ACADÉMIE INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT LINGUISTIQUE

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1 ABSTRACTS RÉSUMÉS ACHOIMRÍ INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF LINGUISTIC LAW ACADÉMIE INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT LINGUISTIQUE An 10ú Comhdháil Idirnáisiúnta ar Theanga agus Dlí Dixième Conférence internationale sur le Droit et la Langue The Tenth International Conference on Language and Law NA DÚSHLÁIN A BHAINEANN LE HACHTÚ AGUS LE CUR I BHFEIDHM DLÍ AGUS CEARTA TEANGA DROIT, LANGUE ET DROITS LINGUISTIQUES: LES DEFIS DE LA MISE EN ŒUVRE LANGUAGE LAW AND LANGUAGE RIGHTS: THE CHALLENGES OF ENACTMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION Ollscoil na héireann, Gaillimh, Meitheamh 2006 Université Nationale d Irlande, Galway, Juin 2006 National University Of Ireland, Galway, June 2006

2 Introduction... 1 Avant-Propos... 1 Réamhrá... 1 Acadamh na hollscolaíochta Gaeilge... 3 Irish Centre for Human Rights... 4 IALL/IADL... 5 ABID-HOUCINE Samira, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi-Bel-Abbès, Algérie... 6 What future for Berber languages in Algeria?... 6 Myriam Abouzaid, l Université Stendhal de Grenoble, France Mise en œuvre de l enseignement de l amazighe (berbère) au Maroc Mr. Forbang Tewarra Acquilla, Mr. Iyok Sammy Pride Ayuk and Mrs. Ngum Relindis, Legal Resource Foundation, Cameroon... 9 The Language Question in Cameroon... 9 Dr Jean-Bernard Adrey, University of Coventry, England Language Law, Language Ideologies and Language-in-Education Policy Implementation in Corsica: The Need for an Alternative Approach to Language Implementation Research in Minority Language Contexts in France Giovanni Agresti, Università di Teramo, CILRE (Centre International de documentation sur les Langues Régionales d Europe), Italy Le droit-menace : analyse argumentative d un corpus de textes contraires à la ratification, de la part de l État français, de la Charte européenne des langues régionales ou minoritaires The right-threat : Argumentative analysis of the body of literature opposed to the ratification of the European Charter on Regional and Minority Languages by the French state Malika AHMED ZAID-CHERTOUK, Université Mouloud Mammeri, Algérie Droits linguistiques et incidences sur le développement socio-économique : le cas du berbère en Algérie

3 Dr Hilmi Alacaklı, Université de Marmara, Kadıköy, Istanbul, Turquie Changements du statut des autochtones en Amérique du Sud The Changing Status of Indigenous People in South America Bernhard ALTERMATT, University of Fribourg-Freiburg, Institute of Federalism, Switzerland Language Policy between Constitutional Arrangements and Legislative Action: The territorial management of linguistic diversity in Swiss and Belgian school systems Professor Andrássy, György, University of Pécs, Hungary Recognition of the Right to Use One s Own Language and the Matter of Simplicity Dr. Xabier Arzoz, LL.M.Eur., University of the Basque Country The status of language rights: The relationship between human, constitutional and legal rights Bestué, Carmen & Torres, Olga, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and LEXTRA (Studies Group on Law and Translation), Spain Official recognition of Catalan and its status as a language of law Paul Bilbao Sarria, Hizkuntz Eskubideen Behatokia, Observatory of Linguistic Rights, Basque Country Language rights and the legal system in the Basque Country Prof Tamara Borgoyakova, Khakas State University, Russia Language Status, Politics, and Linguistic Rights in Russia Jenő Böszörményi, Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research, Budapest University of Economics and Public Administration, Hungary Linguistic Rights in Judicial Procedure An International Law Perspective Prof André Braën, Université d Ottawa, Canada L Enseignement dans la Langue de la Minorité au Canada Minority Language Education in Canada Professor Roland J.-L. Breton, University Paris-8, France

4 The French Model of Negation of Language Rights Bojan Brezigar, Editor-in-Chief, Primorski dnevnik, Italy Linguistic diversity as key topic in the new draft Statute of the Autonomous Region Friuli Venezia Giulia Thérèse Caron, Canada Les droits linguistiques dans une province majoritairement francophone Language Rights in a Majority French-Speaking Province Dr. Joshua Castellino, Irish Centre for Human Rights, NUI Galway, Galway, Republic of Ireland The Theory of Affirmative Action Measures and its Application in the Protection of Linguistic Rights Prof Giuseppe G. Castorina, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy A linguistic strategy of total liberation and decolonization: Ken Saro-Wiwa, Wole Soyinka and Neville Alexander Marlène COLLETTE-LEVEQUE, Université de Freibourg, Suisse Le statut de la langue dans le cadre constitutionnel français : la confusion entre langue nationale et langue officielle The Status of Language in the French Constitutional Framework: the confusion between national language and official language Elizabeth Craig, University of Sussex, England Irish Language Education in Northern Ireland and the Council of Europe s Minority Treaties Prof Fernand de Varennes, Murdoch University, Australia Implementing International Language Rights Standards: Challenges, Difficulties and Possibilities Prof Theodorus du Plessis, University of the Free State, South Africa The politics of language delegitimisation a case study on language regulation for the motor-vehicle registration system of the multilingual Free State Province of South Africa

5 Robert Dunbar, The University of Aberdeen, Scotland Legislative Promotion of Minority Languages and the Rights of Non-Speakers Dr Pascale Duparc Portier, National University of Ireland Galway, République d Irlande & Antoine Masson, Université du Luxembourg, CEPRISCA, Université de Picardie De l usage des adages latins en pays de Common Law et en pays de Civil Law Gérard Finn, Commissariat aux langues officielles, Canada Lois linguistiques et instruments de mise en œuvre, approche du gouvernement du Canada Linguistic Laws and instruments of implementation, the Canadian government approach Prof Paul Ghils, la Haute Ecole de Bruxelles, Belgium Le droit cosmopolitique à l épreuve de Babel Matthew Hayday, Mount Allison University, Canada Between politicians and parents: The role of expert testimony in the development of official languages in Canadian education Kjell Herberts, Åbo Akademi University, Finland The Implementation of Language Rights: The case of the city of Vaasa/Vasa Thomson Irvine, Senior Crown Counsel, Saskatchewan Dept. of Justice, Canada Language Rights in the Legal System of Saskatchewan Chris Kostov, University of Ottawa, Canada Citizenship and Language in Canada, Dr Lachman Khubchandani, Centre for Communication Studies Indus Education Foundation, India Right to Communicate Dr V. Lakshmanan, Annamalai University, India Law, Language, Linguistic Diversity and Fundamental Rights:

6 The Indian Experience Dr Liao Meizhen, Central China Normal University, China University of Political Sciences and Law, P. R. China A Study of the Re-contextualization of Chinese Courtroom Discourse LIU GUI XIANG A Pragmatic Exploration of Vagueness in Legal Language Professor H.J. Lubbe & Dr E.J.J. Truter, University of the Free State, South Africa Right to mother-tongue education vs the right to receive education in the language of choice Professor Gerald Lynch, University of Ottawa, Canada Mordecai Richler and Bill Dáithí Mac Cárthaigh, Uachtarán Chonradh na Gaeilge, Ireland Cearta Teanga agus Reachtaíocht Teanga Language Rights and Language Legislation... Error! Bookmark not defined. Dáithí Mac Síthigh, Law School, Trinity College Dublin Multilingualism.com: Internationalisation of Domain Names and the Embedding of Online Language Rights Prof Marcel Martel, Département d histoire, York University, Canada «Un travail dans les coulisses» : l Ontario Advisory Committee on Confederation et la politique linguistique ontarienne Work in the Wings : The Ontario Advisory Committee on Confederation and Ontarian Linguistic Policy Prof Nelson Mbulaheni Musehane, University of Venda for Science and Technology, South Africa The Impact of Language Policies on the Development of Indigenous African Languages in Institutions of Higher Learning, in South Africa Prof Teresa L. McCarty, Arizona State University, USA

7 Language Education Planning and Policies by and for Indigenous Peoples - Challenges and Possibilities in the Native American Context Dr Wilson McLeod, University of Edinburgh, Scotland & Dr John Walsh, National University of Ireland, Galway An overcoat wrapped around an invisible man? Language legislation and community language revitalisation in Ireland and Scotland Prof MIYAWAKI Hiroyuki, Miyagi Gakuin University, Japan Wartime language policy and language rights A case study of the Japanese Empire Jean-Emet Nodem, Université de Dschang, Cameroun Les langues dans le proocessus de développement rural au Cameroun Languages in the process of rural development in Cameroon Dr Sonja Novak - Lukanovič, Institute for Ethnic Studies, Slovenia Language Diversity in Border Regions in Slovenia - Recent Research and Implications for Language Rights Dr. Brian Ó Conchubhair, University of Notre Dame, USA The Irish Language and the Law in 19 th -century Ireland Dr Peadar Ó Flatharta, Dublin City University/Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath, Ireland The nature and extent of language specific legislation and organisational issues and structures in language legislation bodies in Wales, Ireland and Scotland Dr Conchúr Ó Giollagáin, Acadamh na hollscolaíochta Gaeilge, Ollscoil na héireann, Gaillimh, Ireland Est-ce que les unités linguistiques géographiques renforcent les droits linguistiques? Dr Mary O Malley-Madec, Villanova University, USA & NUI Galway An bhfuil an ceart agat? Linguistic Rights and Irish Dónall Ó Riagáin

8 Ceithre bliana déag ar an mbóthar Sracfhéachaint ar an gcairt Eorpach do Theangacha Réigiúnacha nó Mionlaigh agus a éifeacht ar Pholasaí Teanga san Eoraip An tollamh Pádraig Ó Riagáin, Coláiste na Trionóide/Trinity College, Ireland Setting International Standards for Minority Language Policy: An Appraisal of The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in Practice Fatih Öztürk, University College Cork, Ireland Language Rights in Turkey Prof Martin Pâquet, Université Laval, Canada Influencer et agir : les experts et la Commission Laurendeau-Dunton To Influence and to Act: the experts of the Laurendeau-Dunton Commission R. Gwynedd Parry, University of Swansea, Wales Bilingual Juries and the Implementation of Minority Language Rights: Three Jurisdictions Compared Mary Phelan, Dublin City University, Ireland Legal Interpreting in Ireland Meital Pinto, University of Toronto, Canada Theoretical Framework for Selecting Minority Languages That Should be Protected by Language Rights Illustrated by the Israeli Linguistic Case Prof Paulo Feytor Pinto, Associação de Professores de Portugues, Portugal Language Rights in the Constitutions of Portugal ( ) Dr Karel Prinsloo, Pretoria, South Africa Towards a language strategy for Afrikaans Prof Giancarlo Rolla, University of Genoa & Professor Eleonora Ceccherini, University of Siena, Italy The Constitutional Protection of the Linguistic Diversity in the European Union Francesca Rosati, University of Teramo, Italy Multilingualism and Language Policies in Africa: the Case of Ghana

9 Professor Rosemary Salomone, St. John s University, USA Language Rights and Schooling in the Age of Transnationalism and Mass Migration Stéphane Savard, Université Laval, Canada Le rôle des membres des élites franco-ontariennes dans la transformation de l ordre symbolique canadien entre 1963 et The Role of Elite Franco-Ontarians in the Transformation of Canada s Symbolic Order between 1963 and Prof William Schabas, Irish Centre For Human Rights, Ireland Language, the Covenant and the Human Rights Committee Prof Shaazizov Sh. Sh., The Uzbek State World Languages University, Uzbekistan Educational-pedagogical status of languages Jozef SIVÁK, Chercheur á l Académie slovaque des Sciences, Slovakia LES LANGUES MINORITAIRES ENTRE LE DROIT ET LA POLITIQUE Les droits linguistiques à la lumière de la Convention -cadre Minority Languages between law and politics Linguistic rights of the framework Convention Dr Beiping Song, Beijing College of Politics and Law, China Project to Establish a Database of Chinese-English Legal Language Prof Su Jinzhi, Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong Written Chinese in the Bilingual Legal System in Hong Kong Carlos Torres The United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico and its new English language requirement for admission to the Bar Dr JOSEPH-G. TURI, Secrétaire Général, IALL/AIDL, Canada LES PROBLÈMES JURIDICO-LINGUISTIQUES AU DÉBUT DU NOUVEAU MILLÉNAIRE Prof WANG Jie, LI Li & YOU Zhian, China University of Political Science and Law

10 Report on the Use of Mandarin-Uighur Bilinguals in the Court of Xinjiang Autonomous Region Dr Terrence Wiley, Arizona State University, USA Language Rights and Educational Equity in English-Only Arizona Dr Iwona WITCZAK-PLISIECKA, University of Łódź, Poland The law on Kashubian in Poland Dr Iñigo Urrutia & Prof Iñaki Lasagabaster, University of the Basque Country The Recognition of Linguistic Diversity in European Union Law: Internal and External Dimensions Francesca Vaccarelli, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy Languages in Zimbabwe Kate Waterhouse, Irish Human Rights Centre, Ireland Minorities, Language Rights and Terrorism Zhigang Zhou Analysis of Legal Language Panel 1 (Wednesday) «Les conseillers du Prince»: l expertise et l élaboration des politiques linguistiques canadiennes, Panel 2 (Thursday) Language Planning and Linguistic Human Rights: Challenges and Possibilities in Cross- National Perspective From Dialogue to Action

11 INTRODUCTION AVANT-PROPOS RÉAMHRÁ Fáilte go dtí an 10ú Comhdháil Idirnáisiúnta ar Theanga agus Dlí de chuid Acadamh Idirnáisiúnta an Dlí Teanga. Sna scór blianta ó bunaíodh an tacadamh tá dul chun cinn suntasach déanta i réimse an dlí teanga ag an leibhéal réigiúnach, náisiúnta agus idirnáisiúnta. Glacadh leis an gcairt Eorpach do Theangacha Réigiúnacha agus Mionlaigh i 1992 agus leis an gcoinbhinsiún Creatlaí do Chosaint Mionlaigh Náisiúnta i In Éirinn tá forbairt shuntasach déanta ar an soláthar don Ghaeilge agus don Ghaeltacht i reachtaíocht na tíre le deich mbliana anuas, go háirithe le Acht na dteangacha Oifigiúla, 2003, agus leis an gcinneadh i 2005 go mbeidh an Ghaeilge ina teanga oifigiúil agus oibre de chuid an Aontas Eorpaigh. Treisíodh stádas foirmeálta na Gaeilge i dtuaisceart Éireann mar thoradh ar fhorálacha Chomhaontú Aoine an Chéasta, i Is am tráthúil é seo, mar sin, le hathbhreithniú a dhéanamh ar a bhfuil déanta le scór blianta anuas i réimse an dlí teanga le ceiliúradh a dhéanamh ar a bhfuil bainte amach agus le dhul i mbun pleanála don méid atá fós le déanamh. Is am trathúil é freisin le measúnú a dhéanamh ar an gcaoi a bhfuil na dlíthe teanga atá anois i bhfeidhm ag baint amach na gcuspóirí a bhí leagtha síos dóibh. Is chuige seo téama na comhdhála seo, Na dúshláin a bhaineann le hachtú agus le cur i bhfeidhm dlí agus cearta teanga. Beidh páipéir á gcur i láthair na comhdhála faoi dhlíthe agus teangacha an domhain: ón Eoraip, Ceanada, Stáit Aontaithe Mheiriceá, an tsín, an Ind, an Rúis, an Afraic Theas, an Chamarúin, an Tuirc. Pléifear ceisteanna éagsúla, ina measc: cearta teanga agus reachtaíocht teanga; cearta teanga i mbunreachtanna réigiúnacha, náisiúnta agus idirnáisiúnta an domhain; pleanáil teanga agus reachtaíocht teanga; an pholaitíocht a bhaineann le cearta agus le teanga; teangacha na mbundúchasach agus cearta na mionlach; cearta teanga os comhair na cúirte agus i láthair an dlí; cearta teanga i gcúrsaí oideachais agus teanga an dlí Mar sin, cloisfear go leor tuairimí éagsúla ar raon leathan ábhar agus ceisteanna ag an gcomhdháil seo. Tá súil againn go mbainfidh tú taitneamh as an gcomhdháil agus as do chuairt ar Chathair na Gaillimhe. Welcome to the Tenth International Conference on Language and Law of the International Academy of Linguistic Law. In the 20 years since the Academy was established many developments have taken place in the area of language and law at regional, national and international level. International developments include the adoption in 1992 of the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages and in 1995 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. In Ireland the past ten years have seen major developments in language legislation, culminating in 2003 with the enactment of the 1

12 Official Languages Act and the decision in 2005 that Irish is to become an official working language of the European Union. The formal status of the Irish language in Northern Ireland was also strengthened through the provisions of the Good Friday Agreement of This is an appropriate time then to review the advances that have been made over the last two decades in the area of Language and Law - to celebrate what has been achieved and to plan for what more has to be done. It is also an appropriate time to assess how effective the language laws that are now in place have been at achieving their objectives. Hence the theme of this year s conference, Language law and language rights: the challenges of enactment and implementation. The conference will present papers which look at various aspects of language and law across the world: in Europe, Canada, the United States, China, India, Russia, South Africa, Cameroon, Turkey. The papers presented will cover a broad range of topics, including: linguistic rights and legislation; language rights in the regional, national and international constitutions of the world; language planning and linguistic law; the politics of languages and rights; indigenous languages and minorities rights; language rights before the courts and the law; language rights in education and the language of law. The Tenth International Conference on Language and Law therefore promises to provide many varied opinions on a broad range of topics and issues. We hope that you enjoy it and your visit to Galway. Joseph-G. Turi Secretary-General / Secretaire general / Rúnaí Ginearálta International Academy of Linguistic Law Academie internationale de droit linguistique Joe Mac Donnacha Comhordaitheoir Acadúil/Academic Co-ordinator Acadamh na hollscolaíochta Gaeilge Ollscoil na héireann, Gaillimh/National University of Ireland, Galway Prof. Bill Schabas Director/ Stiúrthóir Irish Centre for Human Rights National University of Ireland, Galway/Ollscoil na héireann, Gaillimh 2

13 ACADAMH NA HOLLSCOLAÍOCHTA GAEILGE MISEAN Trí ghníomhaíochtaí acadúla agus taighde ollscoile, ceannródaíocht a spreagadh agus a léiriú i measc pobal Gaeilge, sa Ghaeltacht agus lasmuigh di, a chuirfidh le forbairt shóisialta, chultúrtha, eacnamaíoch agus teanga na bpobal sin agus phobal na tíre trí chéile. CUSPÓIR Forbairt inbhuanaithe a dhéanamh ar chúrsaí, ar thaighde, ar sheirbhísí agus ar ghníomhaíochtaí ollscoile eile trí mheán na Gaeilge agus iad a sheachadadh agus a riaradh. MISSION Through academic and research activities to demonstrate and inspire leadership in the Irishspeaking community, within the Gaeltacht and elsewhere, and to contribute to the social, cultural, economic and linguistic development of that community and of the country as a whole. GOAL The sustainable development, management and delivery of university courses, research, services and related activities through the medium of Irish. 3

14 IRISH CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS Established in January 2000, the Irish Centre for Human Rights is dedicated to the study and promotion of human rights and humanitarian law. Whilst the Centre is autonomous in both its physical location and day-to-day operations, its academic staff are members of the Faculty of Law at the National University of Ireland, Galway, with whom the Centre is linked and maintains a close and cooperative working relationship. With a rapid growth in its reputation globally the Centre has been able to attract high quality students to its various Masters programmes and also houses a thriving community of doctoral researchers, many of whom actively participate in the day-to-day affairs and projects organised under the auspices of the Centre. The growth of this community has also resulted in making the Centre a focal point for local human rights activity both in Galway city and in Ireland as a whole. Bunaíodh an tionad Éireannach um Chearta an Duine in Eanáir 2000, agus tá sé tiomanta do staidéar agus cothú a dhéanamh ar chearta an duine agus ar an dlí daonnachtúil. Cé go bhfuil an tionad uathrialach ó thaobh suíomh agus feidhmiú ó lá go lá, is comhaltaí de Dhámh an Dlí in Ollscoil na héireann, Gaillimh na comhaltaí acadúla ar an bhfoireann agus tá caidreamh oibre maith, comhoibríoch idir an tionad agus an Dámh. De réir mar atá cáil an Ionaid ag dul i bhfad agus i gcéin tá mic léinn den scoth á mealladh ar na cláir éagsúla Mháistreachta agus tá taighdeoirí dochtúireachta ann chomh maith a bhíonn gníomhach i ngnóthaí laethúla agus i dtionscadail faoi scáth an Ionaid. Mar gheall ar an méadú agus ar an bhforás seo, tá an tionad ina phointe fócais do ghníomhaíochtaí áitiúla maidir le cearta an duine i gcathair na Gaillimhe agus ar fud na héireann. Le Centre Irlandais des Droits de L Homme a ouvert ses portes en Janvier L objectif primordial du Centre est l Enseignement, la Promotion et la Dissémination des Droits de L Homme et du Droit Humanitaire. Actuellement, le Centre fonctionne comme une Faculté autonome. Bien que le Centre soit autonome, avec ses propres bureaux et son bâtiment, son personnel fait partie de la Faculté de Droit de L Université Nationale d Irlande, Galway. De surcroît, Le Centre et La Faculté de Droit collaborent étroitement dans leurs travaux académiques respectifs. Le Centre a connu une réputation mondiale ces dernières années. Ainsi, il attire beaucoup d étudiants de 2e et 3e Cycle venant de tous les coins du monde. La majorité de ces étudiants participent dans les activités quotidiennes et des projets du Centre. Il va sans dire que Le Centre Irlandais des Droits de l Homme est aussi devenu un point de référence des Droits de l Homme aussi bien pour la population locale de Galway qu à travers toute l Irlande. 4

15 IALL/IADL OBJECTIVES The International Academy of Linguistic Law, the IALL, an international multidisciplinary organization established in September 1984 by 100 founding members, brings together jurists, linguists, social scientists and all those worldwide who are interested, scientifically or professionally, in issues pertaining to LAW AND LANGUAGE, especially regarding COMPARATIVE LANGUAGE LAW, whether from an academic or professional perspective. The expression COMPARATIVE LINGUISTIC LAW refers to the different legal and linguistic norms pertinent to the law of language, the language of law and LINGUISTIC RIGHTS AS FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS. OBJECTIFS L ACADÉMIE INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT LINGUISTIQUE, L AIDL, ORGANISME INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINAIRE CRÉÉ EN SEPTEMBRE 1984 PAR CENT MEMBRES FONDATEURS, REGROUPE DES JURISTES, DES LINGUISTES, DES SPÉCIALISTES EN SCIENCES SOCIALES ET TOUTE AUTRE PERSONNE QUI, DE PAR LE MONDE, S INTÉRESSENT, SCIENTIFIQUEMENT OU PROFESSIONNELLEMENT, AUX PHÉNOMÈNES ET AUX PROBLÈMES RELATIFS AU DROIT ET À LA LANGUE, ET PLUS PARTICULIÈREMENT AU DROIT LINGUISTIQUE COMPARÉ. L EXPRESSION «DROIT LINGUISTIQUE COMPARÉ» COMPREND LES DIFFÉRENTES NORMES JURIDIQUES ET LINGUISTIQUES RELATIVES AU DROIT DE LA LANGUE, À LA LANGUE DU DROIT ET AU DROIT À LA LANGUE (OU DROITS LINGUISTIQUES) EN TANT QUE DROIT FONDAMENTAL. 5

16 ABID-HOUCINE SAMIRA, UNIVERSITÉ DJILLALI LIABÈS DE SIDI-BEL-ABBÈS, ALGÉRIE WHAT FUTURE FOR BERBER LANGUAGES IN ALGERIA? After Algeria wrenched its independence from France in 1962, one of the main goals of the newlyformed government was to achieve arabization so as to rid the country of French, the language of colonialism and oppression. Thus Standard Arabic became the official language of Algeria. However, this linguistic policy has been a source of conflict and controversy; it has stirred up passions: pro- and anti-arabization have been debated without finding any compromise solution. The Algerian government finally decided to arabize the country; to that end, in January 1991 a law (n 91-05) concerning the complete arabization of all public institutions was passed. Currently, the Algerian linguistic situation is one of multilingualism, where Algerian Arabic (regional varieties), Tamazight i. e. Berber languages and French are used on a daily basis in different circumstances. The sociolinguistic configuration in Algeria shows a chasm between majority languages with a low status and minority languages with a high status. This gap is above all a social and symbolic one and is closely akin to the dichotomy of spoken language/written language. Algerian Arabic is the mother tongue of about 75% of the Algerian population and the second language of Berber-speakers, who make up 24% of the population. French is spoken by a large number of people approximately 50% of Algerians; however, command of the language fluctuates according to the social environment. Classical Arabic remains the language of prestige though its use is exclusively limited to religious purposes, education and formal speeches. Nowadays Tamazight is recognized as a national language, and even as early as 1995 Berbers obtained the right to teach and learn their language at school. Currently, this measure is a failure. Teaching Tamazight is quite problematic; indeed, there are many varieties of Berber, rather than one standardized version which can be taught to all pupils. The recognition of the Berber language goes along with the recognition of the Berber identity. There is not now one single Berber community, but the Amazigh language plays the role of a common feature. Concerning Berbers, Chaker (1996: 21) writes: In the 20 th century, the essential reference is a common language This talk tackles the issue of Berbers in Algeria and raises the question of language minority rights and identity in a country which is slowly beginning to recognise its diversity. 6

17 MYRIAM ABOUZAID, L UNIVERSITE STENDHAL DE GRENOBLE, FRANCE MISE EN ŒUVRE DE L ENSEIGNEMENT DE L AMAZIGHE (BERBERE) AU MAROC Nous souhaitons présenter les résultats d une recherche personnelle en sociolinguistique. Notre communication consistera en une synthèse commentée de l évolution récente de la situation de la langue amazighe (berbère) au Maroc. Elle y a toujours possédé un statut minoré malgré un usage numériquement important (environ 50% de la population). Depuis septembre 2003, l amazighe est introduit petit à petit dans le système éducatif marocain, en tant que discipline d enseignement. La mise en place de cet enseignement constitue un pas décisif vers la reconnaissance des droits linguistiques et culturels d une partie de la population marocaine. Nous avons pu observer, sur le terrain, la mise en œuvre de cette nouvelle politique linguistique nationale et nous souhaitons en rendre compte en présentant les enjeux majeurs de cet aménagement du statut de la langue. Nous apporterons des éléments de réponse aux questions suivantes : Quelle législation accompagne la mise en œuvre de ce nouvel enseignement? Quelles sont les actions préalables à cet enseignement? Comment s organise cet enseignement et quelles sont les difficultés à surmonter? Ainsi, trois catégories d enjeux gravitant autour de l enseignement de l amazighe seront abordés : 1) Des enjeux politiques et idéologiques : Le statut sacré de l arabe «classique», qui est l unique langue officielle, ainsi que le passé historique de la nation rendent difficile la reconnaissance institutionnelle de l amazighe. Pour l instant, des hésitations éloquentes caractérisent les orientations des autorités. 2) Des enjeux «techniques» liés à l aménagement du corpus : Langue de tradition orale, l amazighe a évolué vers de nombreux dialectes. Le passage à l écrit nécessaire pour son enseignement implique un important travail de standardisation. Les linguistes chargés de cette gestion de la diversité dialectale ont opté pour un processus démocratique et ont tenté d élaborer une koïné respectueuse de cette diversité. 3) Des enjeux didactiques et organisationnels : La langue amazighe devient obligatoire dans tout le pays et pour tous les élèves, qu ils soient amazighophones ou arabophones. Cette décision soulève des questions fondamentales quant à la démarche didactique choisie : enseigne-t-on une langue étrangère ou maternelle? De façon plus générale, les modalités d enseignement sont-elles adaptées au projet de reconnaissance des droits linguistiques de la communauté amazighe? 7

18 Nous aimerions ainsi, à travers l exemple de l enseignement de la langue amazighe au Maroc, contribuer à nourrir la réflexion sur la reconnaissance des droits linguistiques des minorités autochtones. We wish to present the results of our research in sociolinguistics. Our presentation will consist of a synthesis interpreting the recent evolution of the Amazighe language of Morocco. The amazighe language population have always had a minority status despite the fact that they constitute 50% of the population. Since September 2003, amazighe has been introduced little by little into the Moroccan education system. The implementation of this education policy signifies a decisive step towards the recognition of linguistic and cultural rights for a section of the Moroccan population. We have been able to observe the implementation of this new national linguistic policy on the ground and we wish to outline the major issues with regard to development of the status of the language. We will speak to the following aspects: What legislation accompanies the implementation of this education policy? What are the preconditions of this policy? How is this education policy to unfold, and what are the difficulties to be overcome? Thus, three categories of issues around the teaching of Amazighe will be dealt with: 1) The political and ideological issues: the sacred status of classical Arabic, which is the only official language: the history of the country having rendered the learning of amazighe difficult. 2) The technical issues based on the development of the corpus: traditional spoken language, Amazighe evolved in numerous dialects, the important steps towards reaching a standardised written form of the language, necessary for teaching. Those linguists charged with the management of this dialectic diversity have opted for a democratic process and have tended towards elaborating a standard language which respects this diversity. 3) Didactic and organisational issues: the Amazighe language will be obligatory all over the country for all students, who are Amazighi or Arabic speaking. This decision raises fundamental questions: Does one teach it as a foreign or maternal language? In a more general sense, are the teaching procedures adapted for the project of recognising the linguistic rights of the Amazighe community? Mlle Myriam ABOUZAID, doctorante en Sciences du Langage à l Université Stendhal de Grenoble, France. Membre du laboratoire LIDILEM de la même université. Titulaire d une Maîtrise d anglais et d une Maîtrise de Français Langue Etrangère. Recherche actuelle (doctorat) : Etude comparative de l aménagement de la langue amazighe (berbère) et de son enseignement au Maroc et en Algérie. Domaines de recherche : politiques linguistiques, langues minoritaires, sociolinguistique, didactique des langues étrangères, éducation bilingue, contacts de langue. 8

19 MR. FORBANG TEWARRA ACQUILLA, MR. IYOK SAMMY PRIDE AYUK AND MRS. NGUM RELINDIS, LEGAL RESOURCE FOUNDATION, CAMEROON THE LANGUAGE QUESTION IN CAMEROON In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages) and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca). While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon, revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French) since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a secondary place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones), thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on a critique of language policy in Cameroon, with emphasis first on the policy of official language bilingualism and bilingual education, then on the place of indigenous languages, and finally on the national language debate. Iyok Sammy Pride Ayuk obtained an LLB from the University of Yaounde II, CAMEROON in 1993 and a post-graduate diploma in international law from the same institution in Following this, he has worked on a voluntary basis for the Legal Resources Foundation, Cameroon as human rights and civic education co-coordinator. Ngum Relindis is currently a Masters Degree student in the University of Buea, Cameroon in the department of Linguistics and English Language, having obtained an LLB and minor in political science in1999 at the same University. She works part-time for the Legal Resources Foundation, training 10 paralegals to supplement the work of the Foundation. 9

20 Forbang Tewarra holds a Master s degree in international law from the University of Yaoundé and was awarded an LLB in 2000 from the University of Buea Cameroon. Since 2003 he has worked on a voluntary basis with Legal Resources Foundation, Cameroon as a human rights advocate, coordinating Conferences and workshops organized by the Foundation and carrying out campaigns on issues relating to human rights, democracy and good governance. 10

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