The construction of SphinX-NGP soft X-ray spectrophotometer intended to be placed on the front satellite (occulter) of the Proba-3 formation flying duo. A new international agreements had been signed between the National Radioastronomical Institute of Ukraine represented by Dr. O. Dudnik and SRC PAS (J. Sylwester). The agreement will support acommon interpretation of thedata collected by STEP-F and SphinX instruments on the CORONAS-Photon and the ChemiX construction. (J. Bka#a, M. Kowali$ski, M. Siarkowski, M. St!"licki, J. Sylwester) The teams from Radioastronomical Institute of Ukraine (dr. O. Dudnik, and E. Kurbatov) and SPD SRC PAS ( prof. J. Sylwester, dr. S. Gburek, dr. M. Kowalinski P. Podgórski) were awarded prestigious inter Academy Award between Polish and Ukrainian Academies of Sciences. For details see Visiting scientists Irina Myaghkova, Skobeltsyn Institute, MGU, Moscow, Russia, May Ken Phillips, national History Museum, London August Oleksiy Dudnik, Kharkiv University, Kanti Aggarwal, Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen s University Belfast, 1-2. October
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Solar activity and solar wind Solar atmosphere Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct. 17 Photosphere - visible surface of sun. Only ~100 km thick. Features
Lecture 4 lackbody radiation. Main Laws. rightness temperature. Objectives: 1. Concepts of a blackbody, thermodynamical equilibrium, and local thermodynamical equilibrium.. Main laws: lackbody emission:
How Does One Obtain Spectral +Imaging Data What we observe depends on the instruments that one observes with! In x and γ-ray spectroscopy we have a wide variety of instruments with different properties
Name AP Biology Period Date LAB. THE SPECTROPHOTOMETER INTRODUCTION: A spectrophotometer is a valuable instrument in biology. It allows us to measure and compare the concentration of materials in solution